• Title, Summary, Keyword: Rice paddy

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Determining Canopy Growth Conditions of Paddy Rice via Ground-based Remote Sensing

  • Jo, Seunghyun;Yeom, Jongmin;Ko, Jonghan
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.11-20
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    • 2015
  • This study aimed to investigate the canopy growth conditions and the accuracy of phenological stages of paddy rice using ground-based remote sensing data. Plant growth variables including Leaf Area Index (LAI) and canopy reflectance of paddy rice were measured at the experimental fields of Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea during the crop seasons of 2011, 2012, and 2013. LAI values were also determined based on correlations with Vegetation Indices (VIs) obtained from the canopy reflectance. Three phenological stages (tillering, booting, and grain filling) of paddy rice could be identified using VIs and a spatial index (NIR versus red). We found that exponential relationships could be applied between LAI and the VIs of interest. This information, as well as the relationships between LAI and VIs obtained in the present study, could be used to estimate and monitor the relative growth and development of rice canopies during the growing season.

Occurrence and Characteristics of Off-type Rice as affected by Cultural Practice (경종조건에 따른 벼 이형주의 발생양상과 특성)

  • 김동관;권오도;신해룡;진일두;정병관
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.429-433
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to investigate the occurrence and characteristics of off-type rice plant according to agronomic conditions. The occurrence density of the off-type rice plant in farmer's paddy field was greater as the years of self-produced seed use increased, and in the direct sowing paddy field it was twice as much as in the transplanting paddy field. When the long-grain red rice and the short-grain red rice in the cultivated field of cultivar were artificially sown, in the direct sowing on a flooded paddy surface culture rather than in the machine transplanting culture the off-type rice plant occurred much more, the culm length was longer, and the number of productive culm per plant increased. These characteristics were more conspicuous in the long-grain red rice than in the short-grain red rice. In the transplanting farmer's paddy fields, the off-type rice plant that occurred outside of the hills of the cultivar rice ranged 0 to 6%. Whereas in was 70.6 to 91.9% when the long-grain red rice and short-grain red rice were artificially sown. Therefore, it was assumed that most of the off-type rice plants occurred in the farmer's paddy fields was caused by seed contamination.

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Effect of Moisture Content of Paddy on Properties of Rice Flour (벼의 수분함량이 쌀가루 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sang-Sook;Kim, Young-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.690-696
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    • 1995
  • Properties of dry milled rice flours made of paddy with different moisture content (12.6, 18.4 and 24.4%) were compared with those of wet milled rice flour. Among dry milled rice flour, the higher moisture content of paddy the finer particle size and the more distinct shape of starch were observed. As the moisture content of paddy increased, L (lightness) value and water absorption index of rice flour were increased, while setback in amylogram and water soluble index were decreased. Lower gel consistency and gel strength were found in dry milled rice flours than in wet milled rice flour, while no significant difference was found among dry milled rice flours. Enthalpy for melting crystalline of retrograded gels was higher in dry milled rice flours made of paddy with 24.4% moisture content than in other dry milled rice flours. Wet milled rice flour had lower retrogradation enthalphy than dry milled rice flours.

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Status of Rice Paddy Field and Weather Anomaly in the Spring of 2015 in DPRK

  • Hong, Suk Young;Park, Hye-Jin;Jang, Keunchang;Na, Sang-Il;Baek, Shin-Chul;Lee, Kyung-Do;Ahn, Joong-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.361-371
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    • 2015
  • To understand the impact of 2015 spring drought on crop production of DPRK (Democratic People's Republic of Korea), we analyzed satellite and weather data to produce 2015 spring outlook of rice paddy field and rice growth in relation to weather anomaly. We defined anomaly of 2015 for weather and NDVI in comparison to past 5 year-average data. Weather anomaly layers for rainfall and mean temperature were calculated based on 27 weather station data. Rainfall in late April, early May, and late May in 2015 was much lower than those in average years. NDVI values as an indicator of rice growth in early June of 2015 was much lower than in 2014 and the average years. RapidEye and Radarsat-2 images were used to monitor status of rice paddy irrigation and transplanting. Due to rainfall shortage from late April to May, rice paddy irrigation was not favorable and rice planting was not progressed in large portion of paddy fields until early June near Pyongyang. Satellite images taken in late June showed rice paddy fields which were not irrigated until early June were flooded, assuming that rice was transplanted after rainfall in June. Weather and NDVI anomaly data in regular basis and timely acquired satellite data can be useful for grasping the crop and land status of DPRK, which is in high demand.

