• Title, Summary, Keyword: Roughages

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COLONIZATION OF ALKALI-TREATED FIBROUS ROUGHAGES BY ANAEROBIC RUMEN FUNGI

  • Wuliji, T.;McManus, W.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.65-71
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    • 1988
  • This study reports light and electron microscope examination of rumen fungal colonization of alkali-treated roughage feeds incubated in decron bags in the rumen of cannulated sheep for varying time intervals. Six roughages, pre-treated with ammonium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide at 4% (w/w) level were examined together with untreated control samples. Alkali pre-treatment was associated with an earlier and more pronounced fungal colonization than all control roughages. Sodium hydroxide pre-treatment was significantly more effective than ammonium hydroxide in improving the susceptibility of roughages to rumen fungal colonization and studies by SEM showed that the pre-treatment permitted greater penetration of feeds by fungi. Sodium hydroxide pre-treatment also significantly increased dry matter disappearance from feed held in Dacron bags in the rumen with all feeds except Lucerne stem. It is not known to what extent fungal activity contributed to increased breakdown of the feeds.

Chewing Activities of Selected Roughages and Concentrates by Dairy Steers

  • Moon, Y.H.;Lee, S.C.;Lee, S.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.968-973
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    • 2002
  • To evaluate the chewing activity of ruminant feeds, four Holstein steers (average body weight $742{\pm}15kg$) were employed. Experimental feeds were four roughages ($NH_3$-treated rice straw, alfalfa hay, corn silage, orchard grass hay) and four concentrate ingredients (cotton seed hull, beet pulp pellet, barley grain, oat grain). Regarding palatability for each experimental feeds which was overviewed during the adjustment period, animals were fed roughages alone, but with 50% $NH_3$-treated rice straw ($NH_3$-RS) for concentrate ingredients. Therefore, all the data for concentrate ingredients was derived by extracting the result per unit obtained from steers fed $NH_3$-RS alone. The experiment was conducted using a 4${\times}$4 Latin square designs for roughages and concentrate ingredients. Experimental feeds were fed during a 10 d adaptation and 2 d chewing data collection during each experimental period. Animals were gradually adjusted to the experimental diet. Dry matter intake (DMI) was restricted at a 1.4% of mean body weight (10.4 kg DM/d). Time spent eating and eating chews per kilogram of DMI were greatest for beet pulp pellet, and lowest for barley grain (p<0.05). Time spent rumination per kilogram of DMI was greatest for $NH_3$-RS, cotton seed hull and orchard grass, but rumination chews were greatest for cotton seed hull and orchard grass except $NH_3$-RS (p<0.05). Roughage index value (chewing time, minute/kg DMI) was 58.0 for cotton seed hull, 56.1 for beet pulp pellet, 55.5 for $NH_3$-RS, 53.1 for orchard grass hay, 45.9 for corn silage, 43.0 for alfalfa hay, 30.0 for oat grain, and 10.9 for barley grain. The ratio of rumination time to total chewing time (eating plus ruminating) was about 72% for the roughages except corn silage (66.9%), and followed by cotton seed hull (69.5%), and ranged from 49.5% to 52.9% for other feeds. Higher percentages of rumination in total chewing time may be evidently indicate the characteristics of roughage. Therefore, this indicate that the chewing activity of concentrate ingredients can be more fully reflects by the ruminating time than total chewing time (RVI), although it is reasonable to define the RVI for roughages.

A study on the food habits of Korean native goats fed with roughage sources (조사료원에 따른 한국 재래산양의 채식습성에 관한 연구)

  • Gang, Byung-Ho;Lee, In-Duk;Lee, Soo-Kee;Lee, Hyung-Suk
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.445-452
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    • 2011
  • The object of this experiment was to investigate the food habits of Korean native goats fed with various roughage sources. The experimental trials were conducted at Unbong Animal Genetic Resources Station in 2008. The experimental roughages include five sources and 25 species in all; grasses and legumes: 5 species (mixed grasses, orchardgrass, tall fescue, alfalfa, white clover), native grasses and weeds: 5 species (mixed native grasses, Miscanthus sinensis Anderss, Arundinella hirta (Thunb.) Tanaka, Barnyard grass, short awn, forage crops and straw: 5 species (barley + hairy vetch, wheat + hairy vetch, rye silage, barley silage, baled rice straw), browse and fallen leaves: 5 species (Mixed browse, Oriental white oak, Quercus serrta Thunb., Oriental cherry fallen leaves, Japanese chestnut fallen leaves), and imported hay and straw: 5 species(timothy hay, tall fescue straw, annual ryegrass straw, klinegrass hay, alfalfa hay). Ten Korean native goats were selected which had nearly the same body weight (average $24{\pm}2.8$ kg). The chemical composition and dry matter digestibility of each roughage source and species were significantly different at the sampling area, plant species, growth stages and cutting period (p<0.05). Among all the 25 species of roughages, the favorite intake species order by Korean native goat was observed like this: Quercus aliena, Querancas serrta Thunb and Mixed browse, which was a lower intake compared to other domestic herbivores. The Korean native goats ate more roughages which had low fibrous contents, but high dry matter digestibility. The Korean native goats ate more roughages which had low fibrous contents, but high dry matter digestibility. On the other hand, compared to each roughage source, total intake amount by Korean native goats was showed as browse and fallen leaves (33.1%) among trials roughage sources. Based on these results, the food habit of Korean native goats seems to be closer to the browser.

