• Title, Summary, Keyword: Rock-carved Buddha

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Dispersion of Standing Stones at Noseongsan(Mt.Noseong) and Aspect of the Stone Decorated Garden(Soo-suk Jeongwon) at Chongsuk-Sa(Chongsuk Buddhist Temple) in Nonsan City (논산 노성산(魯城山)의 입석(立石) 분포와 총석사(叢石寺) 수석(樹石)의 정원적 면모)

  • Rho, Jae Hyun;Huh, Joon;Jang, Il Young
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.160-189
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    • 2010
  • This study has been designed to grasp the present situation, shapes and meaning of the standing stones and rock pillars in the whole area of Noseong Mountain Fortress in Nonsan City which have never been academically reported yet. Accordingly, the research was carried out to grasp the spatial identity of Noseong Mt. and Noseong Mountain Fortress and the dispersion of standing stones scattered around inside and outside Noseong Mountain Fortress, while the shapes and structural characteristics of stones were investigated and analyzed focusing on Chongsuk Temple, which was considered to have the highest density of standing stones and greatest values for preservation as a cultural property. In consideration of the reference to the 'Top Sa' (tower temple) at the 'Bul Woo Jo' (Article about Buddhism Houses) of 'Shinjoong Dongguk Yeoji Seungram', theoretical existence of the temple according to surveying investigation, and the excavation records of roof tile pieces with the name of 'Gwan Eum Temple', it is presumed that there had been a Buddhist sanctum inside the fortress and it could be connected to the carved letters, 'Chongsuk Temple'. According the observation survey, the 6th place of standing stones among many other places inside the fortress shows that Chongsuk Temple appears to have the strong characteristics of artificially constructed space in consideration of the size of trees and stones, the composite trend of tree and stone composition, and trace of the adjacent well and strand and the construction of stairway leading to the stone gate. Along with the constellation of the Big Dipper carved on a rock at the same space, the stones, on which the letters of 'Shinseonam', 'Chilseongam' and 'Daejangam' were carved, including 'Chongsuksa', and the carved statue of Buddha, which was assumed to be Avalokitesvara Guan Yin, have offered clue which make it possible to infer that the space was a space for Chilseong and Mountain god(Folk Belief) that had originated from the combination of Buddhism, Taoism and folk religion. According to the actual measurement of standing stones at Chonsuk Temple, it was identified that there were big differences in height among 24 stones in total, ranging from 402~29cm and the averaged distance between each stone appeared to be 23.6cm. And the shape of stones appeared to be standing or flat, and various stones such as mountain-like stones and Buddha-like stones were placed in a special arrangement or assorted arrangement, but the direction of the stones had a consistency pointing to the west. And comparing to the trace of construction of ZEN Landscape Garden well known in the country, the three flat stones except for the standing and shaped stones appeared to have the shape of meditation statue, which is the typical formational factors of a ZEN Landscape Garden, on the basis of formational technique of stones. Among them, the flat stone facing the Buddhist saint statue, was formed by way of symbolization of three-mountain stone, which was assumed to be an offering stone for sacrificial food rather than carrying out ZEN Meditation. In consideration of the formation of standing stones at Chong-suk Temple, which was carried out in the composite stoning method based using the scalene triangle with ratio of 3:5:7 in order to seek the in-depth beauty based on the stone statues of three Buddhas where the three factors such as heaven, earth and humans are embodied in the elevated or flat formation, the stones at Chongsuk Temple and the space seemed to the trace of contracted garden construction that was formed with stones for a temple, so that could be used for ZEN meditation.

A Study on the Relief-Stupa of Indian Cave Temple (인도 석굴사원의 Relief Stupa 연구)

  • Kim, Jun-O;Cheon, Deuk-Youm
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.7-24
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    • 2012
  • The Buddhist cave temple carved into the rock provides a large space for the ritual in general in which a structure of Stupa is built in the center of the space purely for religious worship empty of Sarira, and the temple is formed around this Stupa. Relief-Stupa of the cave temple indicates the similar shape that of Relief-religious worship of flat land temple. However, there appears a small difference in representation since the background of formation of the cave temple differs in that of flat land temple. Specially, Caitya Stupa of currently existing cave temples have been damaged to lose of their original shape only possible to be analyzed the stylistic development through Relief-Stupa from which the characteristic of Stupa could be understood. The early cave temple could be characterized with a balanced structure consists of upturn bowl, steeple stone with simple drum & Hamikawasnagae, in which it appears strongly the detail factor characteristics of drum & steeple of having system with Caitya Stupa. In the post cave temple, the subject of worship moved to statue of Buddha due to the influence of Gandhara, Mathura art which reduced the importance of Stupa. This illustrates in Relief-stupa as well the style change as well as changes in detail factor. The sculpture appeared at the limited location either the wall of Caitya shrine or pillar in vihara cave with stronger decorative meaning. Contrast to the Relief Stupa of early flat land temples or the cave temples mentioned above sculptured with symbolism, however, the post cave temple showed the relief structure based on the plan of flat plan.

A Study on the Multi-Layer of Religious Inertia Represented in Sense of Place and Cultural Remains at Mt. Bak-wha (장소성과 문화경관으로 해석한 태안 백화산의 다층적 종교 관성)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Park, Joo-Sung;Goh, Yeo-Bin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.36-48
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    • 2010
  • The objectives of this study are to research and analyze the positioning of Mt. Back Hwa(白華山) and the characteristics of its neighboring cultural scenery based on the Two Seated Buddah Temple, a small Buddhist temple of Taeul in Taean and to view both landscape geographic codes and religious attractions over Mt. Back Hwa by discussing its expression and meaning for the scenery scattered or nested over this districts. The panoramic view of west shows the character of Mt. Back Hwa as a magnanimity of Buddhist Goddess of Mercy which is viewed as a view point field no less than its location as a landscape target and its singularity as a rocky mountain. The ancient castle, signal beacon post and the small Buddhist temple of Taeul to be read importantly in the old map and SinjeungDongkukyeojiseungram(新增東國輿地勝覽) form the core of place identity, and a number of carve(engrave) letters such as Eopungdae(御風臺), Youngsadae(永思臺), etc. show the prospect of this mountain and monumentality derived from place characteristics. In addition removing of Taeiljeon, a portrait scroll of Dangun, national ancestor makes possible to guess the national status hold by Mt. Back Hwa in advance and to know that it has symbiotic relationship with indigenous religion and shares with the universal locality which have been continued for a long time through a portrait scroll of Dangun enshrined in Samsunggak. More than anything else, however the Rock-carved Buddha Triad in Taean, Giant Buddha of Baekjae era enshrined in the small Buddhist temple of Taeul is not only why Mt. Back Hwa, magnanimity of Buddhist Goddess of Mercy exists but also a signifier. In spite of such a placity, the union ideas of confucianism, buddhism and doctrinism of buddhism prevailed in the Late Joseon Dynasty allows the cultural phenomenon of taoism to be read in the same weight through Ilsogae(一笑溪) and Gammodae(感慕臺) which are mountain stream and pond area respectively centered in the carve letter, 'Taeeuldongcheon(太乙洞天)' constructed in front of the small Buddhist temple of Taeul, the Baduk board type of rock carvings engraved over them and a number of traces of carve letters made by confucian scholars since the Middle of Joseon Dynasty. The reason such various cultural sceneries are mixed in Mt. Back Hwa is in the results of inheritance of religious places and fusion of sprit of the times, and the various type of cultural scenery elements scattered in Mt. Back Hwa are deemed as unique geographic code to understand the multi-layered placity and the characteristics of scenery of Mt. Back Hwa in Taean.