• Title, Summary, Keyword: Rice paddy

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USLE/RUSLE Factors for National Scale Soil Loss Estimation Based on the Digital Detailed Soil Map (수치 정밀토양에 기초한 전국 토양유실량의 평가를 위한 USLE/RUSLE 인자의 산정)

  • Jung, Kang-Ho;Kim, Won-Tae;Hur, Seung-Oh;Ha, Sang-Keon;Jung, Pil-Kyun;Jung, Yeong-Sang
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.199-206
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    • 2004
  • Factors of universal soil loss equation, USLE, and its revised version, RUSLE for Korean soils were reevaluated to estimate the national scale of soil loss based on digital soil maps. Rainfall erosivity factor, R, of 158 locations of cities and counties were spacially interpolated by the inverse distance weight method. Soil erodibility factor, K, of 1321 soil phases of 390 soil series were calculated using the data of soil survey and agri-environmental quality monitoring. Topographic factor, LS, was estimated using soil map of 1:25,000 scale with soil phase and land use type. Cover management factor, C, of major crops and support practice factor, P, were summarized by analyzing the data of lysimeter and field experiments for 27 years (1975-2001) in the National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology. R factor varied between 2322 and 6408 MJ mm $ha^{-1}$ $yr^{-1}$ $hr^{-1}$ and the average value was 4276 MJ mm $ha^{-1}$ $yr^{-1}$ $hr^{-1}$. The average K value was evaluated as 0.027 MT hr $MJ^{-1}$ $mm^{-1}$. The highest K factor was found in paddy rice fields, 0.034 MT hr $MJ^{-1}$ $mm^{-1}$, and K factors in upland fields, grassland, and forest were 0.026, 0.019, and 0.020 MT hr $MJ^{-1}$ $mm^{-1}$, respectively. C factors of upland crops ranged from 0.06 to 0.45 and that of grassland was 0.003. P factor varied between 0.01 and 0.85.

Field Survey on Liquid Manure Utilization in the Agricultural Farms (경종농가에서의 액비이용 실태조사)

  • Choi D. Y.;Kwag J. H.;Park C. H.;Jeong K. H.;Jeon B. S.;Choi H. C.;Kang H. S.;Yang C. B.;Choi H. L.
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.155-162
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    • 2004
  • The livestock liquid manure is one of important source for production of friendly environmental crops and have been used widespreadly in recent years. This survey is to eventually investigate the actual conditions of liquid manure utilization for cultivation of crops in the agricultural farm, based on the survey for 61 selected farms in 8 provinces(except Jeju province) included 22 counties in Korea. The results obtained in this survey were summarized as follow; $72.1\%$ of liquid manure storage tank(44) was located in the farmland and $27.9\%$(17) was in the fm. Most of liquid manure tank volume and material were 200 M/T($67.2\%$) and Polyethylene Double Frame panel($44.3\%$). The pro-portions of liquid manure application land were $45.9\%$ for rice paddy, $36.1\%$ for dry field, $16.4\%$ for orchard and $1.6\%$ for other, respectively. The controversial points of liquid manure utilization were malodor($60.7\%$), equipment possession($22.9\%$), no problem($13.1\%$) and farmland possession ($2.3\%$), respectively.

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Comparative toxicity of some pesticides on reproduction of Korean native freshwater Cladocerans, Moina macrocopa and Daphnia sp. (한국산 물벼룩 Moina macrocopa와 Daphnia sp.에 대한 수종 농약의 번식독성 비교)

