• Title, Summary, Keyword: Rice

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Current Status and Recent Subjects of Rice Products Development in Korea (국내 쌀 가공식품의 개발현황과 당면과제)

  • 금준석
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Postharvest Science and Technology of Agricultural Products Conference
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    • pp.109-119
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    • 2002
  • Rice production in Korea began to rise significantly after 1970. Rice is the dominant food in Korea and most of the rice production (about 95%) is consumed as cooked rice. it provides over 4,000Kj of energy per capita per day. Apparent rice availability in 2000, 93.6Kg of milled rice per person annually. The non-allergenic character of rice offers a sound basis for development of products for markets for all age groups. Whole grains are washed rice, coated rice, enriched rice in Korea. Utilization of rice as food can be categorized three categories in Korea; direct food use, processed foods, and brewing. Rice for direct consumption include regular whole grain, precooked rice, brown rice and specialty products such as aseptic cooked rice, retort cooked rice and rice burger. Rice used for processed foods includes that for cereal, soup, baby food, snack, cake, noodle, brown rice tea, and minor unclassified uses. Rice use for brewing is for the production of fermented rice wine. The use of rice for direct food is by for the greatest of the three uses. Although direct food accounts for the largest domestic consumption, a significant quantity of rice is used in processed products. The use of rice by-products as human food should not be over looked. Utilization of by products(rice germ, rice bran) requires a specialized technology. Typical type of rice is black rice. When cooked, black rice gives a black color to cooked rice. Glutinous rice performs specific functions in several commercial products such as dessert, gravis, cake and snack. Rice starch production is quite limited because of the high cost of making of starch. Rice processed products in Korea are occupied small parts of total rice production compared to Japan. Rice cake (Garadog) is the principal from of rice product consumed in Korea. Rice cake and snack is usually prepared from non-glutinous milled by washing, grinding, steaming, cooling and packaging. Rice cake will be continued to be a major rice product in Korea. Rice products represent a means to study variety differences in rice grain quality, since the processing magnifies differences not normally detected from more boiling. Recently, rice processing companies in Korea are about 400 ones which uses rice about 160,000tons. New rice processed products and modified traditional products must be developed and diversified with high quality and processing properties of rice processed products are improved.

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Quality Characteristics of Baked Rice Cake using Dry and Wet Rice Powder (습식과 건식 쌀가루 종류를 달리하여 구운 떡의 품질 특성)

  • Park, Young Mi;Jung, Hyo Sun;Yoon, Hye Hyun
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.129-139
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    • 2017
  • This study investigated the quality characteristics of baked rice cake using dry and wet rice flour. The moisture contents, color values, texture and sensory evaluation(attribute difference and acceptance) for the samples were tested. The moisture content of baked rice cake was the highest in rice cake baked with non- glutinous rice of dry type, and rice cake baked in dry type had weaker brownishness and therefore had higher brightness value compared to the rice cake baked in wet type. In relation to the texture, the hardness was found to be the highest in the rice cake baked with wet non- glutinous rice, and the rice cake baked with glutinous rice was found to be soft. The hardness was the lowest in both wet and dry glutinous rice, and was the highest in the wet non- glutinous rice. Attribute difference test of samples showed that, the rice cake baked with glutinous rice showed clear manifestation of springiness, moistness, adhesiveness, and gumminess (except for the harness). Although the cake baked with dry rice powder showed no significant difference, the dry glutinous rice flour was preferred the most. The rice cake baked with wet glutinous rice flour was preferred the most in terms of flavor, taste, texture, and overall acceptability.

