• Title, Summary, Keyword: Rice cultivars

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Variation in Leaf Mechanical Damage by Typhoon among Rice Cultivars: Effects on Yield and Rice Quality (태풍에 의한 벼 잎 파열의 품종간 차이 및 잎 파열이 수량과 미질에 미치는 영향)

  • 홍광표;김영광;정완규;손길만;송근우
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.199-206
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    • 2004
  • Typhoon "MAEMI", happened in September 2003, hit the great damage to Gyeongnam province area. Especially, rice plant was lodged or severe leaf damage was caused. This study was conducted to find out the extents of leaf damage among different rice cultivars, and to evaluate rice yield and eating quality due to leaf damage after typhoon. Rice cultivars torn off over half of the flag leaf length (FLL) were one medium-late maturing cultivar (Donginl), medium maturing cultivar (Yeonganbyeo), eight early maturing cultivars (Samcheonbyeo, Jounghwnbyeo, Munjangbyeo, Taebongbyeo, Odaebyeo, Samhaegbyeo, Sobaegbyeo, Sinunbongbyeo), two long-il type cultivars (Samgangbyeo, Namcheonbyeo), and three special use cultivars (Heukseonchalbyeo, Jinbuchalbyeo, Yangjobyeo). Cultivars torn off below 1/10 FLL were eight medium-late maturing cultivars (Chucheongbyeo, Daecheongbyeo, Saechu cheongbyeo, Donganbyeo, Daeyabyeo, Hwamyeongbyeo, 방eongsanbyeo, Dongjinbyeo) and two medium maturing cultivays (Donghaebyeo, Gumobyeo2). The rest cultivars were tore off by 1/10∼1/2 ELL. In yield components, the longer was flag leaf damage, the lower was ripened grain ratio, grain weight and brown/rough rice ratio, which was severly impacted to late than to ordinary season cultivation. However, rice yield did not decrease up to tearing by 1/10 ELL. Head rice ratio decreased from flag leaf tearing over 1/10 ELL in late season cultivation. The longer was flag leaf damage, the lower was eating quality, which could not show significantly different.

Comparison of NERICA and Asian rice among traits relevant to drought resistance in the field and the effects of compost

  • Fujii, Michihiko
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.335-335
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    • 2017
  • Recently NERICA (New Rice for Africa) was developed by a crossing of African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) and Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) in West Africa, and is considered to be drought resistant, but drought resistance of NERICA and differences between Asian rice are not clarified enough. In this research, NERICA (four cultivars and two lines), Asian rice (three cultivars and sativa parent of NERICA) and African rice (glaberrima parent of NERICA) were cultivated in the field in Shizuoka University under drought and traits of each cultivar and line relevant to drought resistance, stomatal conductance by porometer, soil water content of individual depths by TDR method, SPAD values by SPAD meter and leaf thickness by micrometer, were measured and compared with dry matter production and yield. Effects of compost were also compared among sativa parent, one NERICA cultivar and two NERICA lines. Glaberrima parent showed highest top dry weight. One NERICA line, one drought resistant Asian rice cultivar and sativa parent, showed higher top dry weight and yield (ear weight) than other Asian rice cultivars and NERICA cultivars and line tested. Compost tended to increase top dry weight and yield in one of NERICA line and sativa parent. But in one NERICA cultivar and line, top dry weight and yield were not increased. In one of Asian rice, one of NERICA line and sativa parent that showed high top dry weight and yield, stomatal conductance was high. On the contrary the glaberrima parent and in other NERICA cultivars and line it was low. In sativa parent compost increased stomatal conductance but in NERICA cultivar and lines it was not. Among cultivars and lines that showed high top dry weight and yield sativa parent and one of NERICA line SPAD value and leaf thickness were high but in one of Asian rice and glaberrima parent they were low. Cultivar and line differences in yield and top dry weight among Asian rice and NERICA were significantly correlated with those in stomatal conductance ($r=0.778^{**}$ and $r=0.654^*$, respectively) and those in leaf thickness ($r=0.600^*$ and $r=0.640^*$, respectively). In Asian rice cultivars average soil water content was significantly correlated with yield ($r=0.886^*$) but in NERICA cultivars and lines it was not significant correlated (r= -0.256). Cultivar and line differences in leaf thickness were significantly correlated with SPAD value ($r=0.773^{**}$). In Asian rice cultivars it was significantly correlated ($r=0.962^{**}$), but in NERICA cultivars and lines it was not significantly correlated (r=0.559). Asian rice cultivars tended to consume soil water to increase yield but in NERICA cultivars and lines the tendency was not clear. Correlation between SPAD value and leaf thickness was different between Asian rice and NERICA cultivars and lines, and in Asian rice cultivars it was significantly correlated but in NERICA cultivars and lines it was not significant. Importance of maintaining high stomatal conductance by high leaf thickness was clarified.