  • Kim, Byung-Seok;Park, Yoen-Ki;Park, Kyung-Hun;Jeong, Mi-Hye;You, Are-Sun;Yang, Yu-Jung;Shin, Jin-Sup;Kim, Jin-Hwa;Yoon, Seong-Myeong;Ahn, Young-Joon
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.246-253
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    • 2007
  • The reproduction toxicity of several pesticides on two Korean water flea was investigated to develop a new standard species used for ecological risk assessment of pesticide. Moina macrocopa and Daphnia sp. were exposed to 4 different types of pesticides over 10 and 21 days, respectively. No-ohserved effect concentration (NOEC) for synthetic pyrethroid, fenpropathrin on Moina macrocopa and Daphnia sp. were 0.17 and $0.06\;{\mu}g\;L^{-1}$, respectively. Diazinon, carbofuran and myclobutanil were in the order of their reproduction toxicity to cladocerans tested. There were large differences between Moina macrocopa and Daphnia sp. in their susceptibility to fenpropathrin, diazinon and carbofuran except myclobutanil. Daphnia sp. is more sensitive than M. macrocopa to pesticides tested. Therefore Daphnia sp. may be a good surrogate species to assess the reproduction effect of pesticides on aquatic invertebrates. M. macrocopa also be a good surrogate species because it is one of the most abundant cladocera in agricultural environment, especially rice paddy in Korea. In addition to it's ecological importance of wide spread distribution, it has also economical importance to make possible to shorten period for reproduction test using M. macrocopa due to it's short life cycle.

Effect of Chlorella vulgaris CHK0008 Fertilization on Enhancement of Storage and Freshness in Organic Strawberry and Leaf Vegetables (Chlorella vulgaris CHK0008 시비가 유기농 딸기와 엽채소의 저장성과 신선도 향상에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Min-Jeong;Shim, Chang-Ki;Kim, Yong-Ki;Park, Jong-Ho;Hong, Sung-Jun;Ji, Hyeong-Jin;Han, Eun-Jung;Yoon, Jung-Chul
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.872-878
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    • 2014
  • This study aimed to enhance storage and freshness of strawberry fruits and foliage vegetables by spray treatment with Chlorella vulgaris as a bio-fertilizer. The tested strain, C. vulgaris CHK0008, was isolated from an organically cultivated rice paddy and identified as C. vulgaris by its morphology and 18S rDNA and 23S rDNA sequence homology. We successfully cultured C. vulgaris CHK0008 in BG11 modified medium (BG11MM) and adjusted $2.15{\times}10^6cell/mL$ C. vulgaris CHK0008 to one OD value by measuring the optical density at 680 nm using a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The soluble solid content of 'Seolhyang' and 'Yukbo' strawberry fruits treated by spray application with C. vulgaris CHK0008 was enhanced by 22.2% and 11.5% respectively, compared to untreated controls. Additionally, the decay rates of treated 'Seolhyang' and 'Yukbo' strawberry fruits decreased 63.8% and 74.4% respectively, compared to untreated control. Surface color changes and chlorosis of leaves in leaf vegetables such as lettuce, kale, red ornamental kale, white ornamental kale and beet were observed in samples treated with water spray for 10 days after cold storage. However, the decay rate of leafy vegetables treated with foliar application of 25% C. vulgaris CHK0008 liquid culture was significantly decreased compared to that of the untreated control during storage at $4^{\circ}C$.

'Nokyang', Whole Crop Forage Barley Cultivar with the Stay-Green Character, Resistance to Viral Disease and High-Yielding (내병 다수 후기녹체성 청보리 신품종 '녹양')

  • Park, Tae-Il;Oh, Young-Jin;Park, Hyoung-Ho;Park, Jong-Chul;Cho, Sang-Kyun;Noh, Jae-Hwan;Kim, Dae-Wook;Song, Tae-Hwa;Chae, Hyun-Seok;Jeung, Jae-Hyun;Hong, Ki-Heung;Bae, Jeong-Suk;Huh, Jae-Young;Ku, Ja-Hwan;Park, Ki-Hun;Han, Ouk-Kyu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.57-62
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    • 2015
  • "Nokyang" (Hordeum vulgare L.), a new whole-crop silage barley cultivar, was developed by the breeding team at the Department of Rice and Winter Cereal Crop, National Institute of Crop Science, RDA, Korea in 2012. It was derived from combining "Nagyoung" and breeding line "SB77368-B-145". Among the combinations made in 2001, a promising line, "SB01T2017", showed good characteristics in terms of potential forage yield in the yield trial at Iksan from 2007 to 2009. In 2009, the promising line was designated as "Iksan457" and placed in regional yield trials at six locations around Korea for three years from 2010 to 2012, and was released under the name of "Nokyang." It has the growth habit of a group III creeping plant type, with a light-green leaf and common spike. Its average heading and maturing dates were on May 6 and June 4, respectively, which were later than cultivar "Youngyang." "Nokyang" also showed strong winter hardiness, and a resistance to shattering and barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) similar to those of the check cultivar. The best thing among the traits of one is a new good quality with the plant green at the latter growing period. The average forage dry matter (DM) yields in the regional yield trial were about 12.8 and 11.5 MT $ha^{-1}$ in upland and paddy field, respectively, which were higher than those of the check cultivar, by 7% and 2%, respectively. This cultivar would be suitable for an area of the Korean peninsula where the daily minimum temperature in January is above $-8^{\circ}C$.

