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NUTRITIVE VALUES AND GROWTH RESPONSE OF CATTLE FED AMMONIA TREATED RICE STRAW

  • Maeng, W.J.;Chung, T.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 1989
  • Nutritive values and fermentation rates of rice straw treated with 3% anhydrous and 3% aqueous ammonia were evaluated both in vitro and sheep metabolism trials. Daily gain, feed efficiency and feed cost per gain were also determined with growing Holstein bulls fed anhydrous and aqueous ammonia treated rice straw. Crude protein was increased 2.4 fold and NDF was decreased 6.5%, but ADF and cellulose were not different between untreated and ammonia treated rice straw. An average of 35.5% of total added ammonia-N retained in the rice straw and other 64.5% was not retained in the rice straw. Ammonia treatment increased in vitro DM, NDF, ADF and cellulose digestibilities by 44.8%, 43.3%, 49.4% and 42.4%, respectively, and fermentation rates by 63.3%, 132.4%, 49.4% and 42.4%, respectively. In sheep metabolism trials, DM digestibilities of rice straw treated with anhydrous and aqueous ammonia were increased 22% and 36%, respectively, and digestible DM intakes by 48% and 70%, respectively in sheep fed anhydrous and aqueous ammonia treated rice straw over untreated rice straw. Rumen ammonia and blood urea were considerably higher in sheep fed ammonia treated rice straw than sheep fed untreated rice straw. Daily gain of Holstein bulls was increased 20.8% and 29.9% and rice straw intakes were increased 28.4% and 44.3% in anhydrous and aqueous ammonia treated rice straw over untreated rice straw. Feed conversion was improved 9.5% and 10.3% and feed cost/gain was reduced 7.1% and 9.2% respectively in anhydrous and aqueous ammonia treated rice straw group as compared with untreated rice straw group.

Physical and Mechanical Properties of Rice Straw Ash Concrete (볏짚재 콘크리트의 물리.역학적 특성)

  • 성찬용;김영익
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.103-108
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    • 1998
  • This study examines the physical and mechanical properties of the concrete using rice straw ash. Materials used for this experiment are rice straw ash, normal portland cement, superplasticizer, natural sand and gravel. Test results show that the unit weights of concrete using rice straw ash were decreased 1 ∼ 3% and the highest strengths were achieved by 5% filled rice straw ash concrete, with increase of compressive strength by 19%, tensile strength by 53% and bending strength by 16%, as compared with those of the normal cement concrete. The strength ratio of rice straw ash concrete was higher than that of the normal cement concrete. Also, the durability against sulfuric acid 5% solution was increased with increase of the content of rice straw ash. It was 1.33 times of the normal cement concrete by 10% filled rice straw ash concrete and 1.47 times by 15% filled rice straw ash concrete, respectively Accordingly, rice straw ash concrete will greatly improve the properties of concrete.

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Effect on Plant Growth and Antibiosis of Rice Straw Liquor Extracted from Rice Straw (볏짚에서 추출한 짚초액의 식물성장에 대한 영향과 항균 효과)

  • Kang, Hwa-Young;Kim, Se-Hoon;Kim, Young-Ju;Park, Sang-Sook
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.178-186
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    • 2009
  • Rice straw liquid was prepared from rice straw using simple pyrolysis furnace, and its effects on plant growth and antibiosis were investigated. Effects of straw liquid on plant growth of Oryza sativa L., Glycine max Merr. and Lactuca sativa L. and antibiosis of bacteria and mold of rice straw liquid were studied. Th rice straw liquid showed good results on plant growth and multiplication. Rice straw liquid showed a little antibiosis on bacteria but non antibiosis on mold. Rice straw liquid had minimal inhibitory concentration of 2.5-5% for bacteria.

Macro- and Micro-nutrient Utilization and Milk Production in Crossbred Dairy Cows Fed Finger Millet (Eleucine coracana) and Rice (Oryza sativa) Straw as Dry Roughage Source

  • Gowda, N.K.S.;Prasad, C.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.48-53
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    • 2005
  • Finger millet straw and rice straw are the major source of dry roughage in southern India. They distinctly vary in their morphological and nutritional characters. Hence an effort was made to study the nutrient utilization, milk yield and composition in crossbred dairy cows fed either finger millet (group 1) or rice straw (group 2) as a source of dry roughage. The cows in both the groups were fed as per requirement with concentrate, green fodder and straw in the ratio of 30:45:25 parts (DM). At the end of 50 days of preliminary feeding a digestibility trial was conducted for 7 days and pooled samples of feed, fodder, feces, urine and milk were analysed for macro and micro nutrient content. Finger millet straw contained more CP, Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Zn and Co than rice straw and rice straw contained higher ADF, ash and silica. The intake of DM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF and most micronutrients (Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Co) was significantly higher in cows fed finger millet straw. The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF and ADF was significantly higher in cows fed finger millet straw and the gut absorption of Ca, Cu, Mn and Co was significantly higher in cows fed finger millet straw. The dietary requirement of all micronutrients in both the group of cows could be met irrespective of the type of roughage fed except that of Ca, which was low (0.61 and 0.40%) in rice straw fed cows. The average daily milk yield (L/cow) was also higher (7.0 L) in cows fed finger millet straw as compared to cows fed rice straw (6.3 L). The average milk composition also did not differ except that of milk fat which was significantly (4.7 and 4.5%) low in cows fed rice straw. The overall results of this study have indicated that finger millet straw is a better source of dry fodder than rice straw and while feeding rice straw as the sole roughage to dairy cows there is need to supplement additional calcium as this could be one of the limiting nutrients for milk production.

