• Title, Summary, Keyword: Rumen Fermentation

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Control of Rumen Microbial Fermentation for Mitigating Methane Emissions from the Rumen

  • Mitsumori, Makoto;Sun, Weibin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.144-154
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    • 2008
  • The rumen microbial ecosystem produces methane as a result of anaerobic fermentation. Methanogenesis in the rumen is thought to represent a 2-12% loss of energy intake and is estimated to be about 15% of total atmospheric methane emissions. While methanogenesis in the rumen is conducted by methanogens, PCR-based techniques have recently detected many uncultured methanogens which have a broader phylogenetic range than cultured strains isolated from the rumen. Strategies for reduction of methane emissions from the rumen have been proposed. These include 1) control of components in feed, 2) application of feed additives and 3) biological control of rumen fermentation. In any case, although it could be possible that repression of hydrogen-producing reactions leads to abatement of methane production, repression of hydrogen-producing reactions means repression of the activity of rumen fermentation and leads to restrained digestibility of carbohydrates and suppression of microbial growth. Thus, in order to reduce the flow of hydrogen into methane production, hydrogen should be diverted into propionate production via lactate or fumarate.

Rumen Manipulation to Improve Animal Productivity

  • Santra, A.;Karim, S.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.748-763
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    • 2003
  • Anaerobic rumen microorganisms mainly bacteria, protozoa and fungi degrade ligno-cellulosic feeds consumed by the ruminants. The ruminants in developing countries are predominantly maintained on low grade roughage and grazing on degraded range land resulting in their poor nutrient utilization and productivity. Hence, manipulation of rumen fermentation was tried during last two decades to optimize ruminal fermentation for improving nutrient utilization and productivity of the animals. Modification of rumen microbial composition and their activity was attempted by using chemical additives those selectively effect rumen microbes, introduction of naturally occurring or genetically modified foreign microbes into the rumen and genetically manipulation of existing microbes in the rumen ecosystem. Accordingly, rumen protozoa were eliminated by defaunation for reducing ruminal methane production and increasing protein outflow in the intestine, resulting in improve growth and feed conversion efficiency of the animals. Further, Interspecies trans-inoculation of rumen microbes was also successfully used for annulment of dietary toxic factor. Additionally, probiotics of bacterial and yeast origin have been used in animal feeding to stabilize rumen fermentation, reduced incidence of diarrhoea and thus improving growth and feed conversion efficiency of young stalk. It is envisaged that genetic manipulation of rumen microorganisms has enormous research potential in developing countries. In view of feed resource availability more emphasis has to be given for manipulating rumen fermentation to increase cellulolytic activity for efficient utilization of low grade roughage.

Investigation of Dietary Lysophospholipid (LipidolTM) to Improve Nutrients Availability of Diet with In Vitro Rumen Microbial Fermentation Test

  • Cho, Sangbuem;Kim, Dong Hyun;Hwang, Il Hwan;Choi, Nag-Jin
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.206-212
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of biological membrane transfer modifier, lysophospholipd (LPLs) on the parameters from in vitro rumen simulated fermentation. Commercially available LPLs product (Lipidol$^{TM}$) was supplemented into experimental diets which consisted of orchard grass and concentrate diet (60:40) in different levels (0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5%). Then in vitro rumen simulated fermentation was performed. Although, a declining trend of pH was found in treatments, all pH values were detected in a range relevant to normal rumen fermentation. Gas production, ammonia nitrogen and total VFA production were greatly influenced by the supplementation of LPLs. All parameters were increased along with increased levels of LPLs in diet. As a result, 0.1% of Lipidol$^{TM}$ is recommended based on the determined in vitro rumen fermentative parameters in this study.

Comparative Study between Swamp Buffalo and Native Cattle in Feed Digestibility and Potential Transfer of Buffalo Rumen Digesta into Cattle

  • Wanapat, M.;Nontaso, N.;Yuangklang, C.;Wora-anu, S.;Ngarmsang, A.;Wachirapakorn, C.;Rowlinson, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.504-510
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    • 2003
  • Rumen ecology plays an important role in the fermentation process and in providing end-products for ruminants. These studies were carried out to investigate variations in rumen factors namely pH, $NH_3-N$ and microorganisms in cattle and swamp buffaloes. Furthermore, studies on diurnal patterns of rumen fermentation and the effect of rumen digesta transfer from buffalo to cattle was conducted. Based on these studies, diurnal fermentation patterns in both cattle and buffaloes were revealed. It was found that rumen NH3-N was a major limiting factor. Rumen digesta transfer from buffalo to cattle from buffalo to cattle was achievable. Monitoring rumen digesta for 14d after transfer showed an improved rumen ecology in cattle as compared to that of original cattle and buffalo. It is probable that buffalo rumen digesta could be transferred. However, further research should be undertaken in these regards in order to improve rumen ecology especially for buffalo-based rumen.

