• Title, Summary, Keyword: Rock-carved Buddha

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Petrological Studies of the Buddha Image Carved on Rock Surface at the Gyeongju Namsan Area, Korea - A Case Study of the Seated Buddha Image Carved on Rock Surface of Yuneulgok in Bae-ri, Gyeongju - (경주 남산 마애불 암석의 물리적 특성연구 - '경주배리윤을곡마애불좌'을 중심으로 -)

  • Song, Chi-young;Han, Min-su;Lee, Jang-jon;Jun, Byung-kyu
    • 보존과학연구
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    • pp.39-58
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    • 2007
  • The Seated Buddha image carved on rock surface of Yuneulgok in Bae-ri, Gyeongju constituted of alkali feldspar granite. There is surface weathering by abrasion, exfoliation and break out. As a result various experiment was carried out testing rock material property to quantitatively grade weathering. Besides, this study is focused on properties of rock and correlation between things. Additionally, comparison of chemical properties to nondestructive weathering grade in the buddha image carved on rock. This result utilized on important resource for scientific conservation system compared with weathering appearance.

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Conservation of the Seosanmaaesamjonbulsang (Rock-carved Triad Buddha in Seosan), Korea (서산 용현리 마애여래삼존상의 보존처리)

  • Min, Won Geun;Jong, Hee Su;Yang, Hee Jae
    • 보존과학연구
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    • pp.73-86
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    • 2014
  • The Seosanmaaesamjonbulsang (national treasure 84) is carved has a quite developed tectonic line in a precipitous wall of stratified rock to the vertical and horizontal directions. The main buddha and the left part of it have got the biological weathering and the efflorescence has been detected on the shoulder part of the right buddha. It has been caused by the raindrops from upper rock after the dismantling of the protection shelter in 2007. Two proper measures have been taken in order to reduce the weathering and protect it from some damages. The one is removing the contaminant by dry/wet cleaning not to get any damage on the rock. The other is the isolation by the construction of a new waterway used L-30 on the upper part of the rock not to contaminate the surface of Rock-carved triad buddha with the raindrops from upper rock. Moreover, the sunlight for buddha has been increased and good ventilation has been made by cutting down the trees around the Rock-carved triad buddha.

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Petrographic Characteristics and Deterioration Evaluation of the Rock-carved Seated Buddha at Bugmireugam Hermitage in Daeheungsa Temple of Haenam, Korea (해남 대흥사 북미륵암 마애여래좌상의 암석기재적 특성과 손상도 평가)

  • Cho, Ji Hyun;Lee, Chan Hee
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.617-626
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    • 2019
  • In this study, we investigated the petrographic characteristics and physical property of the Rock-carved Seated Buddha at Bugmireugam hermitage of Daeheungsa temple in Haenam. The Buddha Statue was carved on micrographic granite, and the rock was composed of the fine quartz encircled by orthoclase. The results of diagnosis for deterioration evaluation have shown a highly damage rate of black contaminants (8.4%) and crack index (6.6). The ultrasonic velocity have detected SW (slightly weathered) grade of weathering coefficient (mean 0.18). Various weathering factor on the surface of the Buddha Statue was affected by precious shelter, and physical property with ultrasonic was directly influenced by the structural characteristics and fissure of host rock.

Conservation treatment of the Bonhwa Bukjiri Maaeyeoraejwasang(Rock-Carved Seated Buddha Statue), Korea (봉화 북지리 마애여래좌상의 과학적 보존처리)

  • Kim, Sa-dug;Choi, Joon-Hyun
    • 보존과학연구
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    • pp.6-17
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    • 2013
  • Bukjiri Seated Rock-carved Buddha of Bonghwa is a rock carved Buddhist Statues on the Two-Mica Granite with mid-size grains. The non-destructive diagnosis on the statues showed that their surfaces had been damaged by exfoliation or granular decomposition and their physical properties are also found to be weak. In addition, the evaluation of slope stability showed that there are the possibility of toppling failure, or planar and wedge failure. So, we have recovered the physical strength and structural stability of rock using the scientific conservation treatment. We also founded that the existing shelter was damaged by the poor ventilation and water leakage. So we constructed it in a way that there is no water leakage while the ventilation is good.