Analysis of Characteristics of the Abandoned Tumulus Site Located at the East Side of the Silla Era Hwang Bok Sa (皇福寺) Site (신라 황복사지(皇福寺址) 동편 폐고분지(廢古墳址)의 성격)

  • Jang, Hojin;Kang, Ryangji
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.88-105
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    • 2020
  • This study examined existing theories of the characteristics of the abandoned tumulus site located at the east side of the Silla era Hwang Bok Sa (皇福寺) site and attempted an archaeological approach based on the derived facts, combining both the results of this study and those of a recently conducted excavation survey. The results of this investigation exhibited the following outcomes. First, the excavation survey revealed that the huge rounded stones discovered on the surface of a rice paddy field located at the east side of the Silla era Hwang Bok Sa were all protecting stones, processed on the front side in the form of a bow, designating a royal tomb. Most of these protecting stones had deviated from their original positions due to subsequent farming practices and some had been re-cycled for construction purposes as fences or foundations for structures built in the Silla era. Considering the prevailing belief in the concept of reincarnation, the bone rank system, and royal authority in the Silla era at that time, it would seem likely that the royal tombs were not intentionally destroyed. Therefore, it is speculated that the stones in this royal tomb were abandoned during construction of the tomb of the King at that time and then naturally re-cycled as building components used in construction sites in later years. Second, this study comparatively analyzed the scale and quality of the supporting stones at the royal tomb site in Guhwang-dong. The analysis results verified that those supporting stones were the same stones from the royal tomb used as supporting stones for statues symbolizing the twelve earthly branch spirits that were restored at the site of the tower at the royal tomb. This confirmed that the statues of the twelve earthly branches spirits sitting at the Hwang Bok Sa site were the protecting stones from a different royal tomb. Accordingly, the conclusion that has been generally accepted to date-that the protecting stones of the statues of twelve earthly branches spirits sitting at Hwang Bok Sa site were probably moved from the royal tomb site in Guhwang-dong-must inevitably be modified. Third, based on the structure of the protecting stones and type of the royal tomb, it is speculated that the individual buried in the royal tomb at Guhwang-dong is one of the kings who followed King Heungdeok and similar times of the buried person of the tomb that was considered as King Gyeongdeok, and who was before the buried person of the tomb that was considered as Kim Yu-sin. In addition, when considering the historical art patterns on the supporting stones of the statues that symbolize the twelve earthly branches spirits, which were moved to the site of the tower at the royal tomb, it is reasonable to believe that the person buried at the royal tomb at Guhwang-dong is likely one of the Kings of the late Silla era of the 9th century.

Application of Animal Excreta for Forage Production on Uncultivated Rice Paddy (유휴 논토양에서 가축분뇨를 이용한 조사료의 생산)

