• Title, Summary, Keyword: Rice paddy

Search Result 2,071, Processing Time 0.049 seconds

The Status and Characteristics of Wetlands Created from within Abandoned Rice Paddy Fields in South Korea (유휴농경지에서 발생되는 습지의 현황 및 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Mi-Young;Yim, Yu-Ra;Kim, Kwi-Gon;Joo, Young-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
    • /
    • v.9 no.2
    • /
    • pp.1-15
    • /
    • 2006
  • As the imports of foreign agricultural products are liberalized and the consumption of agricultural products declines, abandoned rice paddy fields continues to rise. However, such abandoned rice paddy fields has not been precisely surveyed yet. In this backdrop, a necessity to develop technology to utilize such abandoned rice paddy fields has emerged. Utilization of abandoned rice paddy fields as wetlands may be a good example. This study aimed to survey the current status and characteristics of wetlands created within abandoned rice paddy fields by selecting abandoned rice paddy fields throughout the nation and conducting field surveys on the sites that had transformed into wetlands. The abandoned rice paddy fields almost transformed into wetland and the types of wetlands transformed from abandoned rice paddy fields were mainly Inland/Moutain/Depression/Abandoned rice paddy fields/Marsh/Phragmites communis community and Inland/Moutain/Depression/Abandoned rice paddy fields/Swamp/Salix koreensis community. Abandoned rice paddy fields that had transformed into wetlands was depending heavily on waterways for water supply than other reservoirs and lakes do. Abandoned rice paddy fields transformed into wetlands was most observed in mountainous area. Abandoned rice paddy fields are because agricultural land is no longer profitable due to international and social changes and is not cultivated as government policy. Wetland period and dimension originated from abandoned rice paddy fields are very various and its surrounding land its mostly forest and the next largest follow roads and rural community. The abandoned rice paddy fields transformed into wetlands is mostly deserted currently. Despite their value as wetlands, no restoration and utilization efforts are made in Korea today. Therefore, it is imperative to conduct a precise current status survey on these areas and introduce management and restoration plans at the government level in the case of important habitats.

Yield of Rice, Analysis of Economics and Environmental Impact in Duck-Paddy Rice (오리제초 수도작의 벼 수량, 경제성 및 환경친화성 평가)

  • 손상목;김영호;임경수
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
    • /
    • v.9 no.3
    • /
    • pp.45-71
    • /
    • 2001
  • The duck-rice forming system is increasingly spread up throughout Korea since 1992. It is discussed the rice field, rice quality, weed and pest management in the duck-rice weeding system compared to conventional farming system. Moreover the optimizing duck population, system management and fertilizer application rate were reported. Energy input and output by duck-rice farming system were carefully compared with those of low input sustainable paddy field and conventional farming paddy field. To find out the environmentally sound function of duck-rice system, the total nitrogen in paddy soil and paddy water, and nitrogen cycle in paddy rice cultivation system were analysed. finally the input and output were calculated, and ecological characteristic were determined in terms of nitrogen balance, labor input, animal input, renewable energy input, turnover of soil organic matter, energy loss, non-renewable indirect and direct energy input. It was concluded duck-rice weeding system could be recommended in terms of net only environmentally sound, but also farmer's income. But there are still some research needs for successful adaption of duck-rice farming to investigate to determine the optimal population of duck in rice paddy field unit, release time of duckling, duck management after release, and strategy for duck marketing and duck processing.