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Different Physiological Activity of Selected Rice Cultivars to Diphenylether Herbicide, Oxyfluorfen - I. Differential Responses of the Calli, Cells and Protoplasts (Oxyfluorfen에 대한 내성(耐性) 및 감수성(感受性) 벼품종(品種)의 생리활성(生理活性) 기구(機構) - I. Callus, 단세포(單細胞) 및 원형질체(原形質體) 반응(反應))

  • Kuk, Y.I.;Guh, J.O.;Lee, E.K.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.42-53
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    • 1996
  • The tolerant and susceptible rice cultivars to oxyfluorfen were selected from 400 rice cultivars in a laboratory, and tested in comparison with barnyardgrass, a typical oxyfluorfen susceptible weed. The responses to oxyfluorfen in the different levels of calli, cells and protoplasts of the rice cultivars were investigated. $I_{50}$ value of the tolerant rice cultivars was about $10^{-4}M$, whereas that of the susceptible rice cultivars and barnyardgrass was about $10^{-6}M$, showing significant difference between the two groups. The growth rate of calli segregated from the tolerant rice cultivars was higher than that from the susceptible rice cultivars and barnyardgrass by treatment of oxyfluorfen to the calli. The growth rate of suspension-cultured cells of the tolerant rice cultivars was higher than that of the susceptible rice cultivars and barnyardgrass after treatment of oxyfluorfen. The viability of protoplasts from the tolerant rice cultivars was higher than that from the susceptible rice cultivars and barnyardgrass after one or two hours of oxyfluorfen treatment. The intactness of protoplasts from the tolerant rice cultivars was also higher than that form the susceptible rice cultivars and barnyardgrass.

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Different Physiological Activity of Selected Rice Cultivars to Diphenylether Herbicide, Oxyfluorfen - II. Different Anatomical and Ultrastructural Responses (Oxyfluorfen에 대한 내성(耐性) 및 감수성(感受性) 벼품종(品種)의 생리활성(生理活性) 기구(機構) - II. 잎 표면(表面), 해부(解剖) 및 미세구조(微細構造) 반응(反應))

  • Kuk, Y.I.;Guh, J.O.;Pyon, J.Y.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.54-63
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    • 1996
  • This study was conducted to investigate the anatomical and ultrastructural responses of the oxyfluorfen-tolerant and -susceptible rice cultivars with barnyardgrass, a typical susceptible weed by oxyfluorfen and the herbicides having similar mode of action treatment. After the treatment of $10^{-5}M$ oxyfluorfen, the tolerant rice cultivars no showed the structural damage of leaf surface, but the susceptible rice cultivate was damaged in the wax and the susceptible barnyardgrass was even destroyed in the tissue irregularly. Also in the susceptible rice cultivars and barnyardgrass the thickness of leaf blade was greatly decreased. The anatomical change was not observed in the tolerant rice cultivars but epidermal cells, mesophyll cells and bundle sheath cells were badly broken in the susceptible rice cultivars and barnyardgrass and especially after 24 hours of the treatment the structure of susceptible rice cultivars was completely disintegrated. The irregularity of chloroplast shape and the distortion of chloroplast envelope were generally observed and the starch tended to decrease by oxyfluorfen treatment regardless of rice cultivars. Such a structural damage were appeared more badly in the susceptible rice cultivars and bamyardgrass than in the tolerant rice cultivars. By the treatment of diphenyl ether herbicides, the thickness of leaf blade greatly reduced in the order of oxyfluorfen > acifluorfen > bifenox > oxadiazon, and the susceptible rice cultivars showed more reduction than the tolerant rice cultivars. Especially, the susceptible rice cultivars showed that the leaf structure was badly broken down with damage epidermal cells and bundle sheath cells.

