• Title, Summary, Keyword: Rice paddy

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Change of Growth and Nitrogen Uptake of Rice at the Paddy Field with Previous Upland Condition (논.밭윤환 복원논의 벼 생육특성 및 질소흡수량 변화)

  • Seo, Jong-Ho;Lee, Chung-Keun;Cho, Young-Son;Lee, Chun-Ki;Kim, Chung-Kon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.55 no.2
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    • pp.98-104
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    • 2010
  • Excess nitrogen (N) uptake of rice, which could cause much lodging, disease and reduction of rice quality, could be occurred at the paddy field with previous upland condition at which much soil N could be mineralized by soil-drying effect. N fertilizers of 0, 3, and 6 kg N $10a^{-1}$ were applied to early-maturity rice, cultivar Joanbyeo at the paddy field of first and second year after upland condition, and rice growth and nitrogen uptake were investigated to know the increase of rice N uptake at the paddy field with previous upland condition for one-year. Total dry matter (DM) and N uptake of rice at the paddy field with previous upland condition increased more than continuous paddy field. Total DM and N uptake of rice at the paddy field with previous upland condition increased linearly to N fertilizer 6 kg $10a^{-1}$ at the paddy field owing to vigorous growth compared to continuous paddy field. Rice N uptake was higher at the paddy field of the first year than the second year after upland condition in considering N uptake at the plot of no N fertilizer. Vigorous growth at the paddy field with previous upland condition resulted in higher rice yield which was related with high panicle and spikelet, but much N fertilizer as much as 6 kg $10a^{-1}$ at the paddy field with previous upland condition resulted in higher lodging and protein content of brown and milled rice. Particularly, protein content of brown and milled rice increased more when the same N fertilizer was applied two times splitly at transplanting and panicle initiation stage than when N fertilizer was applied one time at transplanting as basal N. N application with under 3 kg $10a^{-1}$ as only basal N was recommended at the paddy field with previous upland condition to obtain high quality rice without lodging.

Stuies on the Effect of Compost and Fresh Rice Straw on Paddy yield (수도생육에 있어서 퇴비 생집 시용 효과시험)

  • Oh, Wang Keon;Lee, Sang Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.177-186
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    • 1971
  • In order to obtain an idea on the cause of beneficial effect of organic matter, compost and fresh rice straw, in paddy production, a number of previous experimental results were reviewed. The results are as follows: 1. As a soil ameriolater, compost give a beneficial effect, in well drained and somewhat permeable soils but in ill drained and none permeable paddy field the effect is not observed. 2. The effect of fresh rice straw, is expected to be positive with less than compost limitation to the soil conditions. The reason for this benefical effect of fresh rice straw to paddy yield is evidenced to be of depressing effect of early stages of paddy growth which reserves plant nutrients in soil for later use. 3. Several problems in connection with the use of fresh rice straw in rice production is also discussed.

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Nitrogen and Phosphorus Content Changes in Paddy Soil and Water As Affected by Organic Fertilizer Application

  • Lee, Kyung-Do;Lee, Kyeong-Bo;Gil, Geun-Hwan;Song, In-hong;Kang, Jong-Gook;Hwang, Seon-Woong
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2011
  • BACKGROUND: With increasing public awareness to environment-friendly agriculture, many efforts have been run to develop organic farming technologies in Korea as of late 90s. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different organic farming practices on soil chemical properties and water quality in paddy fields. METHODS AND RESULTS: Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were monitored for a two-year period (2006 to 2007) from the study organic paddy fields located in Wan-ju, Jeonbuk Province in Korea. TN and TP of organic paddy water were gradually increased for 2~3 weeks after organic manure application and then gradually decreased afterward. The overall variation of TP in the paddy fields was much greater than that of TN. The phosphorus content in organic paddy field appeared to increase with the organic farming period. CONCLUSION(s): This indicates that long-term organic farming is likely to cause phosphorus accumulation in soils and increase vulnerability to rainfall runoff. Thus, appropriate phosphorus management needs to be implemented, particularly, to reduce excessive phosphorus supply owing to nitrogen-based determination of organic manure application amount.

