• Title, Summary, Keyword: Rice paddy

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Changes in Enzyme Activities of Rice with Respect to the Viviparity and the Duration of Lodging Time

  • Hwang, Tai-Jeong;Lee, Won-Jong;Shin, Jin-Chul;Lee, Chul-Won;Kim, Suk-Shin
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.402-406
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    • 2009
  • The Japonica cultivar 'Janganbyeo' was cultivated and about half of paddy field was totally lodged at 30 days after heading. Both lodged paddy and unlodged paddy were harvested at intervals. The lodged paddy and brown rice did not show any signs of viviparity until the $4^{th}$ day of lodging. The activities of $\alpha$-amylase, diastase, and lipase of lodged paddy and brown rice began to increase on the $2^{nd}$ day of lodging and then increased slowly afterwards. The activities of protease and phytase of lodged paddy and brown rice reached the maximum values on the $2^{nd}$ day and then decreased until the final day of lodging. In contrast, unlodged paddy and brown rice showed relatively small increase in viviparity and in activities of $\alpha$-amylase, diastase, protease, lipase, and phytase. Especially, activities of diastase and lipase were observed even in unlodged paddy and brown rice.

Development of a Constituent Prediction Model of Domestic Rice Using Near Infrared Reflection Analyzer (II)-Prediction of Brown and Milled Rice Protein Content and Brown Rice Yield from Undried Paddy (근적외선 분석계를 이용한 국내산 쌀의 성분예측모델 개발(II)-생벼를 이용한 현미.백미의 단백질 함량과 현미수율 예측)

  • ;;J.R. Warashina
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
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    • pp.171-177
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    • 1998
  • The part Ⅰ was for developing regression models to predict the moisture content, protein content and viscosity of brown and milled rice using Near Unfrared (NIR) Reflectance analyzer. The purpose of this study(part Ⅱ) is to measure fundamental data required for the prediction of rice quality , and to develop regression models to predict the protein content of brown and milled rice, brown rice yield from undreid paddy powder by using Near Infrared (NIR) Reflectance analyzer. The results of this study were summarized as follows . The predicted values of protein contents obtained from the undried paddy powder were will correlated to the measured values from brown and milled rice. The predicted yields of brown rice from undried paddy powder were not well correlated to be lab measured values from dried paddy. Continuous study in wavelength selection and of constituent relationship is necessary for practical application.

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Development of a Constituent Prediction Model of Domestic Rice Using Near Infrared Reflectance Analyzer(II) - Prediction of Brown and Milled Rice Protein Content and Brown Rice Yield from undried Paddy - (근적외선 분석계를 이용한 국내산 쌀의 성분 예측모델 개발(II) -생벼를 이용한 현미.백미의 단백질 함량과 현미수율 예측-)

  • 한충수;연광석;고과이랑
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.253-258
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    • 1998
  • The part I was for developing regression models to predict the moisture content, protein content and viscosity of brown and milled rice using Near Infrared(NIR) Reflectance analyzer. The purpose of this study(part II) is to measure fundamental data required for the prediction of rice quality, and to develop regression models to predict the protein content of brown and milled rice, brown rice yield from undried paddy powder by using Near Infrared(NIR) Reflectance analyzer. The results of this study were summarized as follows : The predicted values of protein contents obtained from the undried paddy powder were well correlated to the measured values from brown and milled rice. The predicted yields of brown rice from undried paddy powder were not well correlated to the lab measured values from dried paddy. Continuous study in wavelength selection and of constituent relationship is necessary for practical application.

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Comparisons of inorganic amounts in paddy fields, rice straw and seed with varying severity of brown spot caused by Cochliobolus miyabeanus

  • Yeh, Wan-Hae;Park, Yang-Ho;Kim, I-Yeol;Kim, Yong-Ki;Shim, Hong-Sik
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Plant Pathology Conference
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    • pp.91.2-92
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    • 2003
  • In order to elucidate influence of nutritional status on rice brown spot caused by Cochliobolus miyabeanus, rice cultivation soils and rice straws were collected from paddy fields where ice brown spot occurred severely, moderately, a little and none respectively. Rice plant materials were analyzed to measure inorganic nutrients in rice straws and rice seeds. Analysis of chemical properties of rice paddy soil showed that EC and contents of available phosphate, cation and silicic acid in soil with severe infections were lower than those in healthy soil. This result suggests that amount and holding capacity of nutrient contents in soils collected from paddy field with infection of C. miyabeanus are relatively low compared to those in soils collected from healthy paddy field. Analysis of inorganic nutrients in rice straws showed that amount of macronutrient elements such as silicic acids, available phosphate and total nitrogen, and micronutrients such as copper, iron and zinc in rice straws from paddy field with infection were lower than those in healthy soil. Especially amount of iron and silicic acid were very low in rice straws from paddy field soils with infection Amount of inorganic nutrients such as iron and zinc in rice seeds was the same trend as those of rice straws. These results showed that one of major factors affecting rice brown spot was amount of nutrient contents in soil and rice straw.

