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A Study on the Nutritive Value of Distributed Roughage in Domestic Market (국내 유통 조사료의 사료가치에 관한 연구)

  • 이형석;이인덕;박덕섭;박연진;김선균;금종수
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.109-114
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    • 2001
  • The object of this experiment was to evaluate nutritive value of roughage which was collected by Woosung Feed Co., Ltd. in Korea in 1999-2000. Nineteen kinds of roughage(l32 samples) were collected by Woosung Feed Co., Ltd. and their chemical composition, ADF, NDF, Ca and P. were analysed. In addition, their DMD, DMI, WV and hay grades were calculated based on analysed values. The CP content of roughage was ranged from 17.35%(alfalfa hay) to 4.00%(Italian ryegrass hay), and ten kinds of roughage under six percentages were observed. The NDF content of roughage was ranged from 47.50%(sugarcane leaf) to 78.84%(orchardgrass hay), and eight kinds of roughage above seventy percentages were observed. The DMD of roughage was ranged from 66.38%(beet pulp) to 50.95%(orchardgrass hay). The WV of roughage was ranged from 60.1 l(orchardgrass hay) to 125.07(sugarcane leaf). In hay grade of roughage, the first grade was assigned to sugarcane leaf only and the third grade and fourth grade were assigned to four kinds of roughage each. Bermudagrass straw received the fifth grade, and the nine kinds of roughage received the poor grades. As shown in the above results, nineteen kinds of roughage were mostly low in crude protein contents and dry matter digestibility, but they were high in fibrous contents. Futhermore, while only one kind of roughage was evaluated as obtaining the first grade, nine kinds of roughage were evaluated as the poor grade. Hence, we know that roughage which was collected in Korea was mostly low in their quality and that there was significant difference in their feed value among those roughage(P<0.05). Therefore, it is necessary to mark the hay quality for purpose of distributive circulation of roughage. (Key words : Roughages, Nutritive value, DMD. RFV. Hay grade)

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Heat Production and Thermoregulatory Responses of Sheep Fed Different Roughage Proportion Diets and Intake Levels When Exposed to a High Ambient Temperature

  • Sudarman, A.;Ito, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.625-629
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    • 2000
  • Six yearling Suffolk ewes were used to study the effect of different roughage proportion diets (30%=LR, and 70%=HR) and intake levels (0.7 M and 1.3 M) on heat production and thermoregulatory responses in sheep exposed to different ambient temperatures (20 and $30^{\circ}C$). Sheep fed HR had higher heat production (HP) and time spent eating (TSE) and lower time spent standing (TSS) than those fed LR. But effect of roughage proportion on vaginal temperature (Tv) was obvious only at high intake and at $30^{\circ}C$. Sheep fed high intake had higher Tv, HP, TSS, and TSE than those fed low intake. Roughage proportion and intake level did not have an effect on respiration rate (RR), but ambient temperature did. Ambient temperature did not have an effect on HP, TSS and TSE. At $30^{\circ}C$ sheep had higher Tv and RR than those at $20^{\circ}C$. There were interactions between intake level and ambient temperature in TSS, between intake level and roughage proportion in TSE, and between roughage proportion and ambient temperature in HP. Results indicate that high roughage diet imposes a greater potential heat load on animals than low roughage diet when given at high ambient temperature, but not at low ambient temperature. And the effects is more pronounced at high intake.

Effects of Roughage Neutral Detergent Fiber on Dairy Performance under Tropical Conditions

  • Kanjanapruthipong, J.;Buatong, N.;Buaphan, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.1400-1404
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    • 2001
  • $Holstein\;{\times}\;indigenous$ multiparous dairy cows were offered diets with increasing roughage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents to determine the effects on intake, milk yield and compositions. Roughage NDF contents were 15, 18, 21 and 24% dry matter (DM), and concentrate NDF content was 10% DM. Experimental treatments were isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. Maximum and minimum temperature humidity index during the experimental period were 85.9 and 76, respectively. Intakes of DM, crude protein and net energy, 4% fat corrected milk, milk protein and average daily gain decreased with increasing roughage NDF contents (p<0.05). Intakes of ether extract (p<0.01) and dietary NDF (p>0.05) and milk fat (p<0.01) increased with increasing roughage NDF contents. The results support the conclusion that higher DM intake, optimal milk yield and compositions can be maintained with lower roughage NDF diets for dairy cows under tropical conditions.

