• Title, Summary, Keyword: Rock-carved Buddha

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Deterioration Evaluation and Material Characteristics of the Usuki Stone Buddha Statues in Oita, Japan (일본 오이타현 우스키 마애불상군의 재질특성 및 손상도 평가)

  • Cho, Ji-Hyun;Lee, Chan-Hee;Kim, Ji-Young;Morii, Masayuki;Lee, Myeong-Seong;Kim, Sa-Dug
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.39-52
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    • 2012
  • The Usuki Stone Buddha Statues in Oita are consisted of 60 Buddhas which represent of Japan carved on the rock-cliff in the 12 to 14th centuries. The basement rock of the statues is dark gray welded lapilli tuff that containing the Aso-4 pyroclastic rock group. Deterioration maps for the Hoki I and the Furuzono Buddha Statues group show multi-directional fissures on the Cakra, and sheeting-off zone at the margin of uprising water. Deterioration rate of the Hoki I group was calculated fissure about 121 in number, 19% of sheeting-off zone and 51% of biological weathering in surface of area. And the Furuzono group was also evaluated as about 48 of fissures in number, 24% of sheeting-off zone and 41% biological weathering. The slope stability assessment results, the Hoki I developed discontinuous planes has possibility of planar, toppling and wedge failures in all caves. Ultrasonic velocity of the Aizen-myooh (basement rock) ranges from 1,520 to 2,794 (average 2,298m/s). And pedestal of Amita-yeorae which has been replaced by new fresh rock is measured as 3,242 to 4,141 (average 3,813m/s). Therefore, we establish of planing conservation treatment and reinforcement methods to fissure, cavity, sheeting-off zone in the Buddha surface.

Detailed Deterioration Evaluation and Analysis of Conservation Environment for the Seosanmaaesamjonbulsang (Rock-carved Triad Buddha in Seosan), Korea (서산마애삼존불상의 정밀 손상도 평가와 보존환경 분석)

  • Lee, Sun-Myung;Lee, Chan-Hee;Kim, Ji-Young
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.277-294
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    • 2010
  • The Seosanmaaesamjonbulsang (National Treasure No. 84) consists of light gray and coarse to mediumgrained biotite granite with partly developed pegmatite and quartz vein. The host rock is divided into dozens of rock blocks with various shape along irregular discontinuity plane. The evaluation results of discontinuity systems reveal that the host rock were exposed to instable sloping environments. Results of deterioration diagnosis show that the degree of damage has been made worse by physical weathering and surface discoloration laying stress on part that vertical and horizontal joints are massed. Generally, deterioration rate of the triad Buddha surface cover with 42.7%, however, the rate of physical weathering and surface discoloration are subdivided to 9.6% and 33.1%, respectively. Ultrasonic measurements indicate that the triad Buddha was reached highly weathered grade in general. And the rock material was weaken to show low velocity zone of 1,000m/s along irregular joint systems. Indoor and outdoor mean relative humidity of the shelter was recorded more than 70% during every season, and high frequency appears in high relative humidity range over 95%. Such environments seem to have produced dew condensation on the rock surface with rainfall and supply water, promoted physical, chemical and biological weathering along crack and joint, resulting in high permeation of water and percentage of water content. Therefore, it is judged that for scientific conservation of the triad Buddha it needs environment control through persistent preservation environment monitoring including water problem.

Precisely Nondestructive Diagnosis and Slope Stability of the Bonghwa Bukjiri Maaeyeoraejwasang (Rock-Carved Seated Buddha Statue), Korea (봉화 북지리마애여래좌상의 비파괴 정밀진단과 사면안정성 분석)

  • Cho, Ji-Hyun;Jo, Young-Hoon;Chun, Yu-Gun;Choi, Joon-Hyun;Lee, Chan-Hee
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.121-132
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    • 2010
  • The Bukjiri Maaeyeoraejwasang (National Treasure No. 201) consists of two-mica granite in medium size, which was the simbol of power in the region of the Silla period. Magnetic susceptibility of the host rock was measured as 0.41(${\times}10^{-3}$ SI unit), which has the similar range with surrounding outcrop. The Buddha developed parallel discontinuous plane of NE to SW strike and damaged seriously by exfoliation, granular disintegration and brown discoloration as 41.5%, 16.7% and 40.0%, respectively. As a result of the ultrasonic velocity, which was relatively weak values as 1,629m/s (Buddha area) and 1,549m/s (surrounding outcrop), improved about 900m/s compared to last treatment. From the results of the evaluation for slope stability, identified the possibility of toppling failure in the Buddha, and planar and wedge failure in host rock. Therefore, we suggest for the safely conservation of the Buddha, continuance monitoring for understand behavior of discontinuity system of the surface, and necessitate foundation reinforcement method for the rock which has the danger of collapse.