Watershed-scale Hydrologic Modeling Considering a Detention Effect of Rice Paddy Fields using HSPF Surface-Ftable (논의 저류효과를 고려한 유역수문모델링 - HSPF Surface-Ftable의 적용 -)

  • Seong, Chounghyun;Oh, Chansung;Hwang, Syewoon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.60 no.5
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    • pp.41-54
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    • 2018
  • A method to account a detention in a rice paddy field in hydrologic modeling was tested at plot and watershed scales. Hydrologic Simulation Program - Fortran (HSPF) and its one of surface runoff modeling method, i.e Surface-Ftable, were used to simulate a inundated condition in a rice paddy culture for a study plot and basins in Saemangeum watershed. Surface-Ftable in HSPF defines surface runoff ratio with respect to surface water depth in a pervious land segment, which can be implemented to the feature of water management in a rice paddy field. A Surface-Ftable for paddy fields in Saemangeum watershed was developed based on the study paddy field monitoring data from 2013 to 2014, and was applied to Jeonju-chun and Jeongeup-chun basins which comprise 12% and 22% of paddy fields in the basins, respectively. Four gaging stations were used to calibrate and validate the watershed models for the period of 2009 and 2013. Model performed 7.13% and 9.68% in PBIAS, and 0.94 and 0.90 in monthly NSE during model calibrations at Jeonju and Jeongeup stations, respectively, while the models were validated its applicability at Hyoja and Gongpyung stations. The comparison of results with and without considering detention effect of paddy fields confirmed the validity of the Surface-Ftable method in modeling watersheds containing rice paddy fields.

Effects of cultivation methods on methane emission in rice paddy

  • Kim, Sukjin;Choi, Jong-Seo;Kang, Shin-gu;Park, Jeong-wha;Yang, Woonho
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.319-319
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    • 2017
  • Methane is the main greenhouse gas released from rice paddy field. Methane from paddy fields accounts for 11 % of the global total methane emission. The global warming potential (GWP) of methane is 25 times more than that of carbon dioxide on a mass basis. It is well known that most effective practice to mitigate methane in paddy is related to the water management during rice growing season and the use of organic matters. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of tillage and cultivation method on methane emission in paddy. Tillage (tillage and no-tillage) and cultivation methods (transplanting and direct seeding) were combined tillage-transplanting (T-T), tillage-wet hill seeding (T-W), tillage-dry seeding (T-D) and no-till dry seeding (NT-D) to evaluate methane mitigation efficiency. Daily methane emission was decreased on seeding treatments (T-W, T-D, NT-D) than transplanting treatment (T-T). Amount of methane emission during rice growing season is highest in T-T ($411.7CH_4\;kg\;ha^{-1}y^{-1}$) and lowest in NT-D treatment (89.7). In T-W and T-D treatments, methane emissions were significantly decreased by 36 and 51 % respectively compared with T-T. Methane emissions were highly correlated with the dry weight of whole rice plant ($R^2=0.62{\sim}0.93$). T-T treatment showed highest $R^2$ (0.93) among the four treatments. Rice grain yields did not significantly differ with the tillage and cultivation methods used. These results suggest that direct seeding practice in rice production could mitigate the methane emissions without loss in grain yield.

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Effect of Winter Crop Cultivation on Soil Organic Carbon and Physico-chemical Properties Under Different Rice-forage Cropping Systems in Paddy Soil

  • Yun, Sun-Gang;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Ko, Byong-Gu;Park, Seong-Jin;Kim, Myung-Sook;Kim, Ki-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.335-340
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    • 2016
  • Soil organic carbon plays an important role on soil physico-chemical properties and crop yields in paddy soil. However, there is little information on the soil organic carbon under different forage cultivation during winter season in rice paddy. In this study, we investigated the soil organic carbon and physico-chemical properties in 87 fields of paddy soil cultivated with Barley, rye, and Italian ryegrass (IRG) as animal feedstock during winter season. Organic carbon was 12.9, 14.3, and $16.9g\;C\;kg^{-1}$ in soil with barley, rye, and IRG cultivation, respectively. Among rice-forage cultivation systems, the rice+IRG cropping system was 19.5% higher than in the mono-rice cultivation. Bulk density ranged from 1.17 to $1.28g\;cm^{-3}$ irrespective of cropping systems, and had strongly negative correlation with the soil organic carbon in the rice+IRG cropping system. Carbon storage in rice+IRG cropping systems was average $29.6Mg\;ha^{-1}$ at 15 cm of soil depth, which was 20.4 and 10.3% higher than those of barley and rye cultivation. Increasing carbon storage in paddy soil contributed to the fertility for following rice cultivation. This results indicated that IRG cultivation during winter season could be an alternative and promising way to enhance soil organic carbon content and fertility of paddy soil.