  • PDF

THE POTENTIALS OF HULLING HIGH-MOISTURE PADDY

  • Pasikatan, M.C.;Manaligod, H.T.;Barredo, I.R.;Lantin, R.M.;Bell, M.A.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.926-936
    • /
    • 1996
  • Field hulling of high-moisture paddy followed by brown rice drying offers many advantages over the present paddy harvesting and drying offers many advantages over the present paddy harvesting and drying system. We did a preliminary study of the parameters for efficient hulling of high-moisture paddy using the IRRI Centrifugal Huller and two India rice varieties. Hulling capacity , hulling efficiency , brown rice recovery and percent whole bown rice were generally best at the impeller peripheral speed of 44m/s. A second pass through the huller increased hulling capacity , brown rice revery and hulling efficiency, but reduced percent whole brown rice. To solve this , we recommed separation of paddy after hulling and aspiration such that only unhulled and partially -hulled grains will be fed back to the huller. Paddy at even 23% m.c. could be effectively hulled by the impeller-type huller , but the results were generally better at 14 to 17% m.c. Only in percent whole brown rice did the 17 to 23% m.c. range performed better than that of 14% m.c. Difference invarietal response to hulling was observed.

  • PDF

The Importance and Multifunctions of Korean Paddy Fields

  • Cho Young-Son;Lee Byeong-Jin;Choe Zhin-Ryong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.51 no.2
    • /
    • pp.179-185
    • /
    • 2006
  • The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry announced in 2001 that the overall amount of paddy land set aside for rice will be cut down by 12% by 2005, decreasing from 1.08 million to 953,000 hectares. When evaluating the value of paddy rice systems, the multi-function of paddy systems in the monsoon climate is vital importance. The main functions of paddy rice systems are to conserve biodiversity and maintain sustainability. Some crucial environmental benefits of the paddy rice systems include: flood prevention, recharge of water resources, water purification, soil erosion and landslide prevention, soil purification, landscape preservation and air purification. The paddy rice systems in Korea, which are more diverse than upland crop systems, are known to be composed of 14 orders, 36 families and 134 species. The sustain ability of paddy rice production systems can never be overestimated. Rice is part of the culture and even the heart of spiritual life in the area under the monsoon climate. Therefore paddy rice systems should be preserved with the highest priority being the enhancement of the systems' multi-function. As an outlook to future research, the need of joint and interdisciplinary research projects between economists and natural scientists at inland as well as international levels were emphasized in establishing the development of counter-measure logic through actual proofed analysis.

Changes in Water Content Affect the Post-Milling Quality of Paddy Rice Stored at Low Temperature

  • Kim, Young-Keun;Hong, Seong-Gi;Lee, Sun-Ho;Park, Jong-Ryul;Choe, Jung-Seob
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
    • /
    • v.39 no.4
    • /
    • pp.336-344
    • /
    • 2014
  • Purpose: In this study, the effect of milling on paddy rice stored at low temperature, the changes in grain temperature of bulk storage bags exposed at room temperature, the post-milling water content of paddy rice, the whiteness of rice, and the rate of pest incidence were investigated and data were analyzed. Methods: Changes in temperature inside the bulk storage bags kept at low temperature and grain temperature after exposure to room temperature were measured. Experiments were conducted for identifying the reasons of post-milling quality changes in paddy rice stored at low temperature. Results: It was determined that a short-term increase of water content in paddy rice was directly related to surface condensation, and that rice should be milled at least 72 h after removal from low-temperature storage, in order to completely eliminate surface condensation of paddy rice kept in bulk storage bags. It was observed that post-milling quality of rice changed, but water content was maintained at high levels for more than 18 d in rice that was milled when condensation occurred, regardless of paper or vinyl packaging. Rice whiteness rapidly decreased in rice that was milled when condensation occurred, regardless of packaging, while rice that was milled 72 h or more after removal from low temperature storage did not show any significant changes in whiteness. No pest incidence was observed up to 12 d after removal from low temperature storage, regardless of packaging. Starting at 18 d, after removal from low temperature storage, rice that was milled when condensation occurred, was affected by pests, while 24 d after removal from low temperature storage, all portions of rice were affected by pests. Conclusions: Our results suggest that changes in post-milling quality of rice could be significantly reduced by exposing paddy rice to room temperature for at least 72 h before milling, in order to allow the increase of grain temperature and prevent surface condensation.