The Interpreggtation of the Indian Stupa as Origin of Korean Pagoda (탑의 원조 인도 스투파의 형태 해석 - 인도 전역의 현장 답사를 바탕으로 -)

  • Lee, Hee-Bong
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.103-126
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    • 2009
  • This study aims to discover historical trends and change of form of all stupas in India with observation of field study that is as direct as possible, by classifying, analyzing, and synthesizing the stupas. Study of Indian stupa in Korea has a number of shortcomings since only introductory partial approach has been made in order to seek the origin of Korean pagoda. This study also aims to correct errors of stupa terminology in Chinese character committed by misinterpretation of Hindi language which was established by precedent Japanese scholars several decades ago. Piled-up stupas were totally destroyed by pagans, therefore their remains tell us only of structure, material, sizeand disposition. However remains of carved stone at torana and drum give us clues as to the original form of stupa and worshipping activity, as well as change to a more luxurious form. Many rock cave stupas of India show us both simple forms matching the ascetic age of early Buddhism and luxurious changes in Mahayanan era introducing us to statues of Buddha. Indians recovered the spheric form of 'anda,' a Hindi term meaning cosmic egg, from the hemispheric form of the piled-up stupa. Therefore we might discard the erratic term of 'bokbal', which means an upset vessel. Railings and parasols became main factors of stupa design. Carved railings around stupa became a sign of divinity. Serious worshipping activity made drums long or high and created multi-embossed stripes. Bases of circular drums of some cave stupas changed their shapes to rectangular or octagonal. Single parasols became multiparasols of affluent flowerlike curved stems on carved stupa. Multistoried, elongated and high parasols of Gandhara stupas are closely related to such factors as diverse changes of form in Indian subcontinent. Four-sided torana gate and ayaka column of the circular form of original stupas suggest the rectangular form of subsequent East Asian pagoda, and higher and wider base of Indian stupas became the origin of East Asian rectangular pagoda.

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The present situation of shelter and case study of stone cultural heritage (석조문화재 보호각 현황과 사례연구)

  • Shin, Eun-Jeong;Kim, Sa-Dug;Eom, Doo-Sung
    • 보존과학연구
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    • pp.103-120
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    • 2010
  • Most of the important stone cultural heritage (National treasures and Treasures) in Korea are mainly located outdoor and considerably affected by the changes of the temperature, humidity and rainfalls. 541 of the stone cultural heritage are preserved as National treasure and Treasure. The pagodas occupy 187 remains and next 127 Buddha statues, 68 monuments, 60 stupas, and the others 74 stone cultural heritages. The shelter has been installed for one pagoda, 60 Buddha statues, 36 monuments and two stupas. The shelters are categorized in three shapes as traditional shape, modern shape, and others (tradition+modern). Approximately 100 of shelters that have constructed in traditional ways, and about nine of shelters have modern ways, and the only one has the combination shape of tradition and modern, which has been constructed since mid 1900s and repaired from the 1980s~2000s. Many researchers are studying for improvement of manners such as repairing, remodeling or removing of the shelter because problems have occured on shelters. Architectural form of traditional style of Korean timber building is respected, but it has problems on importing natural sunlight to the inside as well as ventilation and spacial problems. However, it needs to supplement policies to improve the positive roles of shelters such as prevention of artificial damage, blocking acid rain, and so on. For instance, the rock-carved Buddha Triad in Seosan, it had problems with viewing, contamination, and dew condensation on the surface. These problems decreased after dismantling the shelter, the space was made for improvement of viewing and dew condensation, and moisture problems were in better conditions. The velocity wind is an important factor in drying conditions on the surface of the rock, therefore the condition has improved after dismantling the shelter.

