• Title, Summary, Keyword: Road

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A Study on the Locational Characteristics and Road System of Existing Old Settlements in Cheongju City (청주 원도심 내 현존하는 옛마을의 입지특성과 가로체계의 변화)

  • Kwon, Mi-Sun;Kim, Tai-Young
    • Journal of the Korean housing association
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.137-144
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study is to clarify locational characteristics and the road systems of existing 22 old settlements in Cheongju downtown of Korea. These old settlements are classified largely into two types by geographical feature; Hill type located in ridge and Valley type in the valley from the ridge. The Hill type is further categorized into San-rock located on ridge and Gogae located on hillside, and the Valley type into closed large and small valley, that is, Daegok and Sogok by the shape and size of the valley. The road systems are classified into outer road, approaching road, inner road, and side road. In San-rock type villages, Inner road is changed side roads by new arterial road, and new ones become inner road. The outer road are almost cut off, but side roads maintain. In the case of the Gogae type, main road becomes inner road, maintain old hierarchical road, and in other cases, villages are formed around side roads derived from main road, and outer road and inner road are cut off. Among the Valley type, Daegok type maintains old hierarchical road, while for Sogok type, outer roads are cut off, and new roads are outer road.

Eco-corridor Positioning for Target Species - By Field Surveying of Mammals' Road-Kill - (목표종 생태통로의 위치선정 -포유류 Road-kill 현장조사를 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Yong-Wook;Lee, Myeong-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.51-58
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this research presents a method to position and makes the structure for eco-corridors reasonably with collectable analysing results of various effects shown in mammals' road-kill at 429 points. Target animals of this research are Leopard cat, Siberian weasel, Raccoon dog, Korean hare, Eurasian red squirrel, Siberian chipmunk and Water deer. The results derived from the empirical analysis on the contents above are followed. First, according to the results as for Leopard cat road kill analysis, which is designated as Endangered Species Class II, the eco-corridor might be located at near village having stead food in order to decrease the frequencies of road-kill, because its road kill points were mainly collected at 4 lane hilly road with mountain-road-farm area geological type of. Second, because Siberian weasel's road kill was detected at 2 lane hilly road with mountain-road-stream geological type, the eco-corridor might be located at near a mill to decrease road-kill frequencies. Third, the road-kill frequency of Eurasian red squirrel can be reduced when the eco-corridor is located at the area across coniferous tree near 4 lane west sea freeway with mountain-road-mountain. Fourth, the road-kill of Raccoon dog can be reduced when the eco-corridor is located at 4 lane mountain road or hilly road with the geological type having farm land-road-mountain(stream). Fifth, Korean hare's road-kill can be reduced when the eco-corridor is located at grass land across ridge line of mountain, because wild rabbit road kill was happened at 4 lane mountain road or 2 lane mountain road(mountain-road-mountain). Sixth, As for Siberian chipmunk, the eco-corridor might be located at the side slope of mountain road at 2 lane mountain road under the speed of 60km/h with mountain-road-mountain. Seventh, For Water deer, the eco-corridor might be located at 4 lane hilly road with mountain-road-farm land. As for Common otter, Amur hedgehog, Yellow-throated marten, Weasel, it is difficult to specify the proper site of eco-corridor due to the lack of data. Eco-corridors for carnivores might be well located at 4 lane hilly road or 2 lane hilly road with mountain-road-farm land, and the track for herbivores might be well located as a overhead bridge on mountain-road-mountain type across mountains. In order to position eco-corridors for wildlife properly, we have to research animal's behavior with ecological background, and to consider the local uniqueness and regularly collect the empirical road-kill data in long term 3 to 5 year, which can be the foundation for the more suitable place of wild life eco-corridors.

Comparison of forest road status and policies between Korea and United States

  • Rhee, Hakjun;Choi, Sungmin;Lee, Joon-Woo;Kweon, Hyeong Keun
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.504-512
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    • 2017
  • Forest roads are essential for forest resource management. This study investigated and compared forest road and road policy data in Korea and the United States to improve future forest road policies in Korea. As compared to the United States (9.5 m/ha), Korea has much lower forest road density (3.19 m/ha) and has been actively constructing new forest roads. The Korea Forest Service leads forest road policy in Korea by providing subsidies for new road construction in non-national forests. The budget for forest roads accounted for 9.1% of the total Korea Forest Service budget in 2010 - 2015 and 73.5% of it was used for new road construction. Korean forest road policies have been distinctively changed over the past decades; e.g., an increase in forest road mileage in the 1990s, an increase in forest road standards in the 2000s, and an increase in the mileage of higher standard roads in the 2010s. In comparison to Korea, the United States has focused on road maintenance and road decommissioning since 2001. The budget for forest roads accounted for 2.9% of the total USDA Forest Service budget in 2011 - 2016 and 82.2% of it was used for operations and maintenance. Our study results suggest that forest road policies in Korea should start focusing on road maintenance and decommissioning, if needed.

