• Title, Summary, Keyword: Rumen Microbial N

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The Effects of Dietary Urea on Microbial Populations in the Rumen of Sheep

  • Kanjanapruthipong, J.;Leng, R.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.661-672
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    • 1998
  • Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of a range of concentrations of ruminal fluid ammonia ($NH_3$-N) on forage digestibility, microbial growth efficiency and the mix of microbial species. Urea was either continuously infused directly into the rumen of sheep fed 33.3 glh of oaten chaff (Exp. I) or sprayed onto the oaten chaff (750 g/d) given once daily (Exp. 2). Concentrations of $NH_3$-N increased with incremental addition of urea (p < 0.01). Volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations and 24 h in sacco organic matter digestibility in the rumen were higher when supplemental urea was given (p < 0.01). The (C2 + C4) : C3 VFA ratio was lower (p < 0.05) when $NH_3$-N was above 200 mgN/I. The fungal sporangia appearing on oat leaf blades were significantly higher when urea was supplemented, indicating that $NH_3$-N was a growthlimiting nutrient for fungi at levels of $NH_3$-N below 30 mgN/l. The density of protozoa was highest when $NH_3$-N concentrations were adjusted to 30 mgN/I for continuously fed ($4.4{\times}10^5/ml$) and to 168 mgN/1 for once daily feeding ($2.9{\times}10^5/ml$). Thereafter increasing concentrations of $NH_3$-N, were associated with a concomitant decline in protozoal densities. At the concentration of $NH_3$-N above 200 mgN/l, the density of protozoa was similar to the density of protozoa in ruminal fluid of the control sheep ($1.8{\times}10^5/ml$). The efficiency of net microbial protein synthesis in the rumen calculated from purine excretion was 17-47% higher when the level of $NH_3$-N was above 200 mgN/1. The possibilities are that 1) there is less bacterial cell lysis in the rumen because of the concomitant decrease in the protozoal pool and/or 2) microbial growth per se in the rumen is more efficient with increasing $NH_3$-N concentrations.

Purine Derivatives Excreted in Urine as an Indicator Estimating Microbial Yield from the Rumen: A - Review

  • Kanjanapruthipong, J.;Len, R.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.209-216
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    • 1998
  • The paper presented here is aimed at increasing knowledge on purine metabolism in ruminants and hence the quantification of microbial cells entering the small intestine from urinaη excretion of purine derivatives. Nucleic acid metabolisms of micro-organisms in the rumen, digestion and absorption of nucleic acids entering the intestines, metabolisms of absorbed and endogenous purines involving de novo synthesis of nucleic acids in the ruminants host, and the relationship between absorbed and excreted purines are reviewed. Principal concerns about an amount of purine derivatives excreted in urine in relation to a change in purine-N: total-N ratios in rumen microbes that leave the rumen are discussed. The use of urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an indicator of the amount of microbial biomass leaving the rumen has to be done with some caution since it may be impossible to get a representative sample of microbes entering the intestine and thus yield estimates are relative rather than absolute.

Effect of Graded Levels of Green Grass Supplementation on Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Nitrogen Production in Cattle Fed Rice Straw Alone

  • Chowdhury, S.A.;Huque, K.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.460-470
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    • 1997
  • On an absolute straw diet, the effect of graded levels of green grass supplementation on intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation pattern and microbial N yield has been studied in cattle. Of the two trials conducted, 16 intact growing bulls of 304 kg weight and 32 months old, randomly allocated to four treatments in a completely randomized design in the 1st trial. While, in the, 2nd trial, four rumen cannulated local bulls of about 60 months old and 400 kg weight were used in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design with four treatments in four periods. In both the trials, in addition to a mineral mixture, animals were supplemented with graded levels of naturally grown green grass of 0 kg (T1), 2 kg (T2), 4 kg (T3) or 6 kg (T4) to an ad libitum rice straw diet In the 1st trial, measurements were made on intake digestibility, growth rate, N balance and microbial N yield. While in the 2nd trial, in addition to the above parameters (except growth rate), rumen parameters were also studied. All levels of grass supplementation decreased the straw DM intake and increased the substitution rate. The rumen $NH_3-N$ concentration increased with the increase in grass level and ranges from 8-46 mg/l. The rumen pH and the rate and extent of DM degradability of straw were not affeceted by different rumen environments created by different levels of grass inclusion. At 48 h, straw DM degradability were 42, 44, 44 and 43% respectively for 0, 2, 4 and 6 kg grass supplementation daily. The whole gut digestibilities of DM, OM and ADF increased significantly (p < 0.05) only at 6 kg level daily. The microbial N yield was not affected by the levels of grass supplemented. The mean microbial N yield was 10 (SD 3.7) g/kg DOM apparently fermented in the rumen. The estimated minimum N loss and thus the maintenance requirement of tissue protein was 303 mg/kg $W^{0.75}/d$. All the animals lost live weight but 6 kg grass supplementation gave positive energy and N balances. Small amount of green grass supplementation is often recommended for optimization of rumen environment of a straw diet However, under the present experimental condition, no such beneficiary effect observed up to 6 kg (26% of DM intake) level of supplementation.

