• Title, Summary, Keyword: Rumen Microbes

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Rumen Manipulation to Improve Animal Productivity

  • Santra, A.;Karim, S.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.748-763
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    • 2003
  • Anaerobic rumen microorganisms mainly bacteria, protozoa and fungi degrade ligno-cellulosic feeds consumed by the ruminants. The ruminants in developing countries are predominantly maintained on low grade roughage and grazing on degraded range land resulting in their poor nutrient utilization and productivity. Hence, manipulation of rumen fermentation was tried during last two decades to optimize ruminal fermentation for improving nutrient utilization and productivity of the animals. Modification of rumen microbial composition and their activity was attempted by using chemical additives those selectively effect rumen microbes, introduction of naturally occurring or genetically modified foreign microbes into the rumen and genetically manipulation of existing microbes in the rumen ecosystem. Accordingly, rumen protozoa were eliminated by defaunation for reducing ruminal methane production and increasing protein outflow in the intestine, resulting in improve growth and feed conversion efficiency of the animals. Further, Interspecies trans-inoculation of rumen microbes was also successfully used for annulment of dietary toxic factor. Additionally, probiotics of bacterial and yeast origin have been used in animal feeding to stabilize rumen fermentation, reduced incidence of diarrhoea and thus improving growth and feed conversion efficiency of young stalk. It is envisaged that genetic manipulation of rumen microorganisms has enormous research potential in developing countries. In view of feed resource availability more emphasis has to be given for manipulating rumen fermentation to increase cellulolytic activity for efficient utilization of low grade roughage.

Application of Molecular Biology to Rumen Microbes -Review-

  • Kobayashi, Y.;Onodera, R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.77-83
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    • 1999
  • Molecular biological techniques that recently developed, have made it possible to realize some of new attempts in the research field of rumen microbiology. Those are 1) cloning of genes from rumen microorganisms mainly in E. coli, 2) transformation of rumen bacteria and 3) ecological analysis with nonculturing methods. Most of the cloned genes are for polysaccharidase enzymes such as endoglucanase, xylanase, amylase, chitinase and others, and the cloning rendered gene structural analyses by sequencing and also characterization of the translated products through easier purification. Electrotransformation of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Prevotella ruminicola have been made toward the direction for obtaining more fibrolytic, acid-tolerant, depoisoning or essential amino acids-producing rumen bacterium. These primarily required stable and efficient gene transfer systems. Some vectors, constructed from native plasmids of rumen bacteria, are now available for successful gene introduction and expression in those rumen bacterial species. Probing and PCR-based methodologies have also been developed for detecting specific bacterial species and even strains. These are much due to accumulation of rRNA gene sequences of rumen microbes in databases. Although optimized analytical conditions are essential to reliable and reproducible estimation of the targeted microbes, the methods permit long term storage of frozen samples, providing us ease in analytical work as compared with a traditional method based on culturing. Moreover, the methods seem to be promissing for obtaining taxonomic and evolutionary information on all the rumen microbes, whether they are culturable or not.

Mycotoxins and Their Biotransformation in the Rumen: A Review

  • Upadhaya, Santi Devi;Park, M.A.;Ha, Jong-K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.9
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    • pp.1250-1260
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    • 2010
  • Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi. These toxins pose serious health concerns to animals as well as human beings. Biodegradation of these mycotoxins has been considered as one of the best strategies to decontaminate food and feedstuffs. Biodegradation employs the application of microbes or enzymes to contaminated food and feedstuffs. Ruminants are considered to be resistant to the adverse effects of mycotoxins presumably due to the biodegrading ability of rumen microbes compared to mono-gastric animals. Therefore, rumen microbial source or microbial enzyme could be a great asset in biological detoxification of mycotoxins. Isolation and characterization of pure culture of rumen microorganisms or isolation and cloning of genes encoding mycotoxin-degrading potential would prove to have overall beneficial impact in the food and feed industry.

Selection of plant oil as a supplemental energy source by monitoring rumen profiles and its dietary application in Thai crossbred beef cattle

  • Matsuba, Keiji;Padlom, Apirada;Khongpradit, Anchalee;Boonsaen, Phoompong;Thirawong, Prayad;Sawanon, Suriya;Suzuki, Yutaka;Koike, Satoshi;Kobayashi, Yasuo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.10
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    • pp.1511-1520
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    • 2019
  • Objective: The present study was conducted to select a plant oil without inhibitory effects on rumen fermentation and microbes, and to determine the optimal supplementation level of the selected oil in a series of in vitro studies for dietary application. Then, the selected oil was evaluated in a feeding study using Thai crossbred beef cattle by monitoring growth, carcass, blood and rumen characteristics. Methods: Rumen fluid was incubated with substrates containing one of three different types of plant oil (coconut oil, palm oil, and soybean oil) widely available in Thailand. The effects of each oil on rumen fermentation and microbes were monitored and the oil without a negative influence on rumen parameters was selected. Then, the dose-response of rumen parameters to various levels of the selected palm oil was monitored to determine a suitable supplementation level. Finally, an 8-month feeding experiment with the diet supplemented with palm oil was carried out using 12 Thai crossbred beef cattle to monitor growth, carcass, rumen and blood profiles. Results: Batch culture studies revealed that coconut and soybean oils inhibited the most potent rumen cellulolytic bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes, while palm oil had no such negative effect on this and on rumen fermentation products at 5% or higher supplementation level. Cattle fed the diet supplemented with 2.5% palm oil showed improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) without any adverse effects on rumen fermentation. Palm oil-supplemented diet increased blood cholesterol levels, suggesting a higher energy status of the experimental cattle. Conclusion: Palm oil had no negative effects on rumen fermentation and microbes when supplemented at levels up to 5% in vitro. Thai crossbred cattle fed the palm oil-supplemented diet showed improved FCR without apparent changes of rumen and carcass characteristics, but with elevated blood cholesterol levels. Therefore, palm oil can be used as a beneficial energy source.