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Aesthetics of Samjae and Inequilateral Triangle Found in Ancient Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock - Centering on Formative Characteristics of Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock in Seosan - (고대(古代) 마애삼존불(磨崖三尊佛)에서 찾는 삼재(三才)와 부등변삼각(不等邊三角)의 미학(美學) - 서산마애삼존불의 형식미를 중심으로 -)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Lee, Kyu-Wan;Jang, Il-Young;Goh, Yeo-Bin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.72-84
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    • 2010
  • This study was attempted in order to offer basic data for implementing and applying Samjonseokjo(三尊石造), which is one of traditional stone construction method, by confirming how the constructive principle is expressed such as proportional beauty, which is contained in the modeling of Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock that was formed in the period of the Three States, centering on Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock in Susan. The summarized findings are as follows. 1. As a result of analyzing size and proportion of totally 17 of Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock, the average total height in Bonjonbul(本尊佛) was 2.96m. Right Hyeopsi(右挾侍) was 2.19m. Left Hyeopsi(左挾侍) was 2.16m. The height ratio according to this was 100:75:75, thereby having shown the relationship of left-right symmetrical balance. The area ratio in left-right Hyeopsi was 13.4:13.7, thereby the two area having been evenly matched. 2. The Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock in Seosan is carved on Inam(印岩) rock after crossing over Sambulgyo bridge of the Yonghyeon valley. Left direction was measured with $S47^{\circ}E$ in an angle of direction. This is judged to target an image change and an aesthetic sense in a Buddhist statue according to direction of sunlight while blocking worshipers' dazzling. 3. As for iconic characteristics of Buddha Carved on Rock in Seosan, there is even Hyeopsi in Bangasang(半跏像) and Bongjiboju(捧持寶珠) type Bosangipsang. In the face of Samjon composition in left-right asymmetry, the unification is indicated while the same line and shape are repeated. Thus, the stably visual balance is being shown. 4. In case of Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock in Seosan, total height in Bonjonbul, left Hyeopsi, and right Hyeopsi was 2.80m, 1.66m, and 1.70m, respectively. Height ratio in left-right Hyeopsibul was 0.60:0.62, thereby having been almost equal. On the other hand, the area ratio was 28.8:25.2, thereby having shown bigger difference. The area ratio on a plane was grasped to come closer to Samjae aesthetic proportion. 5. The axial angle of centering on Gwangbae was 84:46:50, thereby having been close to right angle. On the other hand, the axial angle ratio of centering on Yeonhwajwa(蓮華坐: lotus position) was measured to be 135:25:20, thereby having shown the form of inequilateral triangle close to obtuse angle. Accordingly, the upper part and the lower part of Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock in Susan are taking the stably proportional sense in the middle of maintaining the corresponding relationship through angular proportion of inequilateral triangle in right angle and obtuse angle. 6. The distance ratio in the upper half was 0.51:0.36:0.38. On the other hand, the distance ratio in the lower half was 0.53 : 0.33 : 0.27. Thus, the up-down and left-right symmetrical balance is being formed while showing the image closer to inequilateral triangle. 7. As a result of examining relationship of Samjae-mi(三才美) targeting Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock in Susan, the angular ratio was shown to be more notable that forms the area ratio or triangular form rather than length ratio. The inequilateral triangle, which is formed centering on Gwangbae(光背) in the upper part and Yeonhwajwa(lotus position) in the lower part, is becoming very importantly internal motive of doubling the constructive beauty among Samjae, no less than the mutually height and area ratio in Samjonbul.

Deterioration Evaluation and Petrological Characteristics of the Rock‐carved Seated Buddha of Hwasun Unju Temple, Korea (화순 운주사 마애여래좌상의 암석학적 특성 및 손상도 평가)

  • Lee, Jang Jon;Kim, Jae Hwan;Lee, Su Yea
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2017
  • The rock-carved seated Buddha of Unju temple of Hwasun, Jeonnam, the only Triad Buddha among the stone Buddhas of Unju temple, is currently designated as a tangible cultural property No. 275 of Jeollanam-do. The rock of the seated Triad Buddha bedrock is light-green andesitic tuff breccia that is composed of quartz and feldspar. The results of measurement of the whole rock magnetic susceptibility characteristics, the rock consists of a single sedimentary layer from top to bottom. The results of ultrasonic velocity measurement, show that the number of frequency of 1500~2000 m/s increased and the number of frequency of 2000~2500 m/s decreased in 2009 compared to 2015, and the measurement value for 2000 m/s or below was 87.5% in 2015, a 68.8% increase in comparison to that in 2009. Moreover, on the top, bottom, left side, and head areas of the Triad Buddha, a partial expanding tendency was observed in the range of low ultrasonic velocity. As weathering of the Triad Buddha occurs in the long term, on-going monitoring is required to ascertain the degree of change with time.