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Insect Pests Occurrence and Control in Organic and Conventional Rice Paddy Field (유기 및 관행벼 재배지 충해 발생 및 방제에 관한 연구)

  • Lee Sang-Guei;Lee Yong-Hoan;Kim Ji-Soo;Lee Byong-Mo;Kim Mi-Ja;Shin Jae-Hoon;Kim Han-Myeng;Choi Doo-Hoi
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.301-314
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    • 2005
  • Insect pests were surveyed in 5 Rice paddy field areas of Organic paddy field and conventional paddy field. At the each rice-growth period, the occurrence rate of 'Small brawn plant hopper was high at the case of duck raising and rice bran farming on middle stage of rice paddy field in Gang-Hwa region. The occurrence rate of Rice water weevil was high at the conventional paddy field on the early stage of rice paddy field in Yeo-Ju region. In the Hong-Seong region, the occurrence rate of 'Rice water weevil' and 'Green rice leafhopper' was high at the 'duck raising compare to the conventional farming on the early stage of rice paddy field. According to each period, the occurrence rate of insect was high at late stage of rice paddy field, and there was no difference between each region. It showed high-occurrence tendency at duck pasture farming rice paddy field. The major natural enemies were spiders and parasites. Theridiidae and Linyphiidae were highly occurred on the conventional farming rice paddy field in Hong-Seong. Web builders containing Theridiidae, Linyphiidae and Tetragnathidae was occurred more than wandering spiders containing Lycosidae, Clubionidae and Pisauridae at various regions, and then occurrence of spiders was different at the various regions but was not different at each farming system.

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Development of Brown Rice Separator Using Electrostatic Properties of Rice -Electrostatic Properties of Rice- (정전특성(靜電特性)을 이용(利用)한 현미(玄米) 분리기(分離機)의 개발(開發)에 관한 기초(基礎) 연구(硏究) - 벼의 정전특성(靜電特性)에 관하여 -)

  • Noh, S.H.;Yoon, Y.K.;Lee, J.W.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.272-284
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    • 1992
  • As a preliminary step toward the development of a multipurpose electrostatic separator for agricultural use, this study investigated the effect of moisture level, geometrical characteristics and the electric field strength of a charging device on the electrostatic charging of brown rice, unhulled paddy, small stones and broken rice that are produced during the milling process. The results are summarized as follows. 1. Average electrostatic charge per unit mass of paddy is greater than that of brown rice. 2. Charge per unit mass of rice kernel increases linearly with moisture content and electric field strength of the charging device, presenting no correlations with length or thickness of rice kernel. 3. Frequency distributions in electrostatic charge per unit mass of paddy and brown rice kernels indicated that the portion, not overlapped, ranged from 10 to 29% with Japonica rice and from 32 to 49% with Indica rice. 4. The difference in moisture content between paddy and brown rice must be over 6%, if they are to be electrostatically separated to over 95%. 5. Theoretical portions of brown rice to be separated from a mixture primarily by the electrostatic charge and secondarily by the length or by the thickness were 95~100% and 27~76%, respectively. 6. Frequency distribution of electrostatic charge for broken kernels overlapped that of paddy and brown rice, which the small stones didn't.

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Development of Korean Paddy Rice Yield Prediction Model (KRPM) using Meteorological Element and MODIS NDVI (기상요소와 MODIS NDVI를 이용한 한국형 논벼 생산량 예측모형 (KRPM)의 개발)

  • Na, Sang-Il;Park, Jong-Hwa;Park, Jin-Ki
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.54 no.3
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    • pp.141-148
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    • 2012
  • Food policy is considered as the most basic and central issue for all countries, while making efforts to keep each country's food sovereignty and enhance food self-sufficiency. In the case of Korea where the staple food is rice, the rice yield prediction is regarded as a very important task to cope with unstable food supply at a national level. In this study, Korean paddy Rice yield Prediction Model (KRPM) developed to predict the paddy rice yield using meteorological element and MODIS NDVI. A multiple linear regression analysis was carried out by using the NDVI extracted from satellite image. Six meteorological elements include average temperature; maximum temperature; minimum temperature; rainfall; accumulated rainfall and duration of sunshine. Concerning the evaluation for the applicability of the KRPM, the accuracy assessment was carried out through correlation analysis between predicted and provided data by the National Statistical Office of paddy rice yield in 2011. The 2011 predicted yield of paddy rice by KRPM was 505 kg/10a at whole country level and 487 kg/10a by agroclimatic zones using stepwise regression while the predicted value by KOrea Statistical Information Service was 532 kg/10a. The characteristics of changes in paddy rice yield according to NDVI and other meteorological elements were well reflected by the KRPM.

