• Title, Summary, Keyword: Rotary drum composting

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Effect of Rotary Drum on the Speciation of Heavy Metals during Water Hyacinth Composting

  • Singh, Jiwan;Kalamdhad, Ajay S.
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.177-189
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    • 2013
  • Studies were carried out on the speciation of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Cr) during rotary drum composting of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) for a period of 20 days. Five different proportions of cattle manure, water hyacinth and sawdust were prepared for composting. This study concluded that, rotary drum was very efficient for the degradation of organic matter as well as for the reduction of mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals during water hyacinth composting. The results from the sequential extraction procedure of heavy metals shows that rotary drum composting changed the distribution of five fractions of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Cr. The highest reduction in the bioavailability factors of Pb and Cd was observed during the process. The total concentration of Cu, Cr, and Cd was very low compared to the other metals (Zn, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Pb); however, the percentage of exchangeable and carbonate fractions of these metals was similar to other metals. These results confirmed that the bioavailability of metals does not depend on the total concentration of metals. From this study, it can be concluded that the addition of an appropriate proportion of cattle manure significantly reduced the mobile and easily available fractions (exchangeable and carbonate fractions) during water hyacinth composting in rotary drum.

Composting of Water Hyacinth using a Pilot Scale Rotary Drum Composter

  • Singh, Waikhom Roshan;Das, Ayan;Kalamdhad, Ajay
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.69-75
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    • 2012
  • Composting of water hyacinth, mixed with cattle manure, rice husk and sawdust in four different proportions, was performed in a pilot scale rotary drum composter. The physico-chemical characteristics, i.e., temperature, moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity, total organic matter (OM), nitrogen dynamics and nutrients were evaluated during the 20 days composting process. The stabilities of the composts were also investigated with respirometric analysis, i.e., $CO_2$ evolution rates and oxygen uptake rate (OUR). Among all trials, trial 1 (6 water hyacinth, 3 cattle manure, 1 rice husk) indicated the best composting mix, as shown by the highest temperature profile and OM loss, and lowest $CO_2$ evolution rate and OUR.

Feasibility of Composting Combinations of Sewage Sludge, Cattle Manure, and Sawdust in a Rotary Drum Reactor

  • Nayak, Ashish Kumar;Kalamdhad, Ajay S.
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.47-57
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    • 2014
  • The aim of this paper was to study the effect of five different waste combinations (C/N 15, C/N 20, C/N 25, C/N 30, and control) of sewage sludge coupled with sawdust and cattle manure in a pilot scale rotary drum reactor, during 20 days of the composting process. Our results showed that C/N 30 possesses a higher temperature regime with higher % reduction in moisture content, total organic carbon, soluble biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand; and higher % gain in total nitrogen and phosphorus at the end of the composting period implying the total amount of biodegradable organic material is stabilized. In addition, $CO_2$ evolution and oxygen uptake rate decreased during the process, reflecting the stable behavior of the final compost. A Solvita maturity index of 8 indicated that the compost was stable and ready for usage as a soil conditioner. The results indicated that composting can be an alternate technology for the management of sewage sludge disposal.

Reduction of eco-toxicity risk of heavy metals in the rotary drum composting of water hyacinth: Waste lime application and mechanisms

  • Singh, Jiwan;Kalamdhad, Ajay S.;Lee, Byeong-Kyu
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.212-222
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    • 2015
  • Experiments were conducted on the immobilization of eight heavy metals (HMs) (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Cr) during 20-day rotary drum composting of water hyacinth. The Tessier sequential extraction procedure was used to investigate the fractionation of HMs. The eco-toxicity risk of HMs was assessed by risk assessment code (RAC). In the results, the bioavailability factor (BAF) for different HMs presented in the following order: Mn > Zn = Fe > Cu > Cr > Cd = Pb > Ni. The total concentration of Pb was higher than that of Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd and Cr; however, its BAF was the lowest among these HMs. These results confirmed that the eco-toxicity of HMs depends on bioavailable fractions rather than on the total concentration. The greatest reduction in bioavailability and eco-toxicity risk of HMs occurred in lime 1% and 2% as compared to control and lime 3%. The eco-toxicity risk of Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr was reduced from low risk to zero risk by rotary drum composting. These studies demonstrated the high efficiency of the rotary drum for degrading compost materials and for reducing the bioavailability and eco-toxicity risk of HMs during the composting process.

Effects of Leachate during Vegetable Waste Composting using Rotary Drum Composter

  • Varma, V. Sudharsan;Kalamdhad, Ajay S.
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.67-73
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    • 2014
  • In India, disposal of vegetable market waste along with municipal solid waste in landfills or dumpsites is creating much nuisance in terms of odor nuisance, leachate production, and greenhouse gas emission into the atmosphere. Therefore, vegetable waste with high biodegradable and nutrient content is composted in a 550-L batch scale rotary drum composter to study the degradation process and its compost properties for its potential reuse as high quality compost. A total 150 kg of working volume was fixed for composting studies with two different ratios, trial A (6:3:1) of C/N 24 and trial B (8:1:1) of C/N 30, respectively. A maximum of $63.5^{\circ}C$ and $61.2^{\circ}C$ was observed in trials A and B; an average of $55^{\circ}C$ for more than 5 days, which helped in the degradation of organic matter and reduction of total and fecal coliform. The temperature dropped suddenly after the thermophilic stage in trial B, and leachate was observed due to insufficient amount of bulking agent. Mesophilic bacteria dominated during the initial stages of composting, and reduced considerably during the thermophilic stage. During the thermophilic stage, the rise in spore-forming organisms, including spore-forming bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes and streptomycetes, increased and these were predominant until the end of the composting process. By examination, it was observed that moisture and leachate production had adverse effects on the compost parameters with higher loss of micronutrients and heavy metals.