Development of Road Surface Temperature Prediction Model using the Unified Model output (UM-Road) (UM 자료를 이용한 노면온도예측모델(UM-Road)의 개발)

  • Park, Moon-Soo;Joo, Seung Jin;Son, Young Tae
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.471-479
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    • 2014
  • A road surface temperature prediction model (UM-Road) using input data of the Unified Model (UM) output and road physical properties is developed and verified with the use of the observed data at road weather information system. The UM outputs of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, downward shortwave radiation, net longwave radiation, precipitation and the road properties such as slope angles, albedo, thermal conductivity, heat capacity at maximum 7 depth are used. The net radiation is computed by a surface radiation energy balance, the ground heat flux at surface is estimated by a surface energy balance based on the Monin-Obukhov similarity, the ground heat transfer process is applied to predict the road surface temperature. If the observed road surface temperature exists, the simulated road surface temperature is corrected by mean bias during the last 24 hours. The developed UM-Road is verified using the observed data at road side for the period from 21 to 31 March 2013. It is found that the UM-Road simulates the diurnal trend and peak values of road surface temperature very well and the 50% (90%) of temperature difference lies within ${\pm}1.5^{\circ}C$ (${\pm}2.5^{\circ}C$) except for precipitation case.

Silver Road Meets Silk Road: Insights about Mexico's Insertion into Silk Road Dynamics

    • Acta Via Serica
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.73-90
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    • 2018
  • The Silk Road tied the globe together for the first time by producing an early globalization phenomenon. Some consider that the ancient Silk Road disintegrated around the $18^{th}$ century CE due to the fall of the Muslim empires and the kingdoms between Asia and Europe. However, the maritime trade among East Asia and the Spanish dominion on the American continent reactivated the ancient Silk Road on some levels, and maintained trade dynamics until the $19^{th}$ century. This was possible because of Mexican silver and trade spots. Notwithstanding its historical background, Mexico seems so far away from the new Silk Road, or the Belt and Road Initiative in the $21^{st}$ century. Thus, this paper analyzes Mexico's historic and current role concerning the Silk Road. First, I conceptualize and compare the ancient Silk Road and Belt and Road Initiative through the lens of complex interdependence theory. I propose that, unlike the ancient Silk Road, the Belt and Road Initiative is a case of an induced complex interdependence. Second, I study the Manila Galleons' dynamics in order to trace the ancient ties with the Silk Road. I emphasize Mexican silver's contribution to East Asian economies and the importance of Mexico's role in the East Asia-Spanish trade. Consequently, I analyze Mexico's position in the Belt and Road Initiative. Finally, I present some concluding remarks about Mexico's role in the Silk Road.

Decision of Road Direction by Polygonal Approximation. (다각근사법을 이용한 도로방향 결정)

  • Lim, Young-Cheol;Park, Jong-Gun;Kim, Eui-Sun;Park, Jin-Su;Park, Chang-Seok
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.1398-1400
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    • 1996
  • In this paper, a method of the decision of the road direction for ALV(Autonomous Land Vehicle) road following by region-based segmentation is presented. The decision of the road direction requires extracting road regions from images in real-time to guide the navigation of ALV on the roadway. Two thresholds to discriminate between road and non-road region in the image are easily decided, using knowledge of problem region and polygonal approximation that searches multiple peaks and valleys in histogram of a road image. The most likely road region of the binary image is selected from original image by these steps. The location of a vanishing point to indicate the direction of the road can be obtained applying it to X-Y profile of the binary road region again. It can successfully steer a ALV along a road reliably, even in the presence of fluctuation of illumination condition, bad road surface condition such as hidden boundaries, shadows, road patches, dirt and water stains, and unusual road condition. Pyramid structure also saves time in processing road images and a real-time image processing for achieving navigation of ALV is implemented. The efficacy of this approach is demonstrated using several real-world road images.

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Contribution of Road Capital in Industry and Optimal Level of Road Capital in South Korea (한국 도로 자본의 산업에 대한 영향과 도로자본 스톡의 최적수준 분석)

  • Kook, Woo Kag
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.137-149
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    • 2013
  • PURPOSES: This study is to suggest the Contribution of Road Capital in Industry and Optimal Level of Road Investment in South Korea METHODS: Based on the literature review, This research is empirically estimated using disaggregate and disaggregated data composed of 10-sectors covering the entire korea economy for the period 1970~2000. The relevant policy questions addressed in this report are : cost reduction and Scale elasticities of road, effect of road capital stock on demand for labor, capital and materials, marginal effect of road, industry TFP growth decomposition, Net Social Rates of Returns, optimal of road capital. RESULTS : The marginal benefits of the road capital at the industry level were calculated using the estimated cost elasticities. Demand for the road capital services varies across industries as do the marginal effects. The marginal benefits are positive for the principal industries. This suggests that for these industries the existing stock of road capital may be under supplied. CONCLUSIONS: This results emerges is that the ratio of the optimum to actual road capital, measured by road, was high at beginning of the period 1970s and declined 1990s. There appears to be evidence of under-investment in road capital. That is continuous and premeditated investment for road which lead to saving time and finance.