  • 이주삼;조익환;안종호;김성규
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.175-185
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    • 1995
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the optimum rates of animal excreta(cattle slurry-N) for the highest dry matter production and improve the nutritive values of reed canarygrass with different cutting frequency. The results are summarized as follows; The highest relative dry matter yields for annual dry matter yield were 42.2% and 45.2% at 3rd cut in 3 and 4 cuttings, and 34.7% at 4th cut in 5 cuttings, respectively. The annual dry matter yields of non slurry-N application plot showed were from 6.8 tons to 8.0 tons/ha in all cutting frequencies. The highest annual dry matter yield obtained was in 3 cuttings. The annual dry matter yield increased with an increase of applied rates of slurry-N in all cutting frequencies. Annual dry matter yield was produced by 3.3 tons/ha at rates of 90 kg N/ha/cut in 3 cuttings, and more 1.7 tonsha and 2.4 tons/ha at rates of 30 kg N/ha/cut in 4 and 5 cuttings than that of non slurry-N application plots. The contents of crude protein were 12.01% and 15.0% at rates of 90 kg N/ha/cut in 3 and 4 cuttings, and 16.59% at rates of 120 kg N/ha/cut in 5 cuttings, respectively. On the contrary, the content of acid detergent fibre(ADF) showed the lowest values at same rates of slurry-N application in each cutting. J. The average content of crude protein was significantly increased with cutting frequencies, and they were 11.43%, 13.53% and 15.53% in 3, 4 and 5 cuttings, respectively. The average contents of acid detergent fibre(ADF) were 40.27%, 40.53% and 37.06% in 3, 4 and 5 cuttings. The values of 5 cuttings were significantly lower than other cutting frequencies, but the values of acid detergent fibre(ADF) was not significantly different between 3 and 4 cuttings. 6. The efficiency of dry matter production to slurry-N application rates showed the highest values of 18.9 kg and 15.7 kg DM/kg N at rates of 30 kg N/ha/cut in 3 and 5 cuttings, and 16.3 kg DM/kg/ N at rates of 90 kg N/ ha/cut in 4 cuttings. The efficiency of total nitrogen yield to slurry-N application rates were the highest values of 0.51 kg and 0.43 kg W k g N at rates of 30 kg N/ha/cut in 4 and 5 cuttings, and 0.52 kg TN/kg N at rates of 90 kg N/ha/cut in 3 cuttings, respectively. 7. The ranges of economic slurry-N rates were estimated as the 107.2-151.0 kglha, 359.1-375.7 kgha and 160.3-236.9 kg/ha in 3, 4 and 5 cuttings, and marginal dry matter yields were 9.6-10.0 tons/ha, 12.4-12.6 tons/ha and 9.0-9.7 tons/ha in 3, 4 and 5 cuttings, respectively. 8. The limiting sluny-N application rates to maintain the highest dry matter yields were estimated to be 420.0 kg/ ha, 440.6 kg/ha and 666.3 kg/ha in 3, 4 and 5 cuttings.

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Studies on Characteristics of Sprouting and Occurrence on paddy field of Water Chestnut(Eleocharis Kuroguwai Ohwi) (올방개 괴경(塊莖)의 맹아(萌芽) 특성(特性)과 본답(本畓)에서의 발생(發生)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, H.D.;Park, J.S.;Park, K.Y.;Choi, Y.J.;Yu, C.J.;Rho, Y.D.;Kwon, Y.W.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.264-281
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    • 1996
  • As a consequence of wide use of herbicides, Eleocharis kuroguwai Ohwi became a dorminant problem weed for rice cultivation in Korea. To understand the establishment of the weed, experiments on physio-ecological characteristics were carried out sprouting and occurrence, the results could be summarized as follows: Sprouting percentage remained 68 to 73% until the time of field emergence, indicating many of the them are still dormant. The proportion of the dormant tubers were greater for the smaller than the bigger tubers. Apical dominance was apparent in sprouting, with 84% of tuber sprouted from only one of the apical buds. Tubers sprouted from 2 or 3 buds were less than 20%, and were mostly from the bigger tubers. When the shoot growth was compared, by controlling the others, ones from apical and the next 3 buds showed similar vigorous growth, but the later ones showed poorer growth. For the longevity of tubers, deep soil storage appeared to be better than storage in temperature controlled room to 2~$3^{\circ}C$. Emergence of E. kuroguwai was better in clay soil than in sand, and the possible depth for emergence in clay soil appeared to be up to 21cm, but was 15cm in sand. When tubers were exposed to salt solutions before emergence tests, E. kuroguwai appeared to be much sensitive to salts than S.planiculmis. Among the tubers formed in previous year, 12.7% remained still viable until the end of next crop season, but with relatively strong dormancy. The first emergence was about 10 days after planting at ordinary cropping seasons, and the days to the maximum shoot number stage were 60~90 from planting. The duration was extended at early transplanting, and shoot number, leaves per shoot, and tubers developed per plant were also greater at early plantings. The 6th order offshoots were developing when E. kuroguwai was planted at early season. When planted at later seasons, generation and the number of offshoots was reduced planted at early season. When planted at later seasons, generation and the number of offshoots was reduced and the number of tubers, runner and rhizome lengths was also reduced.