A Study on the Usefulness of Photogrammetry through 3D Recording of the Rock-carved Standing Buddha in Singyeong-ri, Hongseong (홍성 신경리 마애여래입상의 3차원 기록화를 통한 포토그래메트리의 유용성 연구)

  • Oh, Jun-Young;Kim, Choong-Sik
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.30-43
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study is to improve the usefulness of photogrammetry in the field of cultural heritage recording concentrated on laser scanning. Two measurement methods(laser scanning, photogrammetry) were compared in terms of accuracy and reality for the Rock-carved Standing Buddha in Singyeong-ri, Hongseong. With regard to accuracy, the distances of major points by both shape information and between the two shape information were compared. Only a deviation of about 1mm was found in the distance measurement of the major points by both shape information. In particular, the average distance between two shape information identified through aligning was only about 0.01mm. Also, the absolute deviation within about 2mm accounted for 70% of the total, and the absolute deviation within about 3.5mm was found to be 95.4% of the total. These values showed very high similarity between laser scanning and photogrammetry-based shape information. In respect of reality, the carved depth, texture, and patterns were compared. As a result of comparing four cross-sectional shapes, only slight differences were found in the shape information of both measurement techniques and similar shapes were identified. The overall texture of both shape information was also similar. However, the detailed shape based on the photogrammetry with decimation is realized with a smoother texture than the original and laser scanning. In particular, Photogrammetry also realistically expressed the various ornaments carved in the Rock-carved Buddha and the patterns with shallow depths were comparatively detailed.

Investigation on the Conservation Environment for the Shelter of Stone Cultural Properties (I)-Focused on the Standing Stone Buddhist Triad in Bae-ri, Gyeongju and Rock-carved Triad Buddha in Seosan (석조문화재 보호각의 보존환경 연구(I)-경주배리석불입상, 서산마애삼존불상을 중심으로)

  • Hong, Jung-Ki;Eom, Doo-Sung;Chung, Young-Jae;Masayuki Morii
    • 보존과학연구
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    • pp.141-164
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    • 2005
  • Most of the stone cultural properties is exposed to the weathering factor(rain, windetc.), so the shelter is constructed for reduction of its direct effect. But the shelter is indicated some problems that inharmoniousness of the surroundings, in section disturbance for insufficiency of light, the loss about the value of cultural properties and so on. So we have investigated on environmental condition (temperature, relative humidity, wind etc.) at the Standing Stone Buddhist Triad in Bae-ri, Gyeongju and Rock-carved Triad Buddha in Seosan because check the effect of the shelter. As the result, the Standing Stone Buddhist Triad in Bae-ri, Gyeongju is located a pine wood and a lot of bamboo grow naturally in nearing. Environmental difference on inside and outside of the shelter is not found because opened on all sides. But there is so dim for the direction of the sunlight that can't see the Standing Stone Buddhist. The base rock of Rock-carved Triad Buddha in Seosan well develop with crack and break, and the vegetation(trees, moss, lichen etc.) grow naturally in surroundings. Environmental difference on inside and outside of the shelter is found because closed on all sides and opened the front gate only inspection time. Inside of the shelter was too calm(air-velocity not detected) and humid(over 75%RH). Also the surface is occurred the dew(at 2-4 pm) and the efflorescence for effect of the water(rain, dew etc.). Besides the head of the central Buddhist is so dangerous for crack.

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Long Term Monitoring of Deterioration Condition for the Rock-carved Buddha Triad in Seosan, Korea (서산 용현리 마애여래삼존상의 장기 모니터링과 훼손상태 변화)

  • Chun, Yu Gun;Lee, Jae Man;Lee, Mi Hye;Park, Sung Mi;Lee, Sun Myung;Lee, Myeong Seong
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.439-446
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    • 2014
  • We carried out monitoring of deterioration condition for the Rock-carved Buddha Triad in Seosan after dismantlement of protective facilities and conservation treatment. As the results of ultrasonic velocity measurement, physical properties of rock were evaluated to maintain similar the past. Result of digital image analysis, white discoloration was reoccured after four years of conservation treatments. And biodeterioration of unknown in the past was generated left side on the Rock-carved Buddha. Phenomenon of biodeterioration on the surface rocks was estimated by variation of sunshine and water contents according to topography condition.

Analysis of Conservation Scientific Deterioration Diagnosis and Conservation Environment of the Samjonbul Carved on Rock Surface in Taean, Korea (태안마애삼존불의 보존과학적 훼손도 진단과 보존환경 분석)

  • Eom, Doo-Sung;Jun, Byung-Kyu;Han, Min-Su;Lee, Jang-Jon;Song, Chi-Young
    • 보존과학연구
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    • pp.19-44
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    • 2008
  • Sam-jon-bul or Three Buddha Image Carved on rock surface which is called Sam-jon-bul in Taean, state-designated national treasure No. 307, made in Baek-je Period, has two Buddha images and one Bodhisattva. The detached part of the Sam-jon-bul from wall rock has been attached through conservation treatment in 1995. Few study has been done on weathering condition of petrological point of view and damage while the surface of the Sam-jon-bul has been under serious weathering (relief) of loosing stone particles, and discoloration. In this study, it was made weathering damage maps, which show physical property of the material and state of damage of Sam-jon-bul, in order to dialogize how far the weathering has been done. It has been considered continuing on-site monitoring as necessity when Sam-jon-bul was covered with dew, which may have been caused by change in weather in and out of the protect building. It is necessary to set up detailed conservation plan for it by doing regular diagnosis on the influence of the protect building and weathering of Sam-jon-bul.

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