• Title, Summary, Keyword: Roughage Index Value

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Evaluation of Physically Effective Fiber for Distributing Total Mixed Rations in Korea

  • Jeon, Byong Tae;Kim, Kyoung Hoon;Kim, Myeong Hwa;Oh, Mi Rae;Li, Hongliang;Moon, Sang Ho
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.193-196
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    • 2013
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the physical characteristics of total mixed rations (TMR) prepared in Korea for improving productive effectiveness of dairy and beef cattle. The 40 samples of commercial TMR for dairy and beef cattle in 6 municipals were collected and analyzed for chemical composition and physical properties. There were significant regional differences (p<0.05) in dry matter and crude protein contents of TMR for dairy and beef cattle. In roughage value index (RVI), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content, and physically effective NDF (peNDF)$_{1.18}$ content, there were no regional differences in TMR for dairy cattle, but there were significant regional differences (p<0.05) in TMR for beef cattle. Thus the results from this study support that because RVI, NDF content, and peNDF content in TMR for dairy and beef cattle exceeded recommended ranges, a little adjustment in TMR for dairy cattle will be necessary to obtain optimal productivity.

Effects of Neutral Detergent Fiber Concentration and Particle Size of the Diet on Chewing Activities of Dairy Cows

  • Moon, Y.H.;Lee, S.C.;Lee, Sung S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.1535-1540
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    • 2004
  • Six dry Holstein cows were used to evaluate the effect of dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration and particle size (PS) on chewing activity. Treatments were arranged in a 3$\times$3 factorial design; total mixed rations contained three NDF concentrations (26, 32, 38%) and three PS (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 cm). NDF levels and particle sizes of diets were adjusted by formulating rate and cutting length of alfalfa hay and rice straw. Cows were fed twice daily at 90% of ad libitum feed intake throughout the experiment. Chewing activity was positively associated with NDF concentration, but not significantly affected by PS of diet. Eating time per unit of NDF intake was affected by PS rather than NDF concentration of diet. Time spent ruminating per unit DM or NDF intake increased with increasing NDF concentration of diet, but was not affected by PS. As the PS of diet increased, the eating time per day increased, but the rumination time decreased. In addition, as the number of rumination bolues decreased the rumination duration increased as well as the chews per bolus. The regression equation induced from relationships of NDF concentrations (NDF, %) and particle sizes (PS, cm) of diet on roughage value index (RVI, min of chewing time/kg DMI) was as follows. RVI=-19.672+1.44$\times$NDF+5.196$\times$PS, ($R^{2}$=0.81).

Chewing Activities of Selected Roughages and Concentrates by Dairy Steers

  • Moon, Y.H.;Lee, S.C.;Lee, S.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.968-973
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    • 2002
  • To evaluate the chewing activity of ruminant feeds, four Holstein steers (average body weight $742{\pm}15kg$) were employed. Experimental feeds were four roughages ($NH_3$-treated rice straw, alfalfa hay, corn silage, orchard grass hay) and four concentrate ingredients (cotton seed hull, beet pulp pellet, barley grain, oat grain). Regarding palatability for each experimental feeds which was overviewed during the adjustment period, animals were fed roughages alone, but with 50% $NH_3$-treated rice straw ($NH_3$-RS) for concentrate ingredients. Therefore, all the data for concentrate ingredients was derived by extracting the result per unit obtained from steers fed $NH_3$-RS alone. The experiment was conducted using a 4${\times}$4 Latin square designs for roughages and concentrate ingredients. Experimental feeds were fed during a 10 d adaptation and 2 d chewing data collection during each experimental period. Animals were gradually adjusted to the experimental diet. Dry matter intake (DMI) was restricted at a 1.4% of mean body weight (10.4 kg DM/d). Time spent eating and eating chews per kilogram of DMI were greatest for beet pulp pellet, and lowest for barley grain (p<0.05). Time spent rumination per kilogram of DMI was greatest for $NH_3$-RS, cotton seed hull and orchard grass, but rumination chews were greatest for cotton seed hull and orchard grass except $NH_3$-RS (p<0.05). Roughage index value (chewing time, minute/kg DMI) was 58.0 for cotton seed hull, 56.1 for beet pulp pellet, 55.5 for $NH_3$-RS, 53.1 for orchard grass hay, 45.9 for corn silage, 43.0 for alfalfa hay, 30.0 for oat grain, and 10.9 for barley grain. The ratio of rumination time to total chewing time (eating plus ruminating) was about 72% for the roughages except corn silage (66.9%), and followed by cotton seed hull (69.5%), and ranged from 49.5% to 52.9% for other feeds. Higher percentages of rumination in total chewing time may be evidently indicate the characteristics of roughage. Therefore, this indicate that the chewing activity of concentrate ingredients can be more fully reflects by the ruminating time than total chewing time (RVI), although it is reasonable to define the RVI for roughages.