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Effects of the Development of Cracks into Deeper Zone on Productivity and Dryness of the Clayey Paddy Field (점토질 논 토양의 심층화가 토지생산성 및 유면건조에 미치는 영향)

  • 김철기
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.3059-3088
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    • 1973
  • The Object of research was laid on the dry paddy field which had a low level of underground water, rather than on a paddy field with a high level of underground water. In the treatment of the clay paddy field before transplanting we employed 3 kinds of methods; deep plowing, development of cracks by drying the surface of the field under which pipe drain was built. This study was to find which one, among these three methods, is the most effective to let roots extend to deep zone and increase the yield of rice and at the same time, for trafficability of large scale machinery which will be introduced to the harvest, in the light of the earth bearing capacity in relation with underground drainage. In the treatments of plots, 1) the kyong plot was plowed 39 days before transplanting and dried, 2) the kyun plot was plowed again 2days before transplanting after plowing 39 days before transplanting, leveling field surface in the saturation with water and developing the cracks by drying, 3) the kyunam plot was plowed again 2 days before transplanting after setting the drainage pipe and at the same time plowing 39 days before transplanting, leveling field surface in the saturation with water and developing the cracks by drying. Also each plot above had three different levels of soil depth, respectively; that is 15cm, 25cm, 35cm. The kyong plot with 15cm-depth was he control. The results obtained were as follows; 1. The kyunam plot showed a remarkably lager amount of water consumption by better underground drainage than the kyong and the kyun plot, and the kyong plot indicated a greater amount of water consumption than the kyun plot. Therefore the amount of available rainfall was decreased in the order of kyunam>kyong>kyun. The net duty of water decreased in the order of kyunam>kyong>kyun and its showed about 105cm in depth at the kyunam plot, about 70cm in depth at the kyong plot and about 45cm in depth at kyun plot, regardless of soil depth. 2. According to the tendency that the weight of the total root was effected by the maximum depth of the crack, it seemed that the root development was more affected by the depth of the crack than by only the crack itself. The weight of the total roots tended to increase as the depth of the crack got deeper and deeper, and the weight of the total roots was increased in the order of kyun<kyunam<kyong. 3. In the growing of the plant height, the difference did not appear at the beginning of growing(peak period of tillering) of any plot, But for the mid period of growing(ending period of tillering) to the period of young panicle formation, the deeper the depth of plot is, the more the growing goes down. On the contrary at the late period of growing, growth was more vigorous in the plot with deep depth than in the plot with shallow depth. Since the midperiod of growing, in the light of experimental treatment, the kyun plot was not better in growing than the other two plots and no remarkable defference was shown between the kyunam and the kyong plot, but the kyunam plot had the tendency of superiority in growing plant height. 4. As the depth of plot went deeper, the decreasing tendency was shown in the number of tillers through a whole period of growingi. When the above results were observed concering each plot of experimental treatment, the kyun plot was always smaller in the number of tiilers than the kyunam and the kvong plot, and the kyong plot was slightly larger than the kyunam plot in the number of tillers. 