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Material Characteristics and Application Efficiency of Treatments for Usuki Stone Buddha Statues in Japan (일본 우스키 석불군의 재질특성과 보존처리제 적용 효과)

  • Lee, Myeong Seong;Lee, Jae Man;Lee, Sun Myung;Kim, Sa Dug;Morii, Masayuki
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.78-91
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    • 2011
  • The Usuki Stone Buddha Statues in Japan are carved on mainly dark gray welded lapilli tuff accompanied by lenticular fiamme. This rock is composed of matrix which contains feldspar and opaque minerals with some phenocrysts of quartz and feldspar. The matrix is slight to highly welded. The statues have been weathered and weakened by salt and freezing of water. To enhance the mechanical properties of the rock, consolidants and water repellents were applied. The absorption ratio of the rock was highly decreased after the treatment of the water repellents, the consolidant OH 100, as well. Ultrasonic velocity revealed similarly higher values in the treated rock by KSE 300 and OH 100, compared to non-treated rock. KSE 300, especially, highly increased the Equotip surface hardness. All studied consolidants and water repellents were found to change the original color of the stone. SNL, specifically, resulted the significant change in color. In addition, KSE 300 were observed to improve resistance to weathering such as microcrack and fracture through freezing-thawing test after treatment.

The Precise Three Dimensional Phenomenon Modeling of the Cultural Heritage based on UAS Imagery (UAS 영상기반 문화유산물의 정밀 3차원 현상 모델링)

  • Lee, Yong-Chang;Kang, Joon-Oh
    • Journal of Cadastre & Land InformatiX
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.85-101
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    • 2019
  • Recently, thank to the popularization of light-weight drone through the significant developments in computer technologies as well as the advanced automated procedures in photogrammetry, Unmanned Aircraft Systems have led to a growing interest in industry as a whole. Documentation, maintenance, and restoration projects of large scaled cultural property would required accurate 3D phenomenon modeling and efficient visual inspection methods. The object of this study verify on the accuracies achieved of 3D phenomenon reconstruction as well as on the validity of the preservation, maintenance and restoration of large scaled cultural property by UAS photogrammetry. The test object is cltural heritage(treasure 1324) that is the rock-carved standing Bodhisattva in Soraesan Mountain, Siheung, documented in Goryeo Period(918-1392). This standing Bodhisattva has of particular interests since it's size is largest stone Buddha carved in a rock wall and is wearing a lotus shaped crown that is decorated with arabesque patterns. The positioning accuracy of UAS photogrammetry were compared with non-target total station survey results on the check points after creating 3D phenomenal models in real world coordinates system from photos, and also the quantified informations documented by Culture Heritage Administration were compared with UAS on the bodhisattva image of thin lines. Especially, tests the validity of UAS photogrammetry as a alternative method of visual inspection methods. In particular, we examined the effectiveness of the two techniques as well as the relative fluctuation of rock surface for about 2 years through superposition analysis of 3D points cloud models produced by both UAS image analysis and ground laser scanning techniques. Comparison studies and experimental results prove the accuracy and efficient of UAS photogrammetry in 3D phenomenon modeling, maintenance and restoration for various large-sized Cultural Heritage.

Deterioration of the Rock-carved Seated Buddha at Golguram Hermitage, Gyeongju and Effect of the Ethylsilicate Consolidant (경주 골굴암 마애여래좌상 구성암석의 손상과 에틸실리케이트 암석강화제의 효과)

  • Do, Jin Young
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.71-81
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    • 2017
  • Rock properties and the effects of chemicals that were used for conservation were studied for effective conservation treatment of Seated Buddha rock carving, which is composed of grayish white tuff, at Golguram Hermitage, Gyeongju. The rocks contain 3-5% montmorillonite, a swelling mineral and reacting with water, the d spacing of swelling minerals was increased (1.54-2.69%). On the one hand, the physical properties of the rock samples, such as surface hardness, water absorption rate, and porosity improved after the application of ethyl silicate-based stone strengthener. On the other, the interlayer of swelling minerals decreased and greater the of swelling mineral content, the greater is the extent of swelling (4.23-12.12%). When the ethyl silicate-based stone strengthener was applied after pretreatment with a swelling inhibitor, the physical properties were similar to those of the stone strengthener alone. There was no interlayer spacing change of swelling minerals due to swelling inhibition treatment; however, when the stone strengthener was applied after the swelling inhibitor, interlayer changes were similar to those when only the stone strengthener was treated (4.10-11.85%). Though the peak intensity of swelling minerals in X-ray diffraction pattern decreased, the effect of the swelling inhibitor was almost negligible. Therefore, it is not appropriate to use ethyl silicate-based stone strengthener for Golgulam rock containing swelling minerals and supplementing them with a swelling inhibition system is not effective. Because weathering rapidly progresses when swelling minerals contact moisture, for now, measures to prevent water contact, such as expansion of the canopy, are needed in the lower and side parts of the carving.