Water Quality Improvement Characteristics in Fallow Paddy by the Shallow Pool and Shallows (휴경지의 웅덩이와 여울에 의한 수질정화특성)

  • Kim, Sun-Joo;Kim, Hyung-Jung;Kim, Phil-Shik;Jee, Yong-Geun;Yang, Yong-Seok
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.35-45
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    • 2006
  • Fallow paddy areas have been increased due to the import of cheap agricultural product, and the unbalance between farming cost and rice price since 1990. In domestic, rice production control that decrease paddy field area has been introduced for the control of rice demand and supply and stabilization of rice price since 2003. Because of the desire of paddy field's owner to create benefit by using paddy for other object, fallow paddy would be continuously increased. In the other aspect, many people in the world is suffering from hunger because of the shortage of food. In case of Korea, continuous drought and flood damages will be potential concern of stable food supply. From this viewpoint, the increasing fallow paddy area needs to be protected from the devastation by weed breeding for the re-cultivation. In this study, fallow paddy managed with the shallow pools and shallows was selected fur monitoring and analyzing of water quality and plant body change. As the results, the managed fallow paddy found to be effective in the purification of water quality and the control of plant growth.

The Effect of Agricultural Wastes on Rice Plant Growth (답토양(畓土壤)의 유기물(有機物) 시용효과(施用效果))

  • Lee, Sang-Kyu;Park, Jun-Kyu
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.27
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    • pp.56-67
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    • 1984
  • As in many other country, the use of organic matter in Korea has long history. Farmers understand the value of organic matter as the source of plant nutrient and soil improving agent in general. Since 50 years ago, the sources of organic matter in paddy soils were compost, rice and barly straw, green manure, animal waste, fish and beancake, etc.. Application of green manures such as vetch and chinese milk vetch showed no significant effect on the yield of brown rice in paddy soil. On the other hand, the effects of compost and rice straw showed more significant on the yield of brown rice in paddy soil. Application of rice straw in rice cultivation is commonly made at different times between harvest, early spring and several weeks before transplanting. Considering the suitable paddy soil for application of rice straw under well to moderately well drained soil, the yield was pronounced more than poorly drained soil. Based on laboratory and field experimants, application of rice straw promoted the decrease of oxidation-reduction potential in well to moderately well drained soil. This results to be enhanced the release of some mineral nutrients,. such as potassium, calcium, silicon, and increase of availability of soil phosphorus. In the field experiments, results obtained from nitrogen fraction on the immobilization-mineralization of the tracer nitrogen applied in paddy soil,the amount and index of organic nitrogen incoporated in soil was more pronounced in rice straw application than control. Rice straw and its transformation products incoporated in the soil, provided the inflow of energy necessary to maintain heterotrophic microbes activities. Rice straw and its transformation products, especially soluble carbohydrate, enhanced the population of free-living heterotrophic $N_2$ - fixing microbes. Moreover, rice straw and its transformation products in paddy soil, enhanced the activities of soil enzymes such as dehydrogenase and urease.

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Organic Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Production in Eco-friendly Complex using Gelatin·Chitin Microorganisms (친환경 광역단지 내 젤라틴·키틴분해미생물을 이용한 유기 벼 생산)

  • Choi, Seung-Hee;Cha, Kwang-Hong;Seo, Dong-Jun;Park, Hung-Gyu;Kwon, Oh-Do;An, Kyu-Nam;Lee, Jai-Hak;Kim, Kil-Yong;Jung, Woo-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.629-647
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    • 2018
  • This study was carried out to investigate the economic value of organic rice production using gelatin chitin microorganisms in eco-friendly complex, Gongsan, Naju city. The soil condition of experiment paddy field was Jeonbuk series and silt loam with a slightly poor drainage. Except for the high effective silicate, the chemical characteristics of soils used were included in the optimum range of paddy soils in Korea. In growth, plant length, tiller number, ear number, and ear length were observed to be higher in conventional paddy fields than organic paddy fields. However, number of grain per panicle and grain filling ratio (%) were higher in organic paddy fields than conventional paddy fields. Incidences of diseases and insect pests were slightly higher in the organic paddy fields. Water weevil, sheath blight, rice leaf roller and rice blast were more occurred in organic paddy field. On the other hand, false smut was higher occurred in conventional paddy field. There was a significant negative correlation between rice sheath blight and rice leaf roller, and rice yield. In the milled rice quality, the quality of organically cultivated milled rices was lower by the increase of broken rice than that of conventionally cultivated milled rices. The quality and palatability of rice were higher in organic cultivation with decreasing of protein content. Net income of conventionally and organically cultivated rice was 360,000 won/10a and 610,000 won/10a, respectively. Premium net income of the organically cultivated rice was 68%.