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Comparative Analyses for Aroma and Agronomic Traits of Native Rice Cultivars from Central Asia

  • Sarhadi, Wakil Ahmad;Hien, Nguyen Loc;Zanjani, Mehran;Yosofzai, Wahida;Yoshihashi, Tadashi;Hirata, Yutaka
    • Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.17-22
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    • 2008
  • Aromatic rice has become popular owing to its aroma. Growing demand for aromatic rice has spurred interest in the development of domestic cultivars that offer similar combinations of grain attributes such as texture, cooking characteristics, aroma, and taste. In this study, the most important agronomic attributes and aroma of 26 cultivars from Afghanistan, Iran, and Uzbekistan, and controls from Japan, Thailand, and India were characterized. Also $F_2$ populations derived from the cross between(Jasmine 85 aromatic$\times$Nipponbare non-aromatic) and(Jasmine 85$\times$Basmati 370 aromatic) were obtained. Tasting individual grains, cooking test, 1.7% KOH sensory test, and molecular marker analysis have been applied to distinguish between aromatic and non-aromatic rice. Diversity for some traits of agronomic importance, such as plant height was detected among countries, e.g. Afghan cultivars classified as tall, and Iranian and Uzbek intermediate and short, respectively. Differentiations of panicle, grain, leaf, basal internode, and culm dimension among rice cultivars, indicating the source of rice diversity in Central Asia. According to the results, 6 of 10, 2 of 7, and 0 of 6 of Afghan, Iranian, and Uzbek rice cultivars were scored as aromatic, respectively. Therefore, Afghan cultivars are a good source of aromatic rice germplasm for Central Asia. The expression between aromatic and non-aromatic, and aromatic and aromatic combinations has been evaluated. The observed segregation ratio of these crosses in the $F_2$ populations was tested by $x^2$ analysis against the expected ratio for a single gene. A segregation ratio of 3:1 between non-aromatic and aromatic combination has been detected, while segregation has not been detected between the aromatic and aromatic combinations. Also, parallel results were obtained from the tested aromatic rice cultivars. Thus, our results suggest that a single recessive gene controls aroma in all aromatic rice cultivars.

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Comparison of Grain Quality Traits between Japonica Rice Cultivars from Korea and Yunnan Province of China

  • Yu, Teng-Qiong;Jiang, Wenzhu;Ham, Tae-Ho;Chu, Sang-Ho;Lestari, Puji;Lee, Jeong-Heui;Kim, Myeong-Ki;Xu, Fu-Rong;Han, Longzhi;Dai, Lu-Yuan;Koh, Hee-Jong
    • Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.135-140
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    • 2008
  • Improving eating quality is one of the most important objectives in japonica rice breeding programs in Yunnan Province of China. Eating quality and its relevant traits of nine Korean and 11 Yunnan rice cultivars were comparatively analyzed in this study. The grain shape of most Yunnan japonica rice cultivars have a relatively slender shape and are slightly larger than Korean rice cultivars. Palatability value of cooked rice of Yunnan rice cultivars was significantly lower, while the protein content of Yunnan rice cultivars was significantly higher than that of Korean cultivars. Peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity of the Yunnan rice cultivars were significantly lower, while setback viscosity of the Yunnan rice cultivars was significantly higher than in Korean rice cultivars. Palatability value of cooked rice was negatively correlated with protein content and setback viscosity but positively correlated with peak viscosity, breakdown viscosity, and cool paste viscosity. Through multiple linear regression analysis, an equation for estimating palatability value(PV) of cooked rice based on quality traits was generated as dependent only upon protein content(PC), PV=139.024-(10.865$\times$PC) with an $R^2$ value of 0.822. The results suggest that reducing protein contents should be the major target in improving eating quality of Yunnan japonica rice cultivars through integrated approaches of both cultivar development and appropriate cultural practices. Genetic similarities among cultivars based on DNA markers which had been identified as associated with grain quality seemed not to be directly related to PV.