Field Experiments of Consolidant and Filler for Stone Cultural Heritage: Primary Verification Using Ultrasonic Velocity (석조문화재 적용을 위한 강화제 및 충전제 현장실험 : 초음파 속도를 이용한 일차검증)

  • Song, Chi-Young;Jun, Byung-Kyu;Han, Min-Su;Lee, Jang-Jon;Kim, Sa-Dug
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.87-100
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    • 2009
  • We carried out the effect verification of conservation treatment focusing on basement rock of alkali granite at the Yukjonbul (two-pairs of Buddha Triads) carved on rock cliff of Samneung valley in Namsan mountain of Gyeongju. The conservation treatments were used to ethylsilicate-type rock consolidant and epoxy-type resin. It is treatment method that the epoxy-type resin have been applied one time into the exfoliation area, after rock consolidation treatment have been worked for three times. As the result of measuring ultrasonic velocity, P-wave velocity of the exfoliation area was relatively increased after applied the conservation treatments. The ultrasonic velocity of all area was increased as 27.8%. This result has been proved with consolidation effects by consolidant and filler for stone cultural heritages. The treatment method should be worked about three time to consolidate sufficiently for rocks.

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A study of Jeju Buddhist art and Bok-sin Maitreyas (제주의 불교미술과 자복미륵)

  • Lee, Kyung-Hwa
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.104-121
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the Buddhist art in Jeju which has rarely been in the mainstream discussions about the Korean art by focusing on the statues of Jabok Mireuk, or Maitreya of Wealth and Fortune. The Buddhist art in Jeju reached its heyday during the late phase of the Goryeo period (918-1392). The imperial court of Yuan (1271-1368) established Beophwasa, one of its guardian temples which was also a "complementary temple" of Goryeo (918-1392). In 1296, the community of monks based in Myoryeonsa Temple published the Jeju edition of the Buddhist canon granted by the royal court of Goryeo, contributing to the foundation of the island's academic culture. Other items representing the heyday of the Buddhist art of Jeju include the Vajra Guardian carved on the greenschist pagoda of Sujeongsa Temple built during the late Goryeo period and the Five-story Stone Pagoda of Bultapsa Temple made from the locally obtained basalt rock during the early $14^{th}$ century. The Buddhist art of Jeju during the Joseon period (1392-1910) is represented by Jabok Mireuk, or Maitreya of Wealth and Fortune, a pair of stone statues of Maitreya Buddha carved to feature three aspects of the Maitreya worship spread among the local folks in the period. Each of the statues is in a peaked cap and official's robe and characterized by bulging eyes comparable to those of the Buddhist guardian deities such as the Vajra guardian who were designed to protect a sacred area against evil forces. The Maitreya statues provide valuable sources of knowledge about the types of Maitreya adopted by the worshippers of local folk religion in the Joseon period. The Jabok Mireuk statues in Jeju can be easily compared with the Two Rock-carved Standing Buddhas in Yongmi-ri, Paju (1471), and the two standing stone Buddhas in Daeseongsa Temple in Okcheon (ca 1491) and on the Sipsinsa Temple site in Gwangju in that they all wear peaked caps in the "treasure canopy" style which gained popularity during the early Joseon period. One may conclude then that these statues are related with the Neo-Confucian elites who wanted the Joseon dynasty they established to prosper under the auspices of the Buddha of the Future. Interestingly, the enshrinement of the stone Buddha of Daeseongsa Temple is presumed to have been participated by Yuk Han who had served as the Governor (Moksa) of Jeju, suggesting its connection with the Jabok Mireuk despite the regional difference in their style.