Water Quality Characteristics of Nonpoint Pollutants based on the Road Type (도로 유형별 비점오염원의 수질특성)

  • Jang, Dae-Chang;Kang, Seon-Hong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.631-636
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    • 2009
  • This study has its intention to investigate the water quality of non-point source which is runoff from roads. We have classified and selected twelve sites as city road, industrial road, national road and mountain road by considering their traffic volume and surroundings. Water quality was analyzed based on BOD, COD, SS, T-N and T-P and the concentrations were measured by sampling after rainfall with the interval of 10 minutes, 20 minutes, and 30 minutes. BOD was the highest in city road with 57.6 mg/L and the lowest in mountain road with 45.0 mg/L. For COD, the highest concentration in industrial road was 146.5 mg/L and the lowest was in mountain road with 98.0 mg/L. The run off concentration of SS was up to maximum 630.0 mg/L (average 280.4 mg/L) which was remarkable compared to other types of road. It showed its lowest concentration in national road with 76.0 mg/L. T-N and T-P were the highest in industrial road and the lowest in mountain road. We found out that the runoff concentration was high with large amount of traffic volume and it seemed to be high in city road and industrial road where they were largely affected by their surroundings. Relatively, national road and mountain road seemed to show low concentration as they have less traffic volume and less affected by their surroundings.

Fatigue-Decreased Proficiency(FDP) Boundary for Whole-Body Vibration Exposure in Passenger Car Driver (승용차 운전자의 전신진동노출에 대한 피로-감소숙달 경계)

  • Jeung ae Yeal;Lee Ki-Nam
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.1211-1216
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    • 2002
  • To evaluate whole-body vibration(WBV) exposure and fatigue-decreased proficiency(FDP) boundary in passenger car driver, several roads in Busan were divided into 3 types by the condition of road surface; Road 1 was partially damaged, Road 2 was normal without damage, and Road 3 was better than Road 2. The results were following: The highest passenger driver's exposures to whole-body vibration acceleration and fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary at 40km/h were 0.108m/s² and about 2099 minutes in Road 2 for xh axis, 0.134m/s² and about 1585 minutes in Road 2 for yh axis, and 0.183m/s² and about 1053 minutes in Road 2 for zh axis, respectively. The highest passenger driver's exposures to whole-body vibration acceleration and fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary at 80km/h were 0.219m/s² and about 830 minutes in Road 3 xh axis, 0.203m/s² and about 918 minutes in Road 3 for yh axis, and 0.622m/s² and about 195 minutes in Road 1 for zh axis, respectively. The highest vector sums of whole-body vibration exposure at 40km/h and 804km/h were 0.328m/s² in Road 2 and 0.730m/s² in Road 1, respectively. The highest crest factors at 40km/h were 4.25 in Road 1 for xh, 4.51 in Road 3 for yh, and 5.81 in Road 2 for zh, respectively. The highest crest factors at 80km/h were 5.57 in Road 1 for xh, 5.60 in Road 2 for yh, and 6.46 in Road 3 for zh, respectively. The highest transmissibilities of whole-body vibration from floor to seat at 40km/h and 80km/h were 0.89 in Road 3 and 0.82 in Road 3 for xh axis, 0.83 in Road 3 and 0.87 in Road 1 and 2 for yh, and 0.80 in Road 2 and 0.92 in Road 1 tor zh axis, respectively. The highest fatigue-decreased proficiency boundaries for whole-body vibration exposure of passenger car driver in floor and seat were 457 minutes in Road 3 and 583 minutes in Road 3 at 40km/h and 159 minutes in Road 2 and 251 minutes in Road 2 at 80km/h, respectively.

Computation of Optimum Synthetic Road Density for Main and Spur Forest Roads (간선임도와 작업임도를 고려한 복합임도망의 적정밀도 산정)

  • Kweon, Hyeong-keun;Lee, Joon-woo;Rhee, Hakjun;Ji, Byeng-yun;Jung, Do-hyun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.105 no.1
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    • pp.115-121
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to provide the basic policy information for establishing efficient forest-road networks. Synthetic forest-road networks that consist of main and spur roads and forest-road networks with only main road (hereafter called "main-road network") were planned for the five forest-road experimental districts of Korea Forest Service in this study. Road density of the synthetic forest-road networks was calculated and compared with the road density of the main-road networks. The results showed that the optimum road density of the synthetic forest-road networks was 10.1~15.9 m/ha, and the road density of the main-road networks was 8.4~12.4 m/ha. The construction cost of the synthetic forest-road networks was estimated about 1~8% lower than the main-road networks, while the road density was 20~30% greater than the main-road networks. As timber volume and hauling cost increased, the optimum road density of the synthetic forest-road networks increased, within which the road density of highstandard main road rapidly increased. On the other hand, the spur road density increased with slope gradient.