Analysis of Paddy Soil Chemical Properties and Rice Quality in Central Area (Sejong) in Korea

  • Choi, Nag-Gor;Park, Jong-Hyun;Kang, Seong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.61-70
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    • 2018
  • This study was carried out to review and compare crop cultivations upon chemical properties of paddy soil and qualitative characteristics of rice in Sejong-city from a point of view of farming extension to rice farmers and to utilize the result of the study as a basic guideline for precise agricultural practice. The pH in soils of Sejong was about 6.1-6.6 and had no difference with an average pH of paddy soils in Chung-Nam with pH 6.1. However, the average of organic matter, calcium (Ca) and available silicate in Sejong was lower than the average of them in Chung-Nam. The yields of rice were higher in 2010 than in 2011 and 2012, and the protein contents of rice were the highest in 2011 while the lowest water contents of rice in 2011. The protein contents upon regions were the highest in 2011 with 6.1%, and the amylose contents were the highest in Yeondong-myun, Jeoneu-myun, and Yeonseo-myun in 2010 while Kumnam-myun and Jeondong-myun were the highest in 2012. With the increase of precipitation, the protein content level in rice was increased while the amylose content level tended to decrease. Correlations between the chemical properties of paddy soil and the quality of rice and between level of organic matter in soil and amylose contents were negative (r = -0.507), and the correlation between the moisture contents and amylose contents (r = 0.419) and between the water contents and whiteness (r = 0.485) were positive. Because the quantity and quality of rice yield is determined by the soil characteristics, the consultation to farmers for the proactive soil analysis and for the maintenance of stable level of pH, organic matter and available silicate based on historical results of analysis is highly recommended. Also, the analysis on the effect of the weather and the soil characteristics affecting the quality and quantity of rice would be another good way.

Analyzing Consumptive Use of Water and Yields of Paddy Rice by Climate Change (기후변화 시나리오에 따른 미래 논벼의 소비수량 및 생산량 변화 분석)

  • Lee, Tae-Seok;Choi, Jin-Yong;Yoo, Seung-Hwan;Lee, Sang-Hyun;Oh, Yun-Gyeong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.54 no.1
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    • pp.47-54
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    • 2012
  • Agriculture is dependable to weather condition and its change so that it is necessary to understand the impacts of climatic change. The aim of this study is to analyze the change of consumptive use of water and rice yield due to climate change using CERES-Rice. In this study, the weather data of three emission scenario of A1B, A2 and B1 created from CGCM (Coupled General Circulation Model) were used from 2011 to 2100, and downscaled daily weather data were simulated using LARS-WG (Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator). The input data for cultivated condition for simulating CERSE (Crop-Environment Resource Synthesis)-Rice were created referring to standard cultivation method of paddy rice in Korea. The results showed that consumptive uses of water for paddy rice were projected decreasing to 4.8 % (2025s), 9.1 % (2055s), 12.6 % (2085s) comparing to the baseline value of 403.5 mm in A2 scenario. The rice yield of baseline was 450.7 kg/10a and projected increasing to -0.4 % (2025s), 3.9 % (2055s), 17.5 % (2085s) in A1B scenario. The results demonstrated relationships between consumptive use of water and rice yields due to climate change and can be used for the agricultural water resources development planning and cultivation method of paddy rice for the future.