Occurrence and Distribution of Weedy Rice in Kyonggi Region

  • Cho, Young-Cheol;Park, Jung-Soo;Park, Kyeong-Yeol;Kim, Hee-Dong;Rho, Young-Deok
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.43 no.4
    • /
    • pp.254-258
    • /
    • 1998
  • Distribution and occurrence of weedy rice in Kyonggi region were surveyed in 1996. Weedy rice was observed in 1368 fields (54.9%) of total 2490 fields. Almost two thirds of paddy fields in northern mountainous region were contaminated by weedy rice and more severe contamination, three forths of paddy fields, was observed in suburban regions. In those regions, occurrence of weedy rice was greater than those in north-eastern inland and south-western plain regions. The occurrence of weedy rice was higher in water seeding cultivation (66.7%) than other cultivation methods. The number of weedy rice per 10a was 756.7 plants in direct seeding on dry paddy and 379.4 plants in water seeding. The occurrence of weedy rice was higher in fields planted by farmer's seeds than that of paddy fields cultivated by certified seeds, and the longer the farmer's seeds being used, the more weedy rice occurred in paddy field.

  • PDF

Assessment of Characteristics and Functions of Abandoned Rice Paddy Wetlands as Habitats for the Amphibia within Land Development Districts (택지개발지구내 양서류 서식처로서 묵논습지의 특성과 기능평가)

  • Lee, Eun Yeob;Moon, Seok Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
    • /
    • v.14 no.1
    • /
    • pp.35-42
    • /
    • 2011
  • The current study analyzed appropriateness of abandoned rice paddy wetlands as habitats for the Amphibia by assessing functions and value of abandoned rice paddy wetlands within land development districts as a habitat for living creatures and researching into the Amphibia living in the subject districts. For this purpose, the study designated abandoned rice paddy wetlands within Hwaseong A District and Pangyo B District under land development as subject lands. Those wetlands went through succession after abandonment of farming. Detailed study results are as follows. From classification of wetland types and an analysis of their characteristics, it was found that herbaceous plants such as smartweed communities, horsetail communities and reed communities, and woody plants such as pussy willow communities appeared in both districts. These abandoned rice paddy wetlands shows typical characteristics of palustrine wetlands. As a result of a vegetation structure research, it was observed that succession has been progressed for at least over 2~3 years. In assessment of wetland functions by item, it was found that they are developing into fine wetlands in terms of functions because they are ranked over Moderate Class except separate distance from streams. Also from a research into animals living in the abandoned rice paddy wetlands, it was found that main inhabitants are Rana nigromaculata,Rana dybowskii, Hyla japonica, Bufo bufo gargarizans, etc. It can be confirmed that the abandoned rice paddy wetlands are providing appropriate conditions as habitats to the Amphibia in a view that those species have life cycles of inhabitation (shores and wetlands) - egg-laying (rice paddy, puddles and swampy places) - hibernation (rice field banks and swampy places). From this point of view, it was found that abandoned rice paddy wetlands that developed because of abandonment of farming can be used as means to improve structure and functions of habitats.

Comparative Analysis of Multi-functional Public Values of Paddy Fields in Korea and Japan (한일간(韓日間) 논의 공익적(公益的) 기능별(機能別) 가치평가(價値評價) 비교분석(比較分析))

  • Lim, Jae Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
    • /
    • v.26 no.2
    • /
    • pp.70-76
    • /
    • 1999
  • Rice farming is not only the most important income resources of Korean farmers but also the roots of Korean traditional culture. Paddy fields have acted as an food supply base but also have contributed to the public multi-functions such as flood control, water conservation, controlling soil erosion, providing recreational and resting spaces, water purification, air cleaning, oxygen supply and air cooling and so on. The public multi-functions of paddy except rice production have not been evaluated before UR negotiation and starting WTO system. Under the drastic changes of rice economic settings as price decrease of rice and downward decrease of farm income, Korean and Japanese farmers might have lost their intention to grow rice in paddy fields without the direct payment system to compensate rice income decrease. To adapt the direct payment system, the total public value of multi-function of paddy should be identified in terms of money. According to the research results, the total value of multi-functional value of paddy in Korea were estimated 21,596thousand won which is higher than rice production value by 2.1 times. On the other hand the total value of Japanese paddy were amounted to 21,390 Yen which is more than that of Korea by 10times outstandingly. Likewise Japanese have evaluated the paddy field very important enterprise from the view point of food security and multi -functions of paddy to their socio-economic life and environmental sustainability in Japan.