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Milled Rice Quality and Physicochemical of Korean Native Rice Cultivars Grown in Different Crop Residue and Tillage Management (유기물 피복과 경운관리에 따른 재래벼의 쌀 품위 및 이화학적 특성)

  • Lee Byung Jin;Son Young Son;Ahn Jong Wwoong;Park Jae Hyun;Kang Jin Ho;Choi Zhin Ryong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.50 no.spc1
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 2005
  • Three new rice farming systems, i.e. (1) straw-mulched no-till rice cropping system(SMNTRCS), (2)straw-mulched no-till rice-vetch cropping system (SMNTRWCS), (3)conventional rice-barley cropping system(CRVCS) have been established and compared with (4)conventional rice cropping system(CRCS). Grain appearance of brown rice of Korean native rice cultivars in SMNTRCS and SMNTRVCS were better than those in CRBCS and CRCS. Grain appearance of milled rice in SMNTRCS was better than those of other cropping systems. Korean native rice cultivars showed more white belly and broken rice than those of recommended rice cultivars. Mg and K contents of Korean native rice cultivars were the highest in SMNTRVCS. Protein contents of all the cultivars tested were the highest in SMNTRCS. Protein contents of Korean native cultivars were higher than those of recommended cultivars. Amylose contents of the cultivars tested were from 16 to 22 percent, while those of Aedal and Jenmjo were significantly higher than those of the other cultivars. Alkali digestibility values(ADV) of milled rice grain, tested in $1.2\%$ potassium hydroxide for 23 h at $30^{\circ}C$, showed varietal differences and the cultivars grown in CRBCS were the highest and the lowest in CRCS.

Quality characteristics of Tteokbokki (Rice Cake) depending on cultivars and particle sizes of dry-milling rice flour

  • Song, Eun-Ju;Choi, So-Ra;Song, Young-Eun;Lee, In-Sok;Lee, Ki-Kwon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.276-276
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    • 2017
  • This study was examined to establish a conditions for producing Tteokbokki using dry-milling rice flour which can save manpower and labor time. Since the cost of producing rice flour milled in a wet condition is 500 to 700 won/kg, which is more than twice as much as that of 300 won wheat flour, it is necessary to directly make rice flour from raw rice. The dry-milling rice flour used in the experiment was produced by Air mill (Nara machinary co. ltd., Tokyo, Japan) from 5 rice cultivars (Samkwang, Dasan-1, Boramchan, Seolgaeng, Hanareum-2), which were cultivated in A-san in 2015 year. Their particle sizes were 50, 100 and $150{\mu}m$ for each cultivar, respectively. A control was a wet-milled rice flour milled with a roll mill after the rice was soaked in water for 4 hours. The moisture content of dry-milling rice flour based on cultivars was 11 ~ 12%, and added water up to 50~55% of dry-milling rice flour weight. The RVA characteristic of peak viscosity was the highest in Dasan-1 and Hanareum-2, the lowest in Seolgaeng. The setback value used as an indicator of aging was the highest in Dasan-1, therefore Dasan-1 was expected to be quick solidification, resulting in the low tendency of sensory evaluation. The damaged starch was high in Dasan-1 and Boramchan (p<0.05) compared to others. The Hunter color L were no significant among cultivars and b value increased in all cultivars of dry-milling rice flour compared with control. The hardness of dry-milling rice flour was higher than that of the control, especially Dasan-1 and Hanareum-2 were the highest. Based on the sensory evaluation, the best cultivars were Boramchan, Hanareum-2 and Samkwang. The overall preference of dry-milling rice flour was good in particle size of 50~100um.