Physicochemical Characteristics and Varietal Improvement Related to Palatability of Cooked Rice or Suitability to Food Processing in Rice (쌀 식미 및 가공적성에 관련된 이화학적 특성)

  • 최해춘
    • Proceedings of the Korean Journal of Food and Nutrition Conference
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    • pp.39-74
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    • 2001
  • The endeavors enhancing the grain quality of high-yielding japonica rice were steadily continued during 1980s∼1990s along with the self-sufficiency of rice production and the increasing demands of high-quality rices. During this time, considerably great, progress and success was obtained in development of high-quality japonica cultivars and qualify evaluation techniques including the elucidation of interrelationship between the physicochemical properties of rice grain and the physical or palatability components of cooked rice. In 1990s, some high-quality japonica rice caltivars and special rices adaptable for food processing such as large kernel, chalky endosperm aromatic and colored rices were developed and its objective preference and utility was also examined by a palatability meter, rapid-visco analyzer and texture analyzer. The water uptake rate and the maximum water absorption ratio showed significantly negative correlations with the K/Mg ratio and alkali digestion value(ADV) of milled rice. The rice materials showing the higher amount of hot water absorption exhibited the larger volume expansion of cooked rice. The harder rices with lower moisture content revealed the higher rate of water uptake at twenty minutes after soaking and the higher ratio of maximum water uptake under the room temperature condition. These water uptake characteristics were not associated with the protein and amylose contents of milled rice and the palatability of cooked rice. The water/rice ratio (in w/w basis) for optimum cooking was averaged to 1.52 in dry milled rices (12% wet basis) with varietal range from 1.45 to 1.61 and the expansion ratio of milled rice after proper boiling was average to 2.63(in v/v basis). The major physicochemical components of rice grain associated with the palatability of cooked rice were examined using japonica rice materials showing narrow varietal variation in grain size and shape, alkali digestibility, gel consistency, amylose and protein contents, but considerable difference in appearance and torture of cooked rice. The glossiness or gross palatability score of cooked rice were closely associated with the peak. hot paste and consistency viscosities of viscogram with year difference. The high-quality rice variety “Ilpumbyeo” showed less portion of amylose on the outer layer of milled rice grain and less and slower change in iodine blue value of extracted paste during twenty minutes of boiling. This highly palatable rice also exhibited very fine net structure in outer layer and fine-spongy and well-swollen shape of gelatinized starch granules in inner layer and core of cooked rice kernel compared with the poor palatable rice through image of scanning electronic mcroscope. Gross sensory score of cooked rice could be estimated by multiple linear regression formula, deduced from relationship between rice quality components mentioned above and eating quality of cooked rice, with high Probability of determination. The ${\alpha}$ -amylose-iodine method was adopted for checking the varietal difference in retrogradation of cooked rice. The rice cultivars revealing the relatively slow retrogradation in aged cooked rice were Ilpumbyeo, Chucheongbyeo, Sasanishiki, Jinbubyeo and Koshihikari. A Tongil-type rice, Taebaegbyeo, and a japonica cultivar, Seomjinbyeo, shelved the relatively fast deterioration of cooked rice. Generally, the better rice cultivars in eating quality of cooked rice showed less retrogiadation and much sponginess in cooled cooked rice. Also, the rice varieties exhibiting less retrogradation in cooled cooked rice revealed higher hot viscosity and lower cool viscosity of rice flour in amylogram. The sponginess of cooled cooked rice was closely associated with magnesium content and volume expansion of cooked rice. The hardness-changed ratio of cooked rice by cooling was negatively correlated with solids amount extracted during boiling and volume expansion of cooked rice. The major physicochemical properties of rice grain closely related to the palatability of cooked rice may be directly or indirectly associated with the retrogradation characteristics of cooked rice. The softer gel consistency and lower amylose content in milled rice revealed the higher ratio of popped rice and larger bulk density of popping. The stronger hardness of rice grain showed relatively higher ratio of popping and the more chalky or less translucent rice exhibited the lower ratio of intact popped brown rice. The potassium and magnesium contents of milled rice were negatively associated with gross score of noodle making mixed with wheat flour in half and the better rice for noodle making revealed relatively less amount of solid extraction during boiling. The more volume expansion of batters for making brown rice bread resulted the better loaf formation and more springiness in rice bread. The higher protein rices produced relatively the more moist white rice bread. The springiness of rice bread was also significantly correlated with high amylose content and hard gel consistency. The completely chalky and large gram rices showed better suitability for fermentation and brewing. Our breeding efforts on rice quality improvement for the future should focus on enhancement of palatability of cooked rice and marketing qualify as well as the diversification in morphological and physicochemical characteristics of rice grain for various value-added rice food processings.