Remediation of Oil Contaminated Soils by Rice Straw Ash (Rice Straw Ash를 이용한 유류오염토양 정화)

  • 정경원;장성호
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.12 no.7
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    • pp.783-789
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to reuse the rice straw ash as washing agent for oil contaminated soils. The results are summarized as follows. The physical characteristics of rice straw before and after burning were as follows ; In case of burning rice straw 1g, the rice straw ash was generated 0.14g and pH was changed neutrality into alkali(pH 10.9) and specific surface area was increased to five times and particle distribution was corresponded to fine silt.(under 0.05mm) The physical characteristics of rice straw ash were Carbon 10.9%, Hydrogen 1.5%, Oxygen 23.4%, Nitrogen 5.2%, Sulfate 1.2% and chemical characteristics were Si 189.2ppm, Ca 10.2ppm, Mg 4.7ppm. Oil cleanup ratio by pH variation were about 40∼50% of initial concentration of oil by pH 10∼11. As the result of cleanup comparative experiment, the rice straw ash was about 20∼30%, the tritonX-100 about 40∼50% of washing efficiency, and then in the future it will be possibility of substitute washing agent.

Fungal Diversity of Rice Straw for Meju Fermentation

  • Kim, Dae-Ho;Kim, Seon-Hwa;Kwon, Soon-Wo;Lee, Jong-Kyu;Hong, Seung-Beom
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.23 no.12
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    • pp.1654-1663
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    • 2013
  • Rice straw is closely associated with meju fermentation and it is generally known that the rice straw provides meju with many kinds of microorganisms. In order to elucidate the origin of meju fungi, the fungal diversity of rice straw was examined. Rice straw was collected from 12 Jang factories where meju are produced, and were incubated under nine different conditions by altering the media (MEA, DRBC, and DG18), and temperature ($15^{\circ}C$, $25^{\circ}C$, and $35^{\circ}C$). In total, 937 strains were isolated and identified as belonging to 39 genera and 103 species. Among these, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Eurotium, Fusarium, and Penicillium were the dominant genera. Fusarium asiaticum (56.3%), Cladosporium cladosporioides (48.6%), Aspergillus tubingensis (37.5%), A. oryzae (31.9%), Eurotium repens (27.1%), and E. chevalieri (25.0%) were frequently isolated from the rice straw obtained from many factories. Twelve genera and 40 species of fungi that were isolated in the rice straw in this study were also isolated from meju. Specifically, A. oryzae, C. cladosporioides, E. chevalieri, E. repens, F. asiaticum, and Penicillium polonicum (11.8%), which are abundant species in meju, were also isolated frequently from rice straw. C. cladosporioides, F. asiaticum, and P. polonicum, which are abundant in the low temperature fermentation process of meju fermentation, were frequently isolated from rice straw incubated at $15^{\circ}C$ and $25^{\circ}C$, whereas A. oryzae, E. repens, and E. chevalieri, which are abundant in the high temperature fermentation process of meju fermentation, were frequently isolated from rice straw incubated at $25^{\circ}C$ and $35^{\circ}C$. This suggests that the mycobiota of rice straw has a large influence in the mycobiota of meju. The influence of fungi on the rice straw as feed and silage for livestock, and as plant pathogens for rice, are discussed as well.

Characteristics of Digestion Dynamics of Rice and Oat Straw Relating to Microbial Digestion in the Rumen of Sheep Given High-Concentrate Diets

  • Goto, M.;Morio, T.;Kojima, E.;Nagano, Y.;Yamada, Y.;Horigane, A.;Yamada, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.1219-1227
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    • 2000
  • Rumination behavior, in vivo digestibility of cell wall constituents, particle size reduction in the rumen, and retention time in the digestive tract of sheep were examined using rice and oat straw as roughage sources. The in sacco digestibility, rumen fermentation, and microbial population and internal adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) content were also determined under feeding conditions of high-roughage and high-concentrate diets. Chewing number and time in rumination behavior were higher with rice straw than with oat straw, while the in sacco and in vivo DMD of rice straw were consistently lower than those of oat straw. Rice straw also showed higher frequency of thinner and longer particles in the rumen contents and lower retention time in the whole digestive tract as compared to those of oat straw. Rice straw was more effective to maintain the ruminal pH than oat straw, being reflected in higher internal ATP content of large-type protozoa on the high- concentrate diet. Changes in the ruminal microflora by shifting from the low- to the high- concentrate diet were also different between rice and oat straw.