A Comparison of Ammonia and Preformed Protein as a Source of Nitrogen for Microbial Growth in the Rumen of Sheep Given Oaten Chaff

  • Kanjanapruthipong, J.;Leng, R.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.351-362
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    • 1998
  • Microbial growth efficiency in the rumen was studied in sheep given hourly, 31.25 g oaten chaff with either 0.31 and 0.88 g urea or 1.88 and 5.63 g casein (exp. 1) and 33.33 g oaten chaff with 1.04 casein or 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 g urea or the mixture of the casein and urea (exp. 2). Concentrations of ruminal fluid ammonia increased with increasing nitrogenous supplements. Organic matter digestibility in sacco in the rumen was not different irrespective of N sources. Isoacids and valeric acid increased with increasing ingested casein but decreased with increasing urea intake. Peptide and amino acid pools in ruminal fluid increased with increasing ammonia concentrations (exp. 2) suggesting that proteolytic activity and transportation of peptides and amino acids across microbial membrane of rumen microbes may be regulated by the metabolite mechanism (intracellular amino acids and $NH_4{^+}$, respectively). Densities of total viable and cellulolytic bacteria in ruminal fluid increased with increasing ammonia levels but that of small Entodinia decreased. The density of fungal sporangia growth on oat leaf blades decreased with increasing ammonia concentrations but appeared to remain constant in the presence of casein. Efficiency of net microbial cell synthesis was 15-28% higher when ammonia concentrations increased from 100 to above 200 mg N/l regardless of N sources. In conclusion, supplementation of preformed protein had no effect on rumen digestion and microbial growth efficiency. This could not be accounted for its effect on ruminal fluid ammonia. Increased microbial growth efficiency with increasing ammonia levels may be due to a reduction in the turnover of microbial cells within the rumen.

Effect of Levels of Supplementation of Concentrate Containing High Levels of Cassava Chip on Rumen Ecology, Microbial N Supply and Digestibility of Nutrients in Beef Cattle

  • Wanapat, M.;Khampa, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.75-81
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    • 2007
  • The object of this study was to determine the influence of supplementation of concentrate containing high levels of cassava chip on rumen ecology, microbial protein and digestibility of nutrients. Four, rumen fistulated crossbred beef steers with initial body weight of 400${\pm}$10 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4${\times}$4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were concentrate cassava chip based offering at 0, 1, 2 and 3% BW with urea-treated rice straw fed ad libitum. It was found that ruminal pH was significantly decreased with increase of concentrate. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration in the rumen was significantly different among treatments. In addition, a molar proportion of propionate was higher in supplemented groups at 2 and 3% BW (p<0.05), leading to significantly decreased acetate:propionate ratio. Furthermore, microbial N supply was significantly improved and was highest at 2% BW supplementation. The efficiency of rumen microbial-N synthesis based on organic matter (OM) truly digested in the rumen was highest in level of concentrate supplementation at 2% BW (80% of cassava chip in diets). Moreover, bacterial populations such as amylolytic bacteria was linearly increased, while cellulolytic bacteria was linearly decreased (p<0.01) when cattle received concentrate supplementation in all levels. The total protozoal counts were significantly increased, while fungal zoospores were dramatically decreased in cattle receiving increased levels of concentrate. In conclusion, cassava chip can be use as energy source at 80% in concentrate and supplementation of concentrate at 2% BW with urea-treated rice straw as roughage could improve rumen fermentation efficiency in beef cattle.