Comparison of Gayal (Bos frontalis) and Yunnan Yellow Cattle (Bos taurus): In vitro Dry Matter Digestibility and Gas Production for a Range of Forages

  • Xi, Dongmei;Wanapat, Metha;Deng, Weidong;He, Tianbao;Yang, Zhifang;Mao, Huaming
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.8
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    • pp.1208-1214
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    • 2007
  • Three male Gayal, two years of age and with a mean live weight of $203{\pm}26$ kg, and three adult Yunnan Yellow Cattle, with a mean live weight of $338{\pm}18$ kg were fed a ration of pelleted lucerne hay and used to collect rumen fluid for in vitro measurements of digestibilities and gas production from fermentation of a range of forages. The forages were: bamboo stems, bamboo twigs, bamboo leaves, rice straw, barley straw, annual ryegrass hay, smooth vetch hay and pelleted lucerne hay. There were significant (p<0.05) effects of the source of rumen fluid on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and gas production during fermentation of forage. For the roughage of lowest quality (bamboo stems and rice straw), gas production during fermentation was higher (p<0.05) in the presence of rumen fluid from Gayal than Yunnan Yellow Cattle. Differences for these parameters were found for the better quality roughages with gas production being enhanced in the presence of rumen fluid from Yunnan Yellow Cattle. Moreover, the IVDMD of investigated roughages was significantly higher (p<0.05) in Gayal than Yunnan Yellow Cattle. The results offer an explanation for the positive live weight gains recorded for Gayal foraging in their natural environment where the normal diet consists of poor quality roughages.

STUDIES ON PROTEIN DEGRADABILITIES OF FEEDSTUFFS IN BANGLADESH

  • Khandaker, Z.H.;Tareque, A.M.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.637-642
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    • 1996
  • This experiment was conducted to determine RDP values of locally available feedstuffs that are commonly used in ruminant rations in Bangladesh. Four cattle were fistulated in the rumen for the in situ nylon bag studies. Seventeen different feedstuff sample (9 roughages and 8 concentrates) were evaluated in $4{\times}14cm$ nylon bags and incubated in the rumen for different periods of time (2, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h). The variation in crude protein (CP) contents reflected on the average CP disappearance value throughout the rumen incubation. Soluble fraction (a), insoluble but degradable fraction (b) along with the rate of degradation also varied widely among the various feedstuffs. Under 2% of rumen outflow rate, the percentages of the calculated protein degradabilities of roughages were rice straw, 16.7; maize grass, 70.6; oat grass, 70.8; dhal grass, 71.1; sunhemp, 78.4; napier grass, 62.4; matikalai grass, 72.1; khesarikalai grass, 76.9 and daincha browse, 78.4, respectively. The results in the protein degradabilities (%) in 8% ruminal outflow rate of concentrates were wheat bran, 61.6; rice polish (red), 61.3; rice polish (auto), 30.9; mustard oil cake, 71.8; sesame oil cake, 74.2; coconut oil cake, 57.9; soybean meal, 49.2 and fish meal, 37.9, respectively.

A Comparative Study of Nutritive Value of Imported Roughages (수입 조사료의 사료가치 비교 연구)

  • 이형석;이인덕
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.303-308
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    • 2000
  • The objective of this experiment was to evaluate chemical composition, dry matter(DM) digestibility, DM intake, relative feed value(RFV) and hay grade of imported roughage which was collected by wholesale dealer at Chungnam province in 1999. Experimental roughages includes 8 kinds of imported hays(com stover bale, tall fescue straw, green cell, bermudagrass straw, reed carnarygrass straw, alfalfa bale, sugarcane bale and oat hay) and mixture hay(control) which was harvested at Chungnam National University experimental field. Compared with mixture hay(control) except for alfalfa bale, crude protein of most imported roughage was low, but NDF, ADF, cellulose and lignin compound were high. Futhermore, DM digestibility, DM intake, RFV and hay grade of imported roughage except for alfalfa bale was significantly lower than those of mixture hay(control)(P<0.05). Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the economic value in the aspect of quality for the imported roughages.