Purine Derivatives Excreted in Urine as an Indicator Estimating Microbial Yield from the Rumen: A - Review

  • Kanjanapruthipong, J.;Len, R.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.209-216
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    • 1998
  • The paper presented here is aimed at increasing knowledge on purine metabolism in ruminants and hence the quantification of microbial cells entering the small intestine from urinaη excretion of purine derivatives. Nucleic acid metabolisms of micro-organisms in the rumen, digestion and absorption of nucleic acids entering the intestines, metabolisms of absorbed and endogenous purines involving de novo synthesis of nucleic acids in the ruminants host, and the relationship between absorbed and excreted purines are reviewed. Principal concerns about an amount of purine derivatives excreted in urine in relation to a change in purine-N: total-N ratios in rumen microbes that leave the rumen are discussed. The use of urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an indicator of the amount of microbial biomass leaving the rumen has to be done with some caution since it may be impossible to get a representative sample of microbes entering the intestine and thus yield estimates are relative rather than absolute.

Industrial Applications of Rumen Microbes - Review -

  • Cheng, K.J.;Lee, S.S.;Bae, H.D.;Ha, J.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.84-92
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    • 1999
  • The rumen microbial ecosystem is coming to be recognized as a rich alternative source of genes for industrially useful enzymes. Recent advances in biotechnology are enabling development of novel strategies for effective delivery and enhancement of these gene products. One particularly promising avenue for industrial application of rumen enzymes is as feed supplements for nonruminant and ruminant animal diets. Increasing competition in the livestock industry has forced producers to cut costs by adopting new technologies aimed at increasing production efficiency. Cellulases, xylanases, ${\beta}$-glucanases, pectinases, and phytases have been shown to increase the efficiency of feedstuff utilization (e.g., degradation of cellulose, xylan and ${\beta}$-glucan) and to decrease pollutants (e.g., phytic acid). These enzymes enhance the availability of feed components to the animal and eliminate some of their naturally occurring antinutritional effects. In the past, the cost and inconvenience of enzyme production and delivery has hampered widespread application of this promising technology. Over the last decade, however, advances in recombinant DNA technology have significantly improved microbial production systems. Novel strategies for delivery and enhancement of genes and gene products from the rumen include expression of seed proteins, oleosin proteins in canola and transgenic animals secreting digestive enzymes from the pancreas. Thus, the biotechnological framework is in place to achieve substantial improvements in animal production through enzyme supplementation. On the other hand, the rumen ecosystem provides ongoing enrichment and natural selection of microbes adapted to specific conditions, and represents a virtually untapped resource of novel products such as enzymes, detoxificants and antibiotics.

Metagenome Analysis of Protein Domain Collocation within Cellulase Genes of Goat Rumen Microbes

  • Lim, SooYeon;Seo, Jaehyun;Choi, Hyunbong;Yoon, Duhak;Nam, Jungrye;Kim, Heebal;Cho, Seoae;Chang, Jongsoo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.8
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    • pp.1144-1151
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    • 2013
  • In this study, protein domains with cellulase activity in goat rumen microbes were investigated using metagenomic and bioinformatic analyses. After the complete genome of goat rumen microbes was obtained using a shotgun sequencing method, 217,892,109 pair reads were filtered, including only those with 70% identity, 100-bp matches, and thresholds below $E^{-10}$ using METAIDBA. These filtered contigs were assembled and annotated using blastN against the NCBI nucleotide database. As a result, a microbial community structure with 1431 species was analyzed, among which Prevotella ruminicola 23 bacteria and Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus B316 were the dominant groups. In parallel, 201 sequences related with cellulase activities (EC.3.2.1.4) were obtained through blast searches using the enzyme.dat file provided by the NCBI database. After translating the nucleotide sequence into a protein sequence using Interproscan, 28 protein domains with cellulase activity were identified using the HMMER package with threshold E values below $10^{-5}$. Cellulase activity protein domain profiling showed that the major protein domains such as lipase GDSL, cellulase, and Glyco hydro 10 were present in bacterial species with strong cellulase activities. Furthermore, correlation plots clearly displayed the strong positive correlation between some protein domain groups, which was indicative of microbial adaption in the goat rumen based on feeding habits. This is the first metagenomic analysis of cellulase activity protein domains using bioinformatics from the goat rumen.

Effects of Plant-origin Biological Active Materials on the Activities of Pathogenic Microbes and Rumen Microbes (식물유래 생리활성물질의 병원성 미생물 및 반추위 미생물 활성에 대한 영향)

  • 옥지운;이상민;임정화;이신자;문여황;이성실
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.709-718
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    • 2006
  • In order to know the effects of Garlic, Scallion, Flavonoid, Urushiol, Anthocyanidin and Bio-MOS?? on pathogenic microbes and rumen anaerobic microbes, the growth rate of pathogens (including Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella paratyphi, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and in vitro rumen microbial growth, gas production, ammonia concentration, carboxymethylcellulase(CMCase) activity, and microbial populations were investigated.The growth of pathogens was inhibited by supplementation of 0.1% Flavonoid, Scallion or Bio-MOS?? as biological active materials. And Scallion and Flavonoid had powerful antimicrobial properties on the pathogens applied in paper disc method.Although few effects by biological active materials disappeared in rumen fermentation in vitro, CMCase activity removed with supplementation of 1% of Flavonoid which had antimicrobial property in paper disc method. Scallion, having powerful antimicrobial property on pathogens and no inhibiting on rumen fermentation, might be a source in development of natural antimicrobial agent for ruminants.