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Quality Characteristics of Brown Rice Flakes Prepared with Giant Embryonic Rice and Normal Rice Cultivars (거대배아미와 일반미를 이용하여 제조한 현미 flake의 품질특성 비교)

  • Lee, Yun-Ri;Choi, Young-Hee;Koh, Hee-Jong;Kang, Mi-Young
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.540-544
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    • 2001
  • The quality characteristics for brown rice flake were examined using eight kinds of brown rice cultivars such as Shinsunchalbyeo, Shinsunchal giant embryonic rice, Whachungchalbyeo, Whachungchal giant embryonic rice, Whachungbyeo, Whachung giant embryonic rice, Nampungbyeo, and Nampung giant embryonic rice. The qualities of grain such as the released reducing sugar, water absorption rate and hardness of grain are examined with different temperature and time at sedimentation in water and pressed grain-brown rice flake are prepared after sedimentation in $60^{\circ}C$ water for 5 hours. The brown rice flakes prepared from the giant embryonic type rice cultivars showed higher expansion volume, lower hardness, more crispness, longer bowl life time and better taste than that prepare from normal type rice cultivars, which showed the giant embryonic type rice cultivars were appropriate for brown rice flakes. Among the giant embryonic type rice cultivars, the glutinous rice varieties were better to prepared the brown rice flakes than its normal rice cultivars. The water absorption index of flakes tested were positively correlated with expansion volume and bowl life hardness. From tested sensory evaluation were shown to be negatively correlated with water absorption index. Among the tested cultivars, Shinsunchal giant embryonic and Wachungchal giant embryonic rice were most appropriate for brown rice flakes preparation.

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Different Physiological Activity of Selected Rice Cultivars to Diphenylether Herbicide, Oxyfluorfen - V. Different Content of Antioxidant and GST Activity (Oxyfluorfen에 대한 내성(耐性) 및 감수성(感受性) 벼품종(品種)의 생리활성(生理活性) 기구(機構) - V. 항산화제(抗酸化劑) 함량(含量) 및 GST 활성(活性))

  • Kuk, Y.I.;Guh, J.O.;Park, R.D.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.327-336
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    • 1996
  • This study was conducted to investigate the content of antioxidant and GST activity of the oxyfluorfen-tolerant and -susceptible rice cultivars with barnyardgrass, a typical susceptible weed in accordance by oxyfluorfen treatment. The content of vitamin C was higher in the tolerant rice cultivar than in the susceptible rice cultivar and barnyardgrass. The contents of vitamin E, carotenoid, glutathione(GSH, GSSG, total glutathione) were not different between the tolerant and susceptible plants. In the case of the content of vitamin C due to the treatment of oxyfluorfen, the tolerant rice cultivars, Hawon and Baru decreased less than the susceptible rice cultivars and barnyardgrass. After the treatment of oxyfluorfen the contents of vitamin E and GSH in the tolerant rice cultivars were higher than in the susceptible rice cultivars or barnyardgrass. But in the content of carotenoid was greater in the tolerant rice cultivars than in the susceptible rice cultivars but they didn`t have any difference in comparison with the susceptible barnyardgrass. And there was no difference in the content of GSSG between the tolerant and susceptible plants. When CDNB or oxyfluorfen were used as substrate, the GST activity, was higher in the tolerant rice cultivars than in the susceptible rice cultivars or batnyardgrass. After the treatment of oxyfluorfen the GST activity was not induced in the rice, but was induced in the barnyardgrass. Even after the treatment of acifluorfen, bifenox and oxadiazon the GST activity was not induced in the rice cultivars.

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