5. When each plot of the different experimental treatments was compared with the control plot(15-kyong), yield(weight of grains) was increased by 17% for the 35-kyong plot, by 10% for the 35-kyunam and yields for the other plots were less or nomore than the control plot. On the whole, as the depth of plot went deeper, yields for plots was increased in the order of kyong>kyunam>kyun. 1% of significance between the levels of depths and 5% of significance between the treatments were shown. 6. The depth of consumptive water which was more effective on the weight of grains is that of the last half period. When the depth of consumptive water was increased at the range of less than 2.7cm/day in the 15cm plot, 3.0cm/day in the 25cm plot and 3.3cm/day in the 35cm plot, the weight of grains was increased, and at the same time the weight of grains was increased as the depth of plot went deeper. The deeper plots was of advantage to the productivity at the same depth of consumptive water. 7. The increase in the weight of grains in propertion to the weighte of root showed a tendency to increase depending on the depth of plot at each plot of the same weight of roots. The weight of roots and grains together increasezd in the order of kyun>kyunam>kyong, considering each treatment of experimental plot. The weight of grains was in relation to the minimum water content ratio during the midperiod of surface drainage and the average earth temperature was mainly affected by the minimum water content ratio because it was relatively increased in proportion to the water content ratio(at less than 40%) 8. The weight ratio of straw to grain showed an increasing tendency at the plot of shallow depth and had a relation of an inversely exponental function to the weight of roots. At the same depth of plot except the 15cm plot, the weight ratio of straw to grain was increased in proportion to the depth of consumptive water. The weight of grains was increased as the depth of consumptive water was increased to some extent, but at the same time the weight of ratio of straw to grain was increased. 9. At a certain texture of soils the increase in the amount of the cracks depends on meteorological conditions, especially increase in amounts of pan evaporation. So if it rains during the progressing of field drying the cracks largely decrease. The amount of cracks of clay soil had relation of inversely exponental function to the water content ratio(at more than 25%). The maximum depth of crack kept generally a constant value at less than 30% of water content ratio. 10. The cone index showed the tendency that it was propertional to the amount of cracks within a certain limit but more or less inversely proportional over a certain limit. The water content ratio at the limit may be about 25%. 11. The increase in the cone index with the progressing of time after final surface drainage showed the tendency that it was proportional to the depth of consumptive water at the last half of growing period. Based on the same depth of if the cone index in the kyunam plot was much larger than in the other two plots and that in the kyong plot was much smaller than in the kyun plott, as long as the depth of plot was deeper, especially in the 35-kyong plot. 12. In the light of a situation where water content ratio of soil decreased and the cone index increased after final surface drainage the porogress of the field dryness was much more rapid in the kyunam plot than in the kyong plot and the kyun plot, especially slowest in the kyong plot. In the plot with deeper zone the progress was much slower. The progress requiring the value of the cone index, $2.5kg/cm^2$, that working machinary can move easily on the field changed with the time of final surface drainage and the amount of rainfall, but without nay rain it required, in the kyunam plot, about 44mm in total amount of pan evaporation and more than 50mm in the other two plots. Therefore the drying in the kyunam plot was generally more rapid in the kyunam plot was generally more rapid over 2days than in the kyun plot, and especially may be more rapid over 5days than in the 35-kyong plot.