Effects of Enzyme Application Method and Levels and Pre-treatment Times on Rumen Fermentation, Nutrient Degradation and Digestion in Goats and Steers

  • Hong, S.H.;Lee, B.K.;Choi, N.J.;Lee, Sang S.;Yun, S.G.;Ha, J.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.389-393
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    • 2003
  • Present study investigate the effect of enzyme supplementation, methods (applied to rumen or enzyme treated diet) compared with no enzyme diet, on rumen fermentation and apparent nutrient digestibility in a $3{\times}3$ Latin square design with three rumen cannulated Korean Native goats. In situ rumen degradation kinetics was studied in three rumen cannulated Holstein steers. Three diets were, no enzyme, 1% enzyme in rumen and 1% enzyme in diet. The enzyme was sprayed onto forage, and the forage: concentrate ratio was 30:70. Degradation kinetics was studied with three enzyme levels (0, 1 and 2%, w/w) and four pre-treatment times (0, 1, 12 and 24 h). Results suggested that enzyme application method did not affect rumen fermentation, ruminal enzyme activity and total tract apparent digestibility. Nutrient degradation rate and effective degradability of DM, NDF and ADF increased with increasing enzyme level and pre-treatment times. Degradation of nutrients was affected by enzymes levels or pre-treatment times. Therefore, it is probable that the improved degradation may be due to the supplemented exogenous hydrolytic enzymes under a certain condition.

Effects of Dietary Acidogenicity Values on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Nutrients Digestibility

  • Choi, Y.J.;Lee, Sang S.;Song, J.Y.;Choi, N.J.;Sung, H.G.;Yun, S.G.;Ha, Jong K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.1625-1633
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to observe effects of dietary acidogenicity value (AV) on rumen fermentation characteristics and nutrients digestibility. The AV of feedstuffs was based on the dissolution of Ca from $CaCO_3$ powder added at the end of a 24 h in vitro fermentation. Three diets were formulated to be iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous with different AV. Two experiments were involved in this study. In experiment 1, it appears that pH, $NH_3-N$ concentration and A:P ratio tended to decrease, but gas production, VFA production and DM disappearance tended to increase with increasing dietary AV. In experiment 2, the rumen pH tended to decrease in order of high AV>medium AV>low AV treatment, respectively. There were no significant effects of dietary AV on $NH_3-N$ concentration, enzyme activity and nutrient digestibility. In addition, total VFA and individual VFA concentrations tended to increase with increasing dietary AV without significance. In fact, we hypothesized that different dietary AV would affect rumen fermentation and nutrients digestibility because dietary AV was adjusted with fermentable carbohydrate sources. The present results indicate that differences in dietary AV between treatments were too small to affect rumen fermentation and its effects were minimal.

Effects of Protease-resistant Antimicrobial Substances Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria on Rumen Methanogenesis

  • Reina, Asa;Tanaka, A.;Uehara, A.;Shinzato, I.;Toride, Y.;Usui, N.;Hirakawa, K.;Takahashi, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.700-707
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    • 2010
  • Effects of protease-resistant antimicrobial substances (PRA) produced by Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc citreum on rumen methanogenesis were examined using the in vitro continuous methane quantification system. Four different strains of lactic acid bacteria, i) Lactococcus lactis ATCC19435 (Control, non-antibacterial substances), ii) Lactococcus lactis NCIMB702054 (Nisin-Z), iii) Lactobacillus plantarum TUA1490L (PRA-1), and iv) Leuconostoc citreum JCM9698 (PRA-2) were individually cultured in GYEKP medium. An 80 ml aliquot of each supernatant was inoculated into phosphate-buffered rumen fluid. PRA-1 remarkably decreased cumulative methane production, though propionate, butyrate and ammonia N decreased. For PRA-2, there were no effects on $CH_4$ and $CO_2$ production and fermentation characteristics in mixed rumen cultures. The results suggested that PRA-1 reduced the number of methanogens or inhibited utilization of hydrogen in rumen fermentation.