Effects of Physical Form and Urea Treatment of Rice Straw on Rumen Fermentation, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Nutrient Digestibility in Dairy Steers

  • Gunun, P.;Wanapat, M.;Anantasook, N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.1689-1697
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    • 2013
  • This study was designed to determine the effect of physical form and urea treatment of rice straw on rumen fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and nutrient digestibility. Four rumen-fistulated dairy steers were randomly assigned according to a 2 (2 factorial arrangement in a 4 (4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. Factor A was roughage source: untreated rice straw (RS) and urea-treated (3%) rice straw (UTRS), and factor B was type of physical form of rice straw: long form rice straw (LFR) and chopped (4 cm) rice straw (CHR). The steers were offered the concentrate at 0.5% body weight (BW) /d and rice straw was fed ad libitum. DM intake and nutrient digestibility were increased (p<0.05) by urea treatment. Ruminal pH were decreased (p<0.05) in UTRS fed group, while ruminal ammonia nitrogen ($NH_3$-N) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were increased (p<0.01) by urea treatment. Total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations increased (p<0.01) when steers were fed UTRS. Furthermore, VFA concentrations were not altered by treatments (p>0.05), except propionic acid (C3) was increased (p<0.05) in UTRS fed group. Nitrogen (N) balance was affected by urea treatment (p<0.05). Microbial protein synthesis (MCP) synthesis were greater by UTRS and CHR group (p<0.05). The efficiency of microbial N synthesis was greater for UTRS than for RS (p<0.05). From these results, it can be concluded that using the long form combined with urea treatment of rice straw improved feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and efficiency of microbial N synthesis in crossbred dairy steers.

Role of Peptides in Rumen Microbial Metabolism - Review -

  • Wallace, R.J.;Atasoglu, C.;Newbold, C.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.139-147
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    • 1999
  • Peptides are formed in the rumen as the result of microbial proteinase activity. The predominant type of activity is cysteine ptoteinase, but others, such as serine proteinases, are also present. Many species of protozoa, bacteria and fungi are involved in ptoteolysis; large animal-to-animal variability is found when proteinase activities in different animals are compared. The peptides formed from proteolysis are broken down to amino acids by peptidases. Different peptides are broken down at different rates, depending on their chemical composition and particularly their N-terminal structure. Indeed, chemical addition to the N-terminus of small peptides, such as by acetylation, causes the peptides to become stable to breakdown by the rumen microbial population; the microorganisms do not appear to adapt to hydrolyse acetylated peptides even after several weeks exposure to dietary acetylated peptides, and the amino acids present in acetylated peptides are absorbed from the small intestine. The amino acids present in some acetylated peptides remain available in nutritional trials with rats, but the nutritive value of the whole amino acid mixture is decreased by acetylation. The genus Prevotella is responsible for most of the catabolic peptidase activity in the rumen, via its dipeptidyl peptidase activities, which release dipeptides rather than free amino acids from the N-terminus of oligopeptides. Studies with dipeptidyl peptidase mutants of Prevotella suggest that it may be possible to slow the rate of peptide hydrolysis by the mixed rumen microbial population by inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase activity of Prevotella or the rate of peptide uptake by this genus. Peptides and amino acids also stimulate the growth of rumen microorganisms, and are necessary for optimal growth rates of many species growing on tapidly fermented substrates; in rich medium, most bacteria use pre-formed amino acids for more than 90% of their amino acid requirements. Cellulolytic species are exceptional in this respect, but they still incorporate about half of their cell N from pre-formed amino acids in rich medium. However, the extent to which bacteria use ammonia vs. peptides and amino acids for protein synthesis also depends on the concentrations of each, such that preformed amino acids and peptides are probably used to a much lesser extent in vivo than many in vitro experiments might suggest.

Effect of Rumen Degradable Protein (RDP) in Straw Based Ration on Purine Derivatives Excretion and Microbial Nitrogen Supply in Cattle

  • Khandaker, Z.H.;Tareque, A.M.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.364-370
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    • 1997
  • Four local cattle were ($145{\pm}9.7kg$) used in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design to study the effect of different levels of rumen degradable protein (RDP) in straw based ration on purine derivatives excretion and microbial N supply in cattle. The four rations were formulated at the same amount of energy but varying RDP approximately 50 (U0), 75 (U1), 100 (U2) and 150 (U3) percent levels of RDP requirement for maintenance. They were fed ranged from 101 to 304 g RDP/d. Apparent digestibility of all nutrients increased significantly (p < 0.01) in cattle fed ration U2 than other rations. Rumen $NH_3-N$ concentration increased from 43 to 130 mg/l in response of RDP intake. Purine derivatives excretion increased significantly (p < 0.01) with incremental level of 203 g RDP/d (U2) intake and positively correlated (r=0.69, p < 0.01, n=16) with amount of RDP intake. The rates of rumen microbial N supply were 16.8, 27.2, 39.1 and 32.9 g/d for rations U0, U1, U2 and U3 respectively. Efficiency of microbial N supply (EMNS) per kg of DOMR were 19.0, 25.3, 33.0, and 28.6 g and per MJ of ME. Intake were 0.62, 1.00, 1.44 and 1.21 g for U0, U1, U2 and U3 respectively and highest results were obtained in cattle fed U2 ration. Results of this study suggest that PD excretion and EMNS were increased as incremental level of RDP intake (U2) in local cattle.