Effects of reducing inclusion rate of roughages by changing roughage sources and concentrate types on intake, growth, rumen fermentation characteristics, and blood parameters of Hanwoo growing cattle (Bos Taurus coreanae)

  • Jeon, Seoyoung;Jeong, Sinyong;Lee, Mingyung;Seo, Jakyeom;Kam, Dong Keun;Kim, Jeong Hoon;Park, Jaehwa;Seo, Seongwon
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.11
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    • pp.1705-1714
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    • 2019
  • Objective: Reducing roughage feeding without negatively affecting rumen health is of interest in ruminant nutrition. We investigated the effects of roughage sources and concentrate types on growth performance, ruminal fermentation, and blood metabolite levels in growing cattle. Methods: In this 24-week trial, 24 Hanwoo cattle ($224{\pm}24.7kg$) were fed similar nitrous and energy levels of total mixed ration formulated using two kinds of roughage (timothy hay and ryegrass straw) and two types of concentrate mixes (high starch [HS] and high fiber [HF]). The treatments were arranged in a $2{\times}2$ factorial, consisting of 32% timothy-68% HS, 24% timothy-76% HF, 24% ryegrass-76% HS, and 17% ryegrass-83% HF. Daily feed intakes were measured. Every four weeks, blood were sampled, and body weight was measured before morning feeding. Every eight weeks, rumen fluid was collected using a stomach tube over five consecutive days. Results: The mean dry matter intake (7.33 kg) and average daily gain (1,033 g) did not differ among treatments. However, significant interactions between roughage source and concentrate type were observed for the rumen and blood parameters (p<0.05). Total volatile fatty acid concentration was highest (p<0.05) in timothy-HF-fed calves. With ryegrass as the roughage source, decreasing the roughage inclusion rate increased the molar proportion of propionate and decreased the acetate-to-propionate ratio; the opposite was observed with timothy as the roughage source. Similarly, the effects of concentrate types on plasma total protein, alanine transaminase, Ca, inorganic P, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and creatinine concentrations differed with roughage source (p<0.05). Conclusion: Decreasing the dietary roughage inclusion rate by replacing forage neutral detergent fiber with that from non-roughage fiber source might be a feasible feeding practice in growing cattle. A combination of low-quality roughage with a high fiber concentrate might be economically beneficial.

Development of a Tractor Attached Roughage Cut-feeder for Round Bale(I) - Development of a Cutting Mechanism and a Performance Test - (트랙터 견인형 원형베일 세절.급여기 개발(I) - 세절 메카니즘 개발 및 성능시험 -)

  • Hong, D.H.;Park, K.K.;Ha, Y.S.;Kim, H.J.;Kwon, J.K.;Kim, T.W.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.292-300
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    • 2007
  • Not many types of roughage cutters have been introduced in Korea so far. However, those machines could not satisfy farmers to cut rice straw or barley wrap-silage properly. Stiffness and firmness of roughage bale were two obstructing factors. In order to solve this problem, a tractor attached cut-feeding machinery for the round baled roughage was developed for dairy and beef cattle farm in Korea. A series of tests were performed and acquired data were analyzed by using the several imported roughage cutters, which have been already introduced in dairy farm in Korea. And, a prototype of forage cutter was selected, analyzed, designed and manufactured to develop a tractor attached roughage cut-feeder for round bale. Also, the prototype machine was tested, modified and improved through revising model. As a result, a tractor attached roughage cut-feeder for round bale was manufactured. In order to evaluate the performance of the model machinery. a series of test were performed by the prototype machinery both at the plant and field. The model machinery developed satisfied in both power requirement and cutting capacity. As a conclusion, one of the obstacles against feeding the round baled roughage in the korea cattle farm can be eliminated by developing the tractor attached round baled roughage cut-feeder.