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Studies on Feed Resources of Non-Conventional Agriculture Roughage (농업부산물 사료화 이용 연구)

  • Kim, Weon-Ho;Seo, Sung;Park, Geun-Je;Shin, Dong-Eun;Choi, Gee-Jun;Kim, Kee-Yong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.169-174
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feed resources and collection system of nonconventional agricultural roughages, and reduction of environment pollution by turning non-conventional agricultural roughages to feed resources and diversification of feed supply. And a series of experiment were conducted to determine the effect of moisture control material on quality of sweet potato stalk, peanut stalk, barley straw, the experiments were conducted at Grassland and Forage Crops Division, National Livestock Research Institute, RDA, Suwon in 1999 and 2000. The results obtained from these experiments are summarized as follows; Acid detergent fiber(ADF), neutral detergent fiber(NDF) and total digestible nutrient(TDN) of sweet potato were 38.8, 50.7 and 58.2% in the control silage, but that of rice straw added silage for moisture control were decreased to 41.5, 50.8 and 56.1%. ADF, NDF, CP(crude protein) and TDN of peanut stalk were 42.2, 49.6, 10.5 and 55.6% on the rice straw added silage for moisture control, and there were not affected by barely straw added silage for moisture control. And ADF, NDF and TDN content of barely straw increased 42.8, 65.8 and 55.1% on the water+inoculants treated silage. The results of this study indicate that non-conventional agricultural roughages to feed resources should be make for silage at silo after dry matter percentage(ab0ut 35%) control. Also, rice straw added silage for moisture control will improve the silage fermentation and conservation. (Key words : Feed resources, Non-conventional agriculture, Fermentation, Inoculant, Rice straw)

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Effects of Proportion of Roughages and Concentrates on Growth and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (조사료와 농후사료의 급여비율이 한우 거세우의 성장 및 도체특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Ahn, B.H.;Song, S.C.;Lyu, J.S.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.747-756
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    • 2002
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of proportion of concentrates and roughages on growth and carcass traits of Hanwoo steers. Concentrates and roughages were allotted three levels of 35 to 11%, 44 to 12% and 53 to 13%, respectively from the growing period to finishing period. Concentrate and roughage intake of Hanwoo steers were increased progressively until body weight reached 450kg and 300kg, respectively and reached 1.8 to 1.9% and 1.04 to 1.44% to body weight, respectively but thereafter were decreased gradually. Marbling score and beef grade were tended to be increased when steers were fed 44% roughage compared with the steers fed 35% or 53% at the growing period. Therefore, it can be concluded that feeding 44% of roughage is desirable rather than feeding 35% or 53% of roughage when steers are fattening.

A study on the food habits of Sika Deer (Saanen) fed with roughage sources (조사료원에 따른 꽃사슴(Servus nippon)의 채식습성에 관한 연구)

  • Gang, Byung-Ho;Lee, In-Duk;Lee, Soo-Kee;Lee, Hyung-Suk
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.437-444
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    • 2011
  • The object of this experiment was to investigate the food habits of sika deer fed with various roughage sources. The experimental trials were conducted at Unbong Animal Genetic Resources Station in 2008. The experimental roughages include five sources and 25 species in all; grasses and legumes: 5 species (mixed grasses, orchardgrass, tall fescue, alfalfa, white clover), native grasses and weeds: 5 species (mixed native grasses, Miscanthus sinensis Anderss, Arundinella hirta (Thunb.) Tanaka, barnyard grass, short awn, forage crops (hay, silages and straw): 5 species (barley + hairy vetch, Wheat + hairy vetch, rye silage, barley silage, baled rice straw), browse and fallen leaves: 5 species (mixed browse, oriental white oak, Quercus serrta Thunb., oriental cherry fallen leaves, Japanese chestnut fallen leaves), and imported hays and straws: 5 species (timothy hay, tall fescue straw, annual ryegrass straw, klinegrass hay, alfalfa hay). Five sika deer were used as experimental animals and the averaged body weight was 95+5.4kg. The chemical composition and dry matter digestibility of each roughage source and species were significantly different at the sampling area, plant species, growth stages and cutting period(p<0.05). The sika deer ate more roughages which had low fibrous contents, but high dry matter digestibility. Among all the 25 species of roughages, the favorite intake roughage sources ranking by sika deer was observed like this: browse and fallen leaves (32.2%), grass and legumes (27.0%), native grasses and weeds (22.0%), imported hays (12.9%) and forages crops (5.5%) respectively. Although, the sika deer ate more browse leaves, but ate more roughage which had low fibrous contents (NDF and ADF), but high drymatter digestibility. On the other hand, compared to each roughage source, total intake amount by sika deer was showed as browse and fallen leaves (32.2%). Based on the result, the food habit of sika deer seems to be closer to the typical browser.