Effects of Sampling Techniques and Sites on Rumen Microbiome and Fermentation Parameters in Hanwoo Steers

  • Song, Jaeyong;Choi, Hyuck;Jeong, Jin Young;Lee, Seul;Lee, Hyun Jung;Baek, Youlchang;Ji, Sang Yun;Kim, Minseok
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.28 no.10
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    • pp.1700-1705
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    • 2018
  • We evaluated the influence of sampling technique (cannulation vs. stomach tube) and site (dorsal sac vs. ventral sac) on the rumen microbiome and fermentation parameters in Hanwoo steers. Rumen samples were collected from three cannulated Hanwoo steers via both a stomach tube and cannulation, and 16S rRNA gene amplicons were sequenced on the MiSeq platform to investigate the rumen microbiome composition among samples obtained via 1) the stomach tube, 2) dorsal sac via rumen cannulation, and 3) ventral sac via rumen cannulation. A total of 722,001 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from the three groups and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. There was no significant difference in the composition of the major taxa or alpha diversity among the three groups (p>0.05). Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes represented the first and second most dominant phyla, respectively, and their abundances did not differ among the three groups (p>0.05). Beta diversity principal coordinate analysis also did not separate the rumen microbiome based on the three sample groups. Moreover, there was no effect of sampling site or method on fermentation parameters, including pH and volatile fatty acids (p>0.05). Overall, this study demonstrates that the rumen microbiome and fermentation parameters are not affected by different sampling techniques and sampling sites. Therefore, a stomach tube can be a feasible alternative method to collect representative rumen samples rather than the standard and more invasive method of rumen cannulation in Hanwoo steers.

Selection of plant oil as a supplemental energy source by monitoring rumen profiles and its dietary application in Thai crossbred beef cattle

  • Matsuba, Keiji;Padlom, Apirada;Khongpradit, Anchalee;Boonsaen, Phoompong;Thirawong, Prayad;Sawanon, Suriya;Suzuki, Yutaka;Koike, Satoshi;Kobayashi, Yasuo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.10
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    • pp.1511-1520
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    • 2019
  • Objective: The present study was conducted to select a plant oil without inhibitory effects on rumen fermentation and microbes, and to determine the optimal supplementation level of the selected oil in a series of in vitro studies for dietary application. Then, the selected oil was evaluated in a feeding study using Thai crossbred beef cattle by monitoring growth, carcass, blood and rumen characteristics. Methods: Rumen fluid was incubated with substrates containing one of three different types of plant oil (coconut oil, palm oil, and soybean oil) widely available in Thailand. The effects of each oil on rumen fermentation and microbes were monitored and the oil without a negative influence on rumen parameters was selected. Then, the dose-response of rumen parameters to various levels of the selected palm oil was monitored to determine a suitable supplementation level. Finally, an 8-month feeding experiment with the diet supplemented with palm oil was carried out using 12 Thai crossbred beef cattle to monitor growth, carcass, rumen and blood profiles. Results: Batch culture studies revealed that coconut and soybean oils inhibited the most potent rumen cellulolytic bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes, while palm oil had no such negative effect on this and on rumen fermentation products at 5% or higher supplementation level. Cattle fed the diet supplemented with 2.5% palm oil showed improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) without any adverse effects on rumen fermentation. Palm oil-supplemented diet increased blood cholesterol levels, suggesting a higher energy status of the experimental cattle. Conclusion: Palm oil had no negative effects on rumen fermentation and microbes when supplemented at levels up to 5% in vitro. Thai crossbred cattle fed the palm oil-supplemented diet showed improved FCR without apparent changes of rumen and carcass characteristics, but with elevated blood cholesterol levels. Therefore, palm oil can be used as a beneficial energy source.

Effects of different amylose to amylopectin ratios on rumen fermentation and development in fattening lambs

  • Zhao, Fangfang;Ren, Wen;Zhang, Aizhong;Jiang, Ning;Liu, Wen;Wang, Faming
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.10
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    • pp.1611-1618
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    • 2018
  • Objective: The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of different amylose/amylopectin ratios on rumen fermentation and development of fattening lambs. Methods: Forty-eight 7-day-old male Small-tailed Han sheep${\times}$Northeast fine wool sheep were randomly assigned to four treatments of dietary amylose/amylopectin ratios (0.12, 0.23, 0.24, and 0.48 in tapioca starch, corn starch, wheat starch and pea starch diets, respectively). Three lambs from each treatment were slaughtered at 21, 35, 56, and 77 days of age to determine the rumen fermentation and development. Results: Compared with tapioca starch diet, the pea starch diet significantly increased the concentration of ammonia nitrogen in the ruminal fluid of lambs but significantly decreased the bacterial protein content. At 56 and 77 d, the rumen propionate concentration tended to be greatest in the tapioca starch group than in other groups. The rumen butyrate concentration was the greatest in lambs fed on pea starch compared with those fed on other starch diets. Furthermore, the pea starch diet significantly stimulated rumen development by increasing the papillae height, width and surface area in the rumen ventral or dorsal locations in lambs. However, different amylose/amylopectin ratios diets did not significantly affect the feed intake, body weight, average daily gain, the relative weight and capacity of the rumen in lambs with increasing length of trial periods. Conclusion: Lambs early supplemented with a high amylose/amylopectin ratio diet had favourable morphological development of rumen epithelium, which was not conducive to bacterial protein synthesis.