Effect of Different Ratios of Concentrate and Roughage on Lipid Synthesis by Rumen Microorganisms In Vitro

  • Sasaki, H.;Horiguchi, K.;Takahashi, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.36-38
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    • 2003
  • The effect of different feeding ratios of concentrate to roughage on ruminal lipid synthesis in vitro was examined. Three sheep fitted with a rumen fistula were fed three different ratios (8:2, 4:6 and 0:10) of concentrate and roughage, and their rumen liquor were used for incubation. $^{13}C$-labeled glucose or sodium acetate as substrate was added to cultures of rumen liquor, and they were incubated for 6 h. The total lipid in the culture of the rumen liquor was extracted, and the percentage of $^{13}C$ excess was analyzed. The percentage of $^{13}C$ excess recovered when incubated with glucose increased with increased ratio of concentrate in the diet. The values of cultures incubated with glucose were higher than those incubated with sodium acetate except the roughage-only feeding. In the roughage-only diet, the percentage of $^{13}C$ excess when incubated with sodium acetate was highest of all diets. The recovery percentage of $^{13}C$ from glucose increased with increased ratio of concentrate. The recovery percentage of $^{13}C$ from sodium acetate addition in only roughage feeding was highest among the three diets. The recovery percentage of $^{13}C$ from glucose was markedly higher than that of sodium acetate addition in all feedings. The results indicate that high concentrate feeding facilitates lipid synthesis by rumen microorganisms, and that glucose may be the precursor for lipid synthesis rather than acetic acid.

A study on the food habits of Sika Deer (Saanen) fed with roughage sources (조사료원에 따른 꽃사슴(Servus nippon)의 채식습성에 관한 연구)

  • Gang, Byung-Ho;Lee, In-Duk;Lee, Soo-Kee;Lee, Hyung-Suk
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.437-444
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    • 2011
  • The object of this experiment was to investigate the food habits of sika deer fed with various roughage sources. The experimental trials were conducted at Unbong Animal Genetic Resources Station in 2008. The experimental roughages include five sources and 25 species in all; grasses and legumes: 5 species (mixed grasses, orchardgrass, tall fescue, alfalfa, white clover), native grasses and weeds: 5 species (mixed native grasses, Miscanthus sinensis Anderss, Arundinella hirta (Thunb.) Tanaka, barnyard grass, short awn, forage crops (hay, silages and straw): 5 species (barley + hairy vetch, Wheat + hairy vetch, rye silage, barley silage, baled rice straw), browse and fallen leaves: 5 species (mixed browse, oriental white oak, Quercus serrta Thunb., oriental cherry fallen leaves, Japanese chestnut fallen leaves), and imported hays and straws: 5 species (timothy hay, tall fescue straw, annual ryegrass straw, klinegrass hay, alfalfa hay). Five sika deer were used as experimental animals and the averaged body weight was 95+5.4kg. The chemical composition and dry matter digestibility of each roughage source and species were significantly different at the sampling area, plant species, growth stages and cutting period(p<0.05). The sika deer ate more roughages which had low fibrous contents, but high dry matter digestibility. Among all the 25 species of roughages, the favorite intake roughage sources ranking by sika deer was observed like this: browse and fallen leaves (32.2%), grass and legumes (27.0%), native grasses and weeds (22.0%), imported hays (12.9%) and forages crops (5.5%) respectively. Although, the sika deer ate more browse leaves, but ate more roughage which had low fibrous contents (NDF and ADF), but high drymatter digestibility. On the other hand, compared to each roughage source, total intake amount by sika deer was showed as browse and fallen leaves (32.2%). Based on the result, the food habit of sika deer seems to be closer to the typical browser.

Effect of Cubed Roughage Supplementation and Red Clay Levels on Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Economic Benefits in Korean Native Cattle (양질 조사료의 보충과 황토의 첨가수준이 한우의 성장성적, 육질 등급 및 경제성에 미치는 영향)