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Comparison of Some Characteristics Relevant to Rice Bread Processing between Brown and Milled Rice (백미와 현미 쌀빵의 특성 비교)

  • 강미영;최영희;최해춘
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.64-69
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    • 1997
  • The experiments of rice bread processing were carried out to compare the varietal difference in processing adaptability to rice bread between brown and milled rice flour, and to analyze the interrelations among chemical properties of rice grain and some characteristics relevant to rice bread processing and quality There was varietal difference in adaptability to rice bread processing in both brown and milled rice, but there was not significant adaptability difference between brown and milled rice flours to rice bread processing. However, there was remarkable adaptability difference between brown and milled rice flours to rice bread processing in some rice varieties. Three high-amylose rices AC 27, IR 44, Suweonjo showed high quality of milled rice bread among tested rice materials. Brown rice revealed better adaptability to rice bread processing compared with milled rice in all varieties except the above three varieties. Especially, the glutinous rice Hangangchalbyeo failed to normal formation of rice bread from milled rice flour, but it showed the successful formation of rice bread from brown rice flour. The interrelations among chemical components of rice grain and some characteristics relevant to rice bread processing and quality exhibited quite different tendency between brown and milled rices. In the case of rice bread processing by brown rice flour, the larger volume expansion of dough during fermentation made the more springy rice bread and the more moist rice bread showed the more soft and cohesive physical property. In the case of rice bread processing by milled rice flour, the lower protein of rice flour was closely associated with the more moistness of rice bread and the higher lipid led to the more uniformal air pore distribution, the smaller pore size and the lower springiness of rice bread. Also, the larger volume expansion of dough during fermentation made the better loaf formation and the larger pore size of rice bread. The better loaf formation of rice bread revealed the softer hardness and the lower chewiness, and the lower springiness was closely correlated with the more uniformal size distribution of air pore and the smaller pore size in rice bread.

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Post-harvest Technology for High Quality Rice in Japan

  • Ohtsubo, Kenichi
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Postharvest Science and Technology of Agricultural Products Conference
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    • pp.26-32
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    • 2003
  • Rice is one of the most important cereals in the world. Japanese people use about 9 million tons of rice per you. We use rice for cooked rice as staple foods and for processing, such as rice wine (sake), rice crackers and miso fermentation, etc. Palatability, eating quality, of rice is evaluated by the sensory test and various kinds of physicochemical measurements. Japanese National Food Agency started the storage of 1.5 million tones of rice in 1996. We carried out the storage test using high quality rices since 1995 until 1996. As indices for the quality deteriorations of rice grains during the storage, germination ratio, enzyme activities, fat acidity, physical properties of cooked rice were clarified to be useful. We applied colorimetric method for the measurements of fat acidities in the place of titration method. Processing suitabilities of rice differ depending on the products. Low amylose rice is more suitable for soft rice crackers and high amylose rice is preferred more for rice noodle. Pre-cooked rice products, such as frozen cooked rice, retort-pouched rice and aseptic rice, are increasing recently in Japan. In addition to above-mentioned physico-chemical tests, NIR spectroscopy,“Midometer”and“Taste sensor”are novel and useful to evaluate eating quality and processing suitabolities. Recently, rice wholesalers and retailers have been obligated to display the name of cultivar, location of cultivation and the year of production of rice grains which they sell by the Japanese Agricultural Standard Law (JAS). In order to detect the dishonest labeling of rice cultivars, we developed new cultivar identification method based on DNA polymorphism.