The analysis of the cultivation status of the upland crops in the paddy field using unmanned aerial vehicle

  • Park, Jin-Ki;Kwak, Kang-Su;Park, Jong-Hwa
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.352-352
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    • 2017
  • Recently, the South Korean government encourages the cultivation of upland crops in the paddy field to maintain an adequate level of rice production and then to balance the demand and supply of rice. This is mainly because the rice consumption per capita per year has continued to decline from 135 kg in 1979 to 61.9 kg in 2016, although the rice production was relatively stable. As a result, the rice overproduction became a big social problem. As a part of that, various upland crops such as soybean, maize, minor cereals and forage crops are planted in the paddy field 10 years ago. The cultivation of these crops may settle the problem of short supply and mass import of the crops to some extent. However, a systematic remote observation of upland crops in the paddy field is very scarce. This study investigated the cultivation status of upland crops and any changes of crop harvesting in the paddy field by using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Also, we analyzed the kind of upland crops and cultivation area in the paddy field by utilizing time series observation images. A fixed wing UAV is used for the investigation. This is because it is easy to use the flight operation and to control flight management software, and it can automatically cope with various emergency states such as a strong wind and battery discharge. The material of UAV is expanded polypropylene, which has an advantage of less equipment damage and risk during takeoff and landing. We acquired observed images in Buljeong-myeon, Goesan-gun, Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea by using fixed wing UAV in 2015 and 2016. The total investigated area reaches 6,045 ha, and among them the agricultural area was 1,377 ha. For the next step, we created an orthoimage from all images taken using Pix 4D mapper program. According to the results of image analyses in 2015, the paddy field covered total 577 ha (75.9%) with crop plant. The cultivation area of beans, ginseng, maize, tobacco and peach was 256 ha (36.6%), 63 ha (9.2%), 37 ha (5.4%), 31 ha (4.5%) and 27 ha (3.8), respectively. And in 2016, the total covered area was 586 ha (77.1%), and it was comprised of 253 ha (35.5%), 88 ha (12.3%), 29 ha (4.1%), 22 ha (3.1%) and 32 ha (4.5%) in the same order. In this study, we focused on identifying the paddy field which was converted to the cultivation of upland crops by using UAV. And, it has been indicated that the cultivation area of rice decreased from 141 ha in 2015 to 127 ha in 2016, although that of ginseng increased by 25 ha. As a result, it is expected that a lot of paddy field could be replaced by high-income crops such as ginseng and fruit tree (peach) instead of relative low-income rice. More specific and widespread research on the remote sensing in the paddy field needs to be done.

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Comparison of Growth, Yield and Yield Components among Rice Cultivars for Organic Farming in No-tillage Paddy

  • Son, Daniel;Lee, Young-Han
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2010
  • Organic farming system in rice paddy is rapidly expanding in Korea. This study was to find out optimum japonica rice cultivars for organic farming. A field research was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of japonica rice cultivars under no-tillage paddy at Doo-ryangmyeon, Sacheon, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea. The experimental soil was Juggog series (silty clay loam: 56.0% silt, 31.2% clay and 12.8% sand). In experiment, ten lines of Japanese rice cultivars were tested under no-tillage amended with rye (NTR) and no-tillage without cover crop treatment (NTNT). In addition, two Korean japonica rice cultivars as check cultivars were used in this study. The grain yield in NTR was significantly higher in 6.13 Mg $ha^{-1}$ for Kinuhikari, 5.30 Mg $ha^{-1}$ for Komekogane, 5.25 Mg $ha^{-1}$ for Kosihikari, 5.22 Mg $ha^{-1}$ for Mazizbare and 5.12 Mg $ha^{-1}$ for Akitakomachi compared to two Korean rice cultivars (4.57 Mg $ha^{-1}$ for Hwayoungbyeo and 4.00 Mg $ha^{-1}$ for Ilmibyeo) in that order. While, grain yield in NTNT was significantly higher in 4.90 Mg $ha^{-1}$ for Akitakomachi 3.81 Mg $ha^{-1}$ for Hinohikari, 3.74 Mg $ha^{-1}$ for Umezkusi, 3.67 Mg $ha^{-1}$ for Kosihikari and 3.54 Mg $ha^{-1}$ for Dondokuri compared to 3.02 Mg $ha^{-1}$ for Ilmibyeo and 2.36 Mg $ha^{-1}$ for Hwayoungbyeo, respectively. The number of panicle per $m^2$ and grain number per panicle were indispensible for increasing the yield of rice. These results were able to find out optimum japonica rice cultivar Akitakomachi for organic farming in no-tillage paddy.