Estimation of Paddy Rice Crop Coefficients for FAO Penman-Monteith and Modified Penman Method (논벼에 대한 Penman-Monteith와 FAO Modified Penman 공식의 작물 계수 산정)

  • Yoo Seung-Hwan;Choi Jin-Yong;Jang Min-Won
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.13-23
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    • 2006
  • In 1998, Food and Agriculture Organization addressed that FAO Modified Penman method possibly over-estimates consumptive use of water comparing to the measured reference crop evapotranspiration (PET) and Penman-Monteith method can be better choice for accurate PET estimation. Nevertheless it is still difficult to find research efforts about paddy rice crop coefficient for Penman-Monteith method. This study aims to estimate paddy rice crop coefficients for Penman-Monteith and FAO modified Penman methods in the manner of comparing two equations. To estimate the crop coefficients, measured evapotranspiration data during 1982-1986 and 1995-1997 were used. The average Penman-Monteith crop coefficients ranged from 0.78 to 1.58 for translated paddy rice and from 0.87 to 1.74 for flood-direct seeded paddy rice. The average FAO Modified Penman crop coefficients ranged from 0.65 to 1.35 for translated paddy rice and from 0.70 to 1.58 for flood-direct seeded paddy rice.

Influence of $K_{2}O$ - Fertilizer Application on Growth, Yield and Lodging of Paddy Rice

  • Kwon Byung-Sun
    • Plant Resources
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.32-35
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to investigate the influence of $K_{2}O$ fertilizer application on growth, yield and lodging resistance of rice. Culm length and panicle length were lowest at the treatment of fertilizer level, $N-P_{2}O_{5}-K_{2}O=16-8-8$ plot but number of panicle, percentage of fruitful culm, $1{\ell}$ grain weights of paddy rice and brown rice, 1,000 grains weight of brown rice, brown rice ratio, yields of paddy rice and brown rice were highest at the treatment of fertilizer level, $N-P_{2}O_{5}-K_{2}O=16-8-8$ kg/10a plot. Bending moment, breaking strength and lodging index were lowest at the treatment of fertilizer level, $N-P_{2}O_{5}-K_{2}O=16-8-8$ kg/10a plot. Judging from the results reported above, an optimum fertilizer level of rice for lodging resistance is most likely be $N-P_{2}O_{5}-K_{2}O=16-8-8$ kg/10a treatment.

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Effects of Purifying Rice Paddy in Reducing Nutrient Loadings from Rice Paddy fields area using Free Range Ducks and Rice Bran (정화논에 의한 벼 친환경재배단지 발생 영양염류 저감효과)

  • Ko, Jee-Yeon;Lee, Jae-Saeng;Woo, Koan-Sik;Seo, Myung-Chul;Kang, Jong-Rae;Song, Seok-Bo;Oh, Byeong-Gun;Jung, Ki-Yeol;Yun, Eul-Soo;Choi, Kyung-Jin;Nam, Min-Hee;Lee, Young-Han
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.132-139
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    • 2010
  • To manage the effluent nutrients amounts from rice paddy fields using free range ducks or rice bran, we evaluated the effects of a purifying paddy field which is no fertilizer, no pesticides, and dense rice seedling having a concept of constructed wetland. The experimental paddy field was located at downstream in the watershed of ducks using rice culture area in Milyang. The purifying paddy of land design were treated with seeding method, and vegetation type. As land design, direct seeding on plane, and direct seeding on high-ridge field in 2007. Planting rice only, and planting rice with water hyacinth were treated as vegetation type in purifying paddy in 2008. The purifying paddy fields were effective to reduce amount of T-N and T-P contents in effluent to 33.2~45.3%, and 53.1~55.4%, respectively. The direct seeding on high-ridge treatment, having long residence time of effluent water was more effective than plane plot as T-N 0.29 $g^{-1}m^{-2}d^{-1}$, and T-P 0.031 $g^{-1}m^{-2}d^{-1}$. The planting rice with water hyacinth treatment was effective than planting rice only as T-N 0.23 $g^{-1}m^{-2}d^{-1}$, and T-P 0.049 $g^{-1}m^{-2}d^{-1}$. The optimum area of purifying paddy field to treats all effluent were found out 3.2~4.7% of rice culture area using free range ducks, and rice bran at upper stream.