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Influence of Visual Differences in Bowl Size and Types on Dietary Intake of Female College Students with Normal Weight (밥그릇의 크기와 형태에 의한 시각적 차이가 정상체중 여대생의 섭취량과 포만도에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Young-Suk;Chang, Un-Jae
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.250-257
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: This study examined the impact of perceived volume on satiety using normal rice bowl, diet rice bowl and small rice bowl. Methods: Thirty-six normal weight college female students participated in this study once a week for 3 weeks. Three hundred grams of fried rice in a normal rice bowl (1st week), 300 g of fried rice in a diet rice bowl (2nd week), and 300 g of fried rice in small rice bowl (3rd week) were served to the same participants over three consecutive weeks. After each lunch, the consumption volume of fried rice and the satiety rate were measured. Results: The consumption volume of fried rice was 248 g (414.5 kcal) with a normal rice bowl, 254 g (429.8 kcal) with a diet bowl, and 270 g (456.8 kcal) with a small rice bowl. Results showed that the subjects who were eating from the small rice bowl ate more fried rice (p<0.05) than eating from the normal rice bowl and diet rice bowl. However, the satiety rate of fried rice in a diet rice bowl was significantly higher than that of normal rice bowl and small rice bowl (p<0.05). The five point scale of perceived volume on fried rice served normal rice bowl, diet rice bowl and small rice bowl were 2.4, 4.0 and 2.1. Conclusions: The visual cue plays a critical role in determining satiety and that perceived volume is perhaps more important than actual volume of consumed food in determining the level of fullness.

Milling and Rice Flour Properties of Soaking in Water Time on Moisture Content of Rice (쌀의 수침 시간별 제분 및 쌀가루의 특성)

  • 김형열;이병영;최중경;함승시
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.71-75
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    • 1999
  • Power consumption, mesh size, moisture content, color difference, amylogram of rice flour milled with water soaked rice were compared with that of rice using dry pin mil process. Maximum water absorbance of rice was 35% for 2.5 hr. Power consumption to mill the soaked rice was less than of dry rice by 6.9kW/100Kg. Moisture content of rice flour from the water soaked rice was 2% higher than that of rice flour from dry rice. Population of flour particle was 52.9% of 60 mesh and 32.6% of 60∼80mesh. Gelatinization temperature of rice flour from the water soaked rice was 30C lower than that of rice flour from dry rice. Maximum and minimum viscosity of rice flour from the water soaked rice after boiling were 296 cps and 158 cps, independently. Brightness and whiteness of the rice flour from the water soaked rice were increased upto 10hr soaking and decreased after 17hr soaking. Brightness and whiteness of the rice flour were 96.17 and 96.02, independently.

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Structural, morphological, and physicochemical properties of rice starch on main and ratoon rice

  • Shin, Jong Hee;Kim, Sang Kuk;Kim, Se Jong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.332-332
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    • 2017
  • Rice ratooning is the cultural practices to produce easily second rice from the stubble left behind after the main-crop harvest. The main advantage of rice ratooning is that in areas where rice is the main crop, double crop of rice can be grown for additional returns. Three early ripened rice cultivars were tested for estimation their milled rice quality and starch characteristics from main and ratoon rice. The main crop was harvested at mass maturity, after which the tillers were mowed to stubbles of about 10 cm tall. And then it left without any further input until the ratooned plant was ready for harvest. Highly significant variations were detected in the milled rice quality between main and ratoon rice. Protein and amylose contents of ratoon rice were more increased than those of main rice. The Toyo value (gloss) of cooked rice of ratoon crop was measured also higher than that of main crop. It resulted from higher air temperature during grain ripening compared with that of ratoon crop. The mean temperature during ripened period of ratoon rice was favorable for optimal maturation for early ripened rice cultivars. Normalized chromatograms of branch chain length distribution of amylopectin are demonstrated a distinct difference between main and ratoon rice flour. Ratoon rice had higher amount of short chains than that of main crop rice starches. Microscopic examination of rice flours with scanning electron microscopy shows starch granule shapes affected by the cropping types, main and ratoon rice. It showed significant differences among rice starch granule shapes and in granule size between main and ratoon rice. Starch of ratoon rice had more neat and smaller granules than that of main rice.