Influence of Diet Induced Changes in Rumen Microbial Characteristics on Gas Production Kinetics of Straw Substrates In vitro

  • Srinivas, Bandla;Krishnamoorthy, U.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.7
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    • pp.990-996
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    • 2005
  • The effect of diets varying in level and source of nitrogen (N) and fermentable organic matter on dynamic characteristics of microbial populations in rumen liquor and their impact on substrate fermentation in vitro was studied. The diets tested were straw alone, straw+concentrate mixture and straw+urea molasses mineral block (UMMB) lick. The same diets were taken as substrates and tested on each inoculum collected from the diets. Diet had no effect on the amino acid (AA) composition of either bacteria or protozoa. Differences among the diets in intake, source of N and OM affected bacterial and protozoal characteristics in the rumen. Upper asymptote of gas production (Y$\alpha$) had a higher correlation with bacterial pool size and production rate than with protozoal pool size and production rate. Among the parameters of the gas production model, Y$\alpha$ and lag time in total gas has showed significant (p<0.01) correlation with bacterial characteristics. Though the rate constant of gas production significantly differed (p<0.01) between diet and type of straw, it was least influenced by the microbial characteristics. The regression coefficient of diet and type of straw for Y$\alpha$ indicated that the effect of diet on Y$\alpha$ was threefold higher than that of the straw. As microbial characteristics showed higher correlation with Y$\alpha$, and diet had more influence on the microbial characteristics, gas production on a straw diet could be used effectively to understand the microbial characteristics.

Protein Evaluation of Dry Roasted Whole Faba Bean (Vicia faba) and Lupin Seeds (Lupinus albus) by the New Dutch Protein Evaluation System: the DVE/OEB System

  • Yu, P.;Egan, A.R.;Leury, B.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.871-880
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    • 1999
  • The effects of dry roasting (110, 130, $150^{\circ}C$ for 15, 30, 45 min) on potential ruminant protein nutritional values in terms of: a), rumen bypass protein (BCP); b), rumen bypass starch (BST); c), fermented organic matter (FOM); d), true absorbed bypass protein (ABCP); e) microbial protein synthesized in the rumen based on available energy (E_MP); f), microbial protein synthesized in the rumen based on available nitrogen (N_MP); g), true protein supplied to the small intestine (TPSI); h), true absorbed rumen synthesized microbial protein (AMP); i), endogenous protein losses (ENDP); j), true digested protein in the small intestine (DVE); k), degraded protein balance (OEB) of whole lupin seeds (WLS) and faba beans (WFB) were evaluated by the new Dutch DV/OEB protein evaluation system. Dry roasting significantly increased BCP, BST, TPSI, ABCP, DVE (p<0.001) and decreased FOM, E_MP, AMP, N_MP and OEB (p<0.001) with increasing temperatures and times except that when temperature was at $110^{\circ}C$. The values of BCP, BST, TPSI, ABCP and DVE at $150^{\circ}C/45min$ for WLS and WFB were increased 2.2, 3.7; -, 2.0; 1.7, 1.7; 2.3, 3.7 and 1.7, 1.7 times and the values of FOM, E_MP, AMP, N_MP and OEB at $150^{\circ}C/45min$ for WLS and WFB were decreased by 15.3, 25.8; 18.1, 25.8; 18.7, 25.8; 54.6, 41.6 and 82.3% 54.7%, respectively, over the raw WLS and WFB. The results indicated that though dry roasting reduced microbial protein synthesis due to reducing FOM, TPSI didn't decrease but highly increased due to increasing BCP more than enough for compensation of the microbial protein decreasing. Therefore the net absorbable DVE in the small intestine was highly increased. The OEB values were significantly reduced for both WLS and WFB but not to the level of negative. It indicated that microbial protein synthesis might not be impaired due to the sufficient N supplied in the rumen, but the high positive OEB values in the most treatments except of $150^{\circ}C$ for 30 and 45 min of WLS (The OEB values: 54.8 and 26.0 g/kg DM) indicated that there were the large amounts of N loss in the rumen. It was concluded that dry roasting at high temperature was effective in shifting protein degradation from rumen to intestines and it increased the DVE values without reaching the negative OEB values. No optimal treatment was found in WLS due to the too high OEB values in all treatments. But dry roasting at $150^{\circ}C$ for 30 and 45 min might be optimal treatments for WLS due to the very lower OEB values.