  • Jin, Y.H.;Jin, M.G.;Hong, J.S.;Lee, H.G.;Lee, B.K.;Kim, J.S.;Choi, Y.J.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.61-68
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    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to estimate the effects of high quality cubed roughage and red clay (0%, 1%, 2%) on growth performance, meat quality and economical benefits. Thirty-six 6 month-old Korean native cattle, averaging 156kg of BW, were assigned to six groups in a 2 (rice straw : RT, rice straw+cubed roughage : RCT) ${\times}$ 3 (0, 1, 2% red clay). During experimental period, the high quality cubed roughage added into rice straw treatment (RCT) was superior to the only rice straw treatment (RT) on daily gain and feed efficiency and final weight 10%, 6.8%, 8.2% (P$<$0.05) respectively. But the addition of red clay did not affect and even 2% addition decreased those parameters. For meat quality and economical analysis, the addition of high quality cubed roughage made an outstanding result and for RT treatment, only 1% red clay indicated good effects while both 1% and 2% red clay were better than 0% for RCT treatment. From these results, it is assumed that the addition of red clay for fattening Korean native cattle has no effects on growth performance but 1% treatment has good results on improving meat quality and economical benefits. It also suggests that the combination high quality roughage and concentrated red clay is beneficial for producing high quality meat in with economical benefits.

Effects of Non-ionic Surfactant Supplementation on Ruminal Fermentation, Nutrient Digestibility and Performance of Beef Steers Fed High-roughage Diets

  • Ahn, Gyu-chul;Kim, Jeong-hoon;Park, Eun-kyu;Oh, Young-Kyoon;Lee, Gang-yeon;Lee, Jung-il;Kim, Chong-min;Park, Keun-kyu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.993-1004
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    • 2009
  • Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of non-ionic surfactant (NIS) supplementation on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility and performance of beef steers fed high-roughage diets. The objective of experiment 1 was to investigate the effects of NIS supplementation on in vitro ruminal fermentation of cultures administered with corn and barley as grain substrate and rice straw and timothy hay as roughage substrate. The in vivo ruminal fermentation, nitrogen balance and digestibility of nutrients were also examined with steers fed a high-roughage diet in experiment 2. The aim of experiment 3 was to determine the responses to NIS of growing steers fed a high-roughage diet. In experiment 1, ammonia nitrogen concentration for NIS supplementation was higher (p<0.05) than for the control with all substrates. However, concentrations of total volatile fatty acid (VFA), acetate, butyrate and valerate of the incubated roughage substrates, rice straw and timothy hay, were higher (p<0.05) for NIS supplementation than for the control whereas VFA concentrations in the cultures of corn and barley were unaffected. These results indicated that effects of NIS on ruminal fermentation are diet dependent, specifically on roughage sources. In experiment 2, ruminal pH of steers supplemented with NIS was lower (p<0.05) than the control. Ruminal concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, acetate, total VFA and urinary concentrations of purine derivatives were increased (p<0.05) by NIS supplementation. In experiment 3, supplementation of NIS increased (p<0.05) intakes of total feed and corn silage, average daily gain, and feed efficiency of growing steers although they varied depending on supplementation level. Due to the roughage-specific feature of NIS effects, NIS appears to enhance ruminal fermentation of fibrous parts of feeds and, consequently, performance of steers fed a high-roughage diet.

Development of Mechanized System Model for the Production of Winter Cereal Wrap Silage in the Fallow Paddy Field (1) - Modelling mechanized roughage production system and previewing its profit - (답리작 맥류 랩-사일리지의 기계화 시스템 모델 개발(1) - 맥류 조사료 기계화 시스템 모델과 기대효과 -)

  • 김혁주;박경규;서종혁;신승열
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.107-116
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    • 2003
  • One of the major obstructing factors against managing dairy farm in Korea has been a shortage of roughage supply. The shortage of roughage caused excessive use of concentrate feed increase of production cost and deterioration of cattle quality. In order to solve this problem for the dairy farm, use of fallow paddy field in the winter was feasible to produce barley and rye forage during the winter season after harvesting of in. And many desirable effects of raising cattle productivity, saving dollars for importing feeds and providing huge ground for manure spreading are expected by enlarged local roughage production. Through analysing the forage producing process, a mechanized operation model was developed for dairy farms in Korea. Its model consists of seeding models(till, no-till model) and harvesting models(wrap silage, traditional silage, hay model). Currently, the government policies are being executed to urge producing winter cereal wrap silage in the fallow paddy field with various supporting programs. Ant with enlarged local forage production, it is possible to make a new huge market fur forage producing machine.