  • PDF

Status of Birds Using a Rice Paddy in South Korea (우리나라 논 이용 조류 현황)

  • Kim, Mi-Ran;Nam, Hyung-Kyu;Kim, Myung-Hyun;Cho, Kwang-Jin;Kang, Kee-Kyung;Na, Young-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
    • /
    • v.32 no.2
    • /
    • pp.155-165
    • /
    • 2013
  • BACKGROUND: Rice paddies not only produce food but also provides wildlife habitats. Although more than half agricultural land of South Korea is rice paddy, a few studies have been conducted in rice paddy ecosystem. We investigated a status of bird using a rice paddy in South Korea using published data. METHODS AND RESULTS: Birds using a rice paddy have been defined as birds which breed, rest or forage on rice paddy, bank, reservoirs or irrigation ditches. According to the publication from 1980s, birds using a rice paddy were total 47 families 279 species. Scolopacidae and Charadriidae (18%), Falconidae, Accipitridae and Strigidae (12%) and Anatidae (11%) used a rice paddy. Half of bird species using a rice paddy visited a dried rice paddy during the winter and 39.4% of them used a flooded rice paddy in spring, autumn or summer. Dependency on a rice paddy was high in ducks, egrets, cranes, and shorebirds. Population of dabbling ducks has decreased for last 12 years while cranes have increased. CONCLUSION(S): Rice paddies provide both migratory and terrestrial birds including endangered species for habitate all through the year in Korea.

Characteristics of Atmosphere-rice Paddy Exchange of Gaseous and Particulate Reactive Nitrogen in Terms of Nitrogen Input to a Single-cropping Rice Paddy Area in Central Japan

  • Hayashi, Kentaro;Ono, Keisuke;Matsuda, Kazuhide;Tokida, Takeshi;Hasegawa, Toshihiro
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
    • /
    • v.11 no.3
    • /
    • pp.202-216
    • /
    • 2017
  • Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient. Thus, evaluating its flows and stocks in rice paddy ecosystems provides important insights into the sustainability and environmental loads of rice production. Among the N sources of paddy fields, atmospheric deposition and irrigation inputs remain poorly understood. In particular, insufficient information is available for atmosphere-rice paddy exchange of gaseous and particulate reactive N (Nr, all N species other than molecular N) which represents the net input or output through dry deposition and emission. In this study, we assessed the N inputs via atmospheric deposition and irrigation to a Japanese rice paddy area by weekly monitoring for 2 years with special emphasis on gas and particle exchange. The rice paddy during the cropping season acted as a net emitter of ammonia ($NH_3$) to the atmosphere regardless of the N fertilizer applications, which reduced the effects of dry deposition to the N input. Dry N deposition was quantitatively similar to wet N deposition, when subtracting the rice paddy $NH_3$ emissions from N exchange. The annual N inputs to the rice paddy were 3.2 to $3.6\;kg\;N\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$ for exchange, 8.1 to $9.8\;kg\;N\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$ for wet deposition, and 11.1 to $14.5\;kg\;N\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$ for irrigation. The total N input, 22.8 to $27.5\;kg\;N\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$, corresponded to 38% to 55% of the N fertilizer application rate and 53% to 67% of the brown rice N uptake. Monitoring of atmospheric deposition and irrigation as N sources for rice paddies will therefore be necessary for adequate N management.