MUITI-FUNCTION ROLES IN PADDY-FIELD AND ON-FARM IRRIGATION (논과 포장관개의 다원적 역할)

  • Kwun, Soon-Kuk
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 2002
  • Despite the unfamiliar term "multifunctionality of agriculture" and the tremendous number of debates made over the past 10 years, multiple benefits from paddy rice farming in the Asian monsoon region are very significance due to the various inherent characteristics of paddy rice in this lesion. They were identified as rural vitalization, social security, nature and environmental preservations, and social and cultural functions. As studies estimating the monetary value of nature and environmental functions in Korea and Japan revealed, the economic value of multifunctionality from paddy rice farming reached to 70∼150% of total annual rice production cost of each country, and would have been even higher, had other functions been included. Therefore, interdisciplinary and international researches within the monsoon Asian countries are necessary to develop counter-measure logics against the Western dry land farming countries, emphasizing the efforts to disseminate worldwide the significance and recognition of the multifunctionality of paddy rice farming under the Asian monsoon climate.

Use of the foraging area by captive bred oriental storks (Ciconia boyciana) in a closed semi natural paddy field

  • Yoon, Jong-Min;Na, Sang-Hee;Kim, Su-Kyung;Park, Shi-Ryong
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.149-155
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    • 2012
  • Rice paddy fields have been recognized as an alternative habitat for avian wetland foragers, and fish-rice farms have become a new tool in improving the abundance of aquatic animals. However, the use of the habitats by avian foragers, particularly by oriental storks ($Ciconia$ $boyciana$), was not well understood. In the present study, we investigated how a fish-rice farm influenced the abundance of aquatic animals and documented the foraging behavior of the two captive bred oriental storks in a closed semi-natural paddy field. Our results showed that the fish refuge pond (water depth 40 cm) had a higher abundance of fish whereas the areas planted with rice (water depth 20 cm) had more tadpoles and some aquatic insects. The two captive bred oriental storks captured mostly fish and aquatic insects in the rice-planted area and mostly fish in the fish refuge pond. The two oriental storks had higher foraging success and spent more time for foraging in the rice-planted area than in the fish refuge pond. This result suggests that the oriental storks might prefer foraging in the area with fish, aquatic insects, and amphibians under a greater success rate presumably due to shallow water depth in the paddy fields with a fish-rice farm.

Investigation of Indicator Microorganism Concentrations after Reclaimed Water Irrigation in Paddy Rice Pots (재처리수 관개후 지표미생물의 농도변화 조사)

  • Jung Kwang-Wook;Yoon Chun-Gyeong;Jang Jae-Ho;Kim Hyung-Chul;Jeon Ji-Hong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.75-85
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    • 2005
  • A study was performed to examine the effects of reclaimed-water irrigation on microorganism con-centration in ponded-water of paddy rice plots. Several treatments were used and each one was triplicated to evaluate the change of indicator microorganisms (total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms FC), and E. coli) concentrations in 2003 and 2004 growing seasons. Their concentrations increased significantly right after irrigation, but decreased about $45\%$ in 24 hours. It implies that agricultural activities such as plowing and fertilizing should be practiced one or two days after irrigation considering health-risks. Treatments with UV-disinfected water irrigation demonstrated significantly lower concentrations than others including control plots where natural surface water was irrigated. The monitoring results from actual paddy rice fields and experimental paddy plots showed that concentrations of indicator microorganisms ranged from $10^2\;to\;10^5$ MPN/100mL. A comprehensive assessment of existing agricultural practices and a thorough monitoring in the field as well as treatment-plots are recommended to make more realistic national guidelines more applicable. UV-disinfected water irrigation reduced microorganism concentrations in paddy fields down to below the concentration of conventional paddy rice culture, and is thought to be an effective and feasible measure fur agricultural reuse of secondary effluent.