Effects of Feeding Methods of Total Mixed Ration on Behavior Patterns of Growing Hanwoo Steers

  • Lee, Sang-Moo;Kim, Young-Il;Oh, Young-Kyoon;Kwak, Wan-Sup
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.11
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    • pp.1469-1475
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    • 2010
  • A study was conducted to investigate the effects of methods of feeding a total mixed ration (TMR) on behavior patterns of growing Hanwoo steers. A total of 15 growing steers (13 months old) were assigned to the control (fed roughage and concentrate mix separately), TMR1 (fed restricted TMR), and TMR2 (fed TMR ad libitum) groups. Individual behaviors of steers were observed for 48 hours. Compared with the control, feeding restricted TMR (TMR1) resulted in short eating time, long ruminating time, short chewing time, high frequencies of defecation, urination, and drinking of water, great numbers of boluses and chews, long ruminating time per bolus, low feed value index, high eating and chewing efficiencies (p<0.05). Compared with feeding restricted TMR (TMR1), feeding TMR ad libitum (TMR2) resulted in 1.2 kg more daily feed DM intake, long eating and chewing times, short resting time, great frequencies of defecation, urination and drinking of water, more numbers of boluses and chews, long ruminating time per bolus, low feed value index, low eating and high ruminating efficiencies (p<0.05) and similar chewing efficiency (p>0.05). Considering all these results, the wet TMR feeding system induced generally more desirable eating and ruminating behaviors of growing Hanwoo steers, but made the barn floor wetter due to more defecation and urination.

On-site Output Survey and Feed Value Evaluation on Agro- industrial By-products (농산업부산물들에 대한 배출 현장 조사 및 사료적 가치 평가)

  • Kwak, W. S.;Yoon, J. S.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.251-264
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to make on-site survey on the output pattern and utilization situation of 19 by-products selected, to evaluate their nutritional characteristics, to find out a reliable index with which digestion of by-products can be predicted on the basis of chemical compositions analyzed and to diagnose the risk of using book values in the absence of the actual values analyzed for diet formulation. Production and utilization situations of by-products were quite various. Nutritionally, fruit processing by-products such as apple pomace (AP), pear pomace (PP), grape pomace (GP), and persimmon peel (PSP), and bakery by-products (BB) were classified as energy feeds. Soybean curd meal (SCM), animal by- products such as blood (BD), feather meal (FM) and poultry by-products (PB), and activated milk processing sludge (AMS) were classified as protein feeds. Soy hulls (SH), spent mushroom compost (SMC), barley malt hulls (BMH), waste paper (WP) and broiler litter (BL) were classified as roughage. Rumen contents (RC) and restaurant food waste (FW) were nutritionally analogous to complete diets for cattle and swine, respectively. Compared to soybean meal (SBM), BD and FM contained high (P<0.05) levels of amino acids and barley malt sprouts (BMS), AMS and FW contained low (P<0.05) levels of amino acids. Enzymatic (pepsin) digestibilities of proteinaceous feeds ranged between 99 and 66%. In vitro DM digestibility was high (P<0.05) in the order of FW, BB, AP, SH, PP, PSP, BMH, BMS, SCM, GP, RC, PB, BL, WP, SMC, AMS, FM and BD. In vitro DM digestibility had the highest correlation (r=0.68) with nonfibrous carbohydrate among chemical components. Differences between analyzed values of chemical components and book values were considerable. Caution is required in using book values when large amount of by-products are used in diets.

Effects of Whole Grain Barley Cracked Feed on the Eating Behavior of Hanwoo Steers During Finish Fattening Period (통보리 분쇄 사료 급여가 비육후기 한우 채식행동에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang-Moo;Choi, Yu-Rak
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.149-156
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of whole grain barley cracked feed on eating behaviors of Hanwoo steers during finish fattening period. Thirty Hanwoo steers (28 months old) were assigned to five dietary treatments: control (C: normal concentrate as a basal diet), and four feeding groups [T1: 10% addition of whole grain barley cracked (WGBC) feed, T2: 20% addition of WGBC, T3: 30% addition of WGBC and T4: 40% WGBC during the finish fattening period, respectively]. The results of eating behaviors for 48 hours are summarized as follows: Total intake (roughage + concentrate) was higher in the order of T4 > T1 > C > T3 > T2 (P<0.05). Eating time was higher in the order of T4 > T3 > C > T1 > T2 (P<0.01). Ruminating time was higher in the order of T4 > T1 > C > T3 > T2 (P<0.05). But resting time was higher in the order of T2 > T1 > C > T3 > T4. The chewing time including eating and ruminating time was higher in the order of T4 > T3 > C > T1 > T2 (P<0.01). Number of bolus, number of total chews, number of chews/bolus and feed value index were highest in T4 (P<0.05). Ruminating time per bolus was highest in C, and T3 was the lowest (P<0.05) as compared to others. Number of bolus per minute was highest in T3, and C is the lowest (P<0.05). Eating rate and chewing efficiency were highest in T2 (P<0.01, 0.05), but ruminating efficiency was higher in T1 than others. The group behavior was higher in the order of resting(78.5%) > ruminating(11.4%) > eating(10.1%). The stand resting of group behavior was higher in the order of T3 > C > T2 > T1 > T4.