Quality Analysis of Fresh Rice Straw Wrapping Silage by Softening Treatment of Fresh Rice Straw and Colors Effects of Wrapping Stretch Film (생볏짚의 연화처리와 피복스트레치 필름의 색깔에 따른 랩사일리지의 품질분석)

  • 이성현;김종근;최광재;유병기;오권영
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.335-340
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    • 2002
  • Recently, in Korea, round bale wrapping silage made by fresh rice straw are partially utilized. The colors of stretch film using far wrapping the fresh rice straw round bale are white, green and black. The light transmittance of green and white color stretch film was not founded the difference. However, the light transmittance of black color stretch film was largely difference of two stretch films. This study was carried out to measure qualities of fresh rice straw wrapping silage by softening processing of fresh rice straw and colors effects of wrapping stretch film. The analyzed factors were the light transmittance of stretch film, variation of the temperature in fresh rice straw round bale and qualities of the silage in crude protein, ADF, NDF, organic acid, etc. It was difficult to find in this study the colors effects of stretch film on silage qualities by the silage wrapping. But, when make fresh rice straw wrapping silage, wrapping silage fermentation effect goes well more if handle softening the fresh rice straw.

CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS AND BEEF PALATABILITY AS INFLUENCED BY FEEDING RICE STRAW AND ALFALFA

  • Han, I.K.;Rhoads, E.P.;Lee, Y.B.;Garrett, W.N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 1988
  • Ninety feeder steers, predominantly Herefords weighing 280 kg, were assigned at random to each of nine diets: basal (high concentrate); 25 or 50% of untreated rice straw (25- or 50 URS) or ammoniated rice straw (25- or 50 ARS); a 50:50 mixture of URS - alfalfa or ARS - alfalfa replacing a proportion of the basal at 25 and 50%. Animals were slaughtered after 154 or 161 days of feeding. The cattle fed 50% URS had the lowest (P<.05) carcass weight, dressing & external fat thickness, kidney, pelvic and heart fat, rib eye area, marbling score, quality and yield grades, followed by cattle fed 50% ARS, 50% rice straw/alfalfa, and 25% rice straw alone or 25% rice straw/alfalfa mixture. Ammoniation of rice straw improved all measured traits. A 25% substitution of basal diet with untreated or ammoniated rice straw and a 50% substitution with rice straw/alfalfa mixture did not significantly affect carcass traits compared to the basal group. Only 50% ARS and 50% URS cattle showed differences in body composition (P<.05) with lower fat and higher water and protein contents. No significant differences were found in shear value, panel tenderness, connective tissue, juiciness, flavor and overall palatability of meat from steers fed the basal, ARS or URS diets.

The evaluation for soil carbon sequestration with rice straw treatments in paddy fields

  • Seo, Myung-Chul;Cho, Hyeon-Suk;Seong, Ki-Yeong;Kim, Min-Tae;Ryu, Jin-Hee;Lee, Geon Hwi
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.340-340
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    • 2017
  • Rice straw is very important to maintain fertility in agricultural soil with several aspects such as carbon and nitrogen cycles in Korea. Recently, concerning about climate change, carbon sequestration in agricultural land has become one of the most interesting and debating issues. Rice straw is most representative source of organic material produced in agricultural sectors. In order to evaluate changes of soil carbon treated by rice straw during cultivating rice in paddy field, we carried out to treat rice straw with 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and $2.0ton\;ha^{-1}$ at $50{\times}50{\times}20cm$ blocks made of wood board, and analyze contents of fulvic acid and humic acid form, and total carbon periodically. The experiment was conducted in 2013-2016, and sampled with interval in a month. The organic material was applied to treatment blocks in 2 weeks ago in rice transplanting of each year. Total carbon in beginning time is low as $7.9g\;kg^{-1}$. The contents of total carbon with treatments of rice straw after experiment are recorded as 8.7, 11.2, 9.5, 10.5, and $10.9g\;kg^{-1}$ applied by 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and $2.0ton\;ha^{-1}$, respectively. When trend lines were calculated on changes of soil carbon in periods of experiments, The trend equations of soil carbon changes with treatments of 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and $2.0ton\;ha^{-1}$ were Y=0.0015X+8.479, Y=0.073X+8.2577, Y=0.0503X+8.4477, Y=0.0822X+8.2103, and Y=0.082X+8.5736. These trends suggested several results. When rice straw was applied in cultivating paddy fields, most carbon in rice straw would be decomposed regardless the amount of rice straw in soil. We calculated sequestration rate of applied rice straw as about 0.1% per year during rice cultivation in paddy fields. It means that if farmer want to increase 1% soil organic matter by using application of rice straw returned after cultivation, famer should apply rice straw continuously for ten years. The change of soil carbon as fulvic acid, humic acid, and humane is showed that only content of carbon as mumine is increased significantly while fulvic acid and humic acid were changed in range of 10 to 30% among total carbon in soil. In conclusion, to sequestrate soil carbon with rice straw, it is important for rice straw to apply continuously every year. The amount of rice straw applied is not much effected to increase soil organic matter.

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