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Mineral Nutrition of the Field-Grown Rice Plant -[I] Recovery of Fertilizer Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in Relation to Nutrient Uptake, Grain and Dry Matter Yield- (포장재배(圃場栽培) 수도(水稻)의 무기영양(無機營養) -[I] 삼요소이용률(三要素利用率)과 양분흡수량(養分吸收量), 수량(收量) 및 건물생산량(乾物生産量)과(乾物生産量)의 관계(關係)-)

  • Park, Hoon
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.99-111
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    • 1973
  • Percentage recovery or fertilizer nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by rice plant(Oriza sativa L.) were investigated at 8, 10, 12, 14 kg/10a of N, 6 kg of $P_2O_5$ and 8 kg of $K_2O$ application level in 1967 (51 places) and 1968 (32 places). Two types of nutrient contribution for the yield, that is, P type in which phosphorus firstly increases silicate uptake and secondly silicate increases nitrogen uptake, and K type in which potassium firstly increases P uptake and secondly P increases nitrogen uptake were postulated according to the following results from the correlation analyses (linear) between percentage recovery of fertilizer nutrient and grain or dry matter yields and nutrient uptake. 1. Percentage frequency of minus or zero recovery occurrence was 4% in nitrogen, 48% in phosphorus and 38% in potassium. The frequency distribution of percentage recovery appeared as a normal distribution curve with maximum at 30 to 40 recovery class in nitrogen, but appeared as a show distribution with maximum at below zero class in phosphorus and potassium. 2. Percentage recovery (including only above zero) was 33 in N (above 10kg/10a), 27 in P, 40 in K in 1967 and 40 in N, 20 in P, 46 in Kin 1968. Mean percentage recovery of two years including zero for zero or below zero was 33 in N, 13 in P and 27 in K. 3. Standard deviation of percentage recovery was greater than percentage recovery in P and K and annual variation of CV (coefficient of variation) was greatest in P. 4. The frequency of significant correlation between percentage recovery and grain or dry matter yield was highest in N and lowest in P. Percentage recovery of nitrogen at 10 kg level has significant correlation only with percentage recovery of P in 1967 and only with that of potassium in 1968. 5. The correlation between percentage recovery and dry matter yield of all treatments showed only significant in P in 1967, and only significant in K in 1968, Negative correlation coefficients between percentage recovery and grain or dry matter yield of no or minus fertilizer plots were shown only in K in 1967 and only in P in 1968 indicating that phosphorus fertilizer gave a distinct positive role in 1967 but somewhat' negative role in 1968 while potassium fertilizer worked positively in 1968 but somewhat negatively in 1967. 6. The correlation between percentage recovery of nutrient and grain yield showed similar tendency as with dry matter yield but lower coefficients. Thus the role of nutrients was more precisely expressed through dry matter yield. 7. Percentage recovery of N very frequently had significant correlation with nitrogen uptake of nitrogen applied plot, and significant negative correlation with nitrogen uptake of minus nitrogen plot, and less frequently had significant correlation with P, K and Si uptake of nitrogen applied plot. 8. Percentage recovery of P had significant correlation with Si uptake of all treatments and with N uptake of all treatments except minus phosphorus plot in 1967 indicating that phosphorus application firstly increases Si uptake and secondly silicate increases nitrogen uptake. Percentage recovery of P also frequently had significant correlation with P or K uptake of nitrogen applied plot. 9. Percentage recovery of K had significant correlation with P uptake of all treatments, N uptake of all treatments except minus phosphorus plot, and significant negative correlation with K uptake of minus K plot and with Si uptake of no fertilizer plot or the highest N applied plot in 1968, and negative correlation coefficient with P uptake of no fertilizer or minus nutrient plot in 1967. Percentage recovery of K had higher correlation coefficients with dry matter yield or grain yield than with K uptake. The above facts suggest that K application firstly increases P uptake and secondly phosphorus increases nitrogen uptake for dry matter yied. 10. Percentage recovery of N had significant higher correlation coefficient with grain yield or dry matter yield of minus K plot than with those of minus phosphorus plot, and had higher with those of fertilizer plot than with those of minus K plot. Similar tendency was observed between N uptake and percentage recovery of N among the above treatments. Percentage recovery of K had negative correlation coefficient with grain or-dry matter yield of no fertilizer plot or minus nutrient plot. These facts reveal that phosphorus increases nitrogen uptake and when phosphorus or nitrogen is insufficient potassium competatively inhibits nitrogen uptake. 11. Percentage recovery of N, Pand K had significant negative correlation with relative dry matter yield of minus phosphorus plot (yield of minus plot x 100/yield of complete plot; in 1967 and with relative grain yield of minus K plot in 1968. These results suggest that phosphorus affects tillering or vegetative phase more while potassium affects grain formation or Reproductive phase more, and that clearly show the annual difference of P and K fertilizer effect according to the weather. 12. The correlation between percentage recovery of fertilizer and the relative yield of minus nutrient plat or that of no fertilizer plot to that of minus nutrient plot indicated that nitrogen is the most effective factor for the production even in the minus P or K plot. 13. From the above facts it could be concluded that about 40 to 50 percen of paddy fields do rot require P or K fertilizer and even in the case of need the application amount should be greatly different according to field and weather of the year, especially in phosphorus.

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