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Study on the Quality Characteristics of Polished Rice, Brown Rice and Black Rice Jeolpyeon by the Addition of Astringent Persimmon Concentrate (떫은 감 농축액을 첨가한 백미${\cdot}$현미${\cdot}$흑미 감절편의 품질특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Yang-Sun;Chae, Kyung-Yeon;Hong, Jin-Sook
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.50-61
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    • 2007
  • The aim of this study was to determine the optimum amount of astringent persimmon concentrate to add to rice(polished rice, brown rice, and black rice) flour in the preparation of GamJeopyeon (persimmon rice cake). The moisture contents of polished rice, brown rice, and black rice persimmon Jeolpyeon were 50.37${\sim}$51.65%, 49.52${\sim}$52.44%, and 48.82${\sim}$51.87%, respectively. With increasing astringent persimmon content, the L value of all of the Jeolpyeon decreased, whereas the values of polished rice and brown rice persimmon Jeolpyeon increased. The b values of polished rice, brown rice, and black rice persimmon Jeolpyeon were the highest at addition levels of 8%, 4%, and 12%, respectively. In the mechanical textural evaluation, the hardness of polished rice and brown rice, persimmon Jeolpyeon decreased with increasing astringent persimmon concentrate content during storage time, and was the highest at the 0% addition level in black rice Jeolpyeon after 2 days storage. In the sensory evaluation, the overall acceptability of polished rice, brown rice, and black rice persimmon Jeolpyeon was higher at 4, 8, 12, and 16% compared to the 0% addition level. According to the above study. Jelopyeon made with the addition of up to 16% astringent persimmon concentrate to polished rice, brown rice, and black rice flour was found to be the best recipe in terms of overall acceptability and textural qualities.

Varietal Difference in Retrogradation of Cooked Rice and Its Association with Physicochemical Properties of Rice Grain

  • Choi, Hae Chune;Hong, Ha Cheal;Cho, Soo Yeon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.355-363
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    • 1999
  • The experiments were carried out to elucidate the varietal variation of retrogradation in aged cooked rice and its association with some physicochemical properties of milled rice. The fifteen rice materials were selected from forty-three low-amylose japonica and Tongil-type rice cultivars based on palatability and retrogradation of cooked rice stratified by preliminary sensory evaluation of warm and cooled cooked rice. One japonica glutinous rice variety was included for comparison of retrogradation of cooked rice. The $\alpha$-amylase-iodine method was adopted for checking the varietal difference in retrogradation of cooked rice. The desirable checking time for evaluating the varietal difference in deterioration of aged cooked rice was four hours after storing in room temperature and two hours after preserving in refrigerator based on the largest coefficients of variations in degree of retrogradation of cooked rice. The rice cultivars revealing the relatively slow retrogradation in aged cooked rice were Ilpumbyeo, Chucheongbyeo, Sasanishiki, Jinbubyeo and Koshihikari. A Tongil-type rice, Taebaegbyeo, and a japonica cultivar, Seomjinbyeo, showed the relatively fast deterioration of cooked rice. The retrogadation index represented by the percentage of retrogradation difference between warm and cooled cooked rice to original estimates of warm cooked rice was significantly affected by the degree of retrogradation of cooled cooked rice. Generally, the better rice cultivars in eating quality of cooked rice showed less retrogradation and much sponginess in cooled cooked rice. Also, the rice varieties exhibiting less retrogradation in cooled cooked rice revealed higher hot viscosity and lower cool viscosity of rice flour in amylogram. The sponginess of cooled cooked rice was closely associated with magnesium content and volume expansion of cooked rice. The hardness-changed ratio of cooked rice by cooling was negatively correlated with solids amount extracted during boiling and volume expansion of cooked rice. The major physicochemical properties of rice grain closely related to the palatability of cooked rice may be directly or indirectly associated with the retrogradation characteristics of cooked nce. The varietal difference in retrogradation of cooked rice can be effectively classified by scatter diagram on the plane of upper two principal components based on some retrogradation properties of cooked rice. The deteriorated structural change in cooled cooked rice by observing through the scanning electron microscope was more conspicuous in the fastly retrograded cooked rice than in the slower one.

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