• Title, Summary, Keyword: Rib fractures

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Rib Fractures: To Fix or Not to Fix? An Evidence-Based Algorithm

  • Bemelman, Michael;de Kruijf, M.W.;van Baal, Mark;Leenen, Luke
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.229-234
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    • 2017
  • Rib fractures are a common injury resulting from blunt chest trauma. The most important complications associated with rib fractures include death, pneumonia, and the need for mechanical ventilation. The development of new osteosynthesis materials has stimulated increased interest in the surgical treatment of rib fractures. Surgical stabilisation, however, is not needed for every patient with rib fractures or for every patient with flail chest. This paper presents an easy-to-use evidence-based algorithm, developed by the authors, for the treatment of patients with flail chest and isolated rib fractures.

Clinical Analysis for the Correlation of Intra-abdominal Organ Injury in the Patients with Rib Fracture

  • Park, Seong-Sik
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.246-250
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    • 2012
  • Background: Although it is rare for the fracture itself to become a life threatening injury in patients suffering from rib fracture, the lives of these patients are occasionally threatened by other associated injuries. Especially, early discovery of patients with rib fracture and intra-abdominal organ injury is extremely important to the prognosis. This study analyzed the link between rib fracture and intra-abdominal injury to achieve improved treatment. Materials and Methods: Among trauma patients that had visited the hospital emergency room from January 2007 to December 2009, a retrospective study was conducted on 453 patients suffering from rib fracture due to blunt trauma. Rib fracture was classified according to location (left, right, and bilateral), and according to level (upper rib fracture [1-2nd rib], middle rib fracture [3-8th rib], and lower rib fracture [9-12th rib]). The researched data was statistically compared and analyzed to investigate the correlation between the location, level, and number of rib fracture and intra-abdominal organ injury. Results: Motor vehicle injury was found to be the most common mechanism of injury with 208 cases (46%). Associated injuries accompanied with rib fracture were generated in 276 cases (61%). Intra-abdominal organ injury was discovered in 97 cases (21%). Liver injury was the most common intra-abdominal injury associated with rib fracture with 39 cases (40%), followed by spleen injury, with 23 cases (23%). Intra-abdominal injury according to level of rib fracture was presented as upper rib fracture in 11 cases (11%), middle rib fracture in 31 cases (32%), and lower rib fracture in 55 cases (57%), thus verifying that intra-abdominal injuries were commonly accompanied in lower rib fractures (p=0.03). In particular, significant increase of intra-abdominal injury was presented in fractures below the 8th rib (p=0.03). The number of intra-abdominal injuries requiring emergency operations was significantly higher in patients with more than 6 rib fractures (p=0.04). Conclusion: Intra-abdominal organ injury is more common in patients with lower rib fracture, especially fractures below the 8th rib. Intra-abdominal organ injuries generated in multiple rib fracture patients with more than 6 fractures significantly higher severity. These cases must be thoroughly inspected and carefully observed as there is possibility of emergency operation.

Prognosis of Pulmonary Function in Patients with Multiple Rib Fractures

  • Park, Hee Beom;Hyun, Sung Youl;Kim, Jin Joo;Jang, Yeon Sik
    • Journal of Trauma and Injury
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.179-185
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Rib fracture is the most common complication of blunt thoracic trauma. We investigated the effect of rib fracture on pulmonary function in the conservatively treated patients. Methods: From January 2000 to February 2017, we reviewed the records of 72 patients with rib fracture and pulmonary function tests were performed. According to the number of rib fractures, patients were classified into two groups: less than six fractured ribs (group A) and more than six fractured ribs (group B). The groups were compared concerning demographics, underlying diseases, associated thoracic injuries, surgery, mechanical ventilator times, days spent in the intensive care unit and pulmonary function test. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the demographic data between the two groups. Mean hospitalization was 13.5 days in group A and 27.0 days in group B (p<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the pulmonary function test. Conclusions: We conclude that pulmonary function is restored by conservative treatment in patients with rib fractures even if the number of rib fractures increases. In patients with multiple rib fractures, studies comparing open rib fixation and conservative treatment of long term pulmonary function are required.

Factors Affecting Pneumonia Occurring to Patients with Multiple Rib Fractures

  • Byun, Joung Hun;Kim, Han Young
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.130-134
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    • 2013
  • Background: Rib fractures are the most common type of thoracic trauma and cause other complications. We explored the risk factors for pneumonia in patients with multiple rib fractures. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and eighteen patients who visited our hospital with multiple rib fractures between January 2002 and December 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Chest X-rays and chest computed tomography were used to identify injury severity. Patients with only a single rib fracture or who were transferred to another hospital within 2 days were excluded. Results: There were 327 male patients (78%), and the median age was 53 years. The etiologies of the patients' trauma included traffic accidents in 164 cases (39%), falls in 78 cases (19%), slipping and falling in 90 (22%), pedestrian accidents in 30 (7%), industrial accidents in 41 (10%), and assault in 15 (4%). The median number of rib fractures was 4.8. Pulmonary complications including flail chest (2.3%), lung contusion (22%), hemothorax (62%), pneumothorax (31%), and hemopneumothorax (20%) occurred. Chest tubes were inserted into the thoracic cavity in 216 cases (52%), and the median duration of chest tube insertion was 10.26 days. The Injury Severity Score (ISS) and rib score had a median of 15.27 and 6.9, respectively. Pneumonia occurred in 18 cases (4.3%). Of the total cases, 33% of the cases were managed in the intensive care unit (ICU), and the median duration of stay in the ICU was 7.74 days. Antibiotics were administered in 399 patients (95%) for a median of 10.53 days. Antibiotics were used for more than 6 days in 284 patients (68%). The factors affecting pneumonia in patients with multiple rib fractures in multivariate analysis included age (p=0.004), ISS (p<0.001), and rib score (p=0.038). The use of antibiotics was not associated with the occurrence of pneumonia (p=0.28). In-hospital mortality was 5.3% (n=22). Conclusion: The factors affecting risk of pneumonia in patients with multiple rib fractures included age (p=0.004), ISS (p<0.001), and rib score (p=0.038). Elderly patients with multiple traumas have a high risk of pneumonia and should be treated accordingly.

Surgical immobilization using Judet`d strut for flail chest with multiple rib fractures (다발성 늑골골절에 의한 동요흉에서 늑골고정판을 사용한 늑골고정술)

  • 구자홍
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.64-66
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    • 1993
  • We experienced 2 cases of surgical immobilization with Judet`s strut for flail chest with multiple rib fractures. The patients were undertaken explorative thoracotomy for unevacuated hematoma and chest wall fixation for paradoxically moving segments of ribs after initial trials of internal fixation, i.e. mechanical ventilation with endotracheal intubation. Immediately after operation, the patient`s general condition and respiratory status were improved remarkably. Mechanical ventilation and endotracheal intubtion were removed on postoperative second day without any events.

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Early Surgical Stabilization of Ribs for Severe Multiple Rib Fractures (중증 다발성 늑골골절에 대한 조기 수술적 늑골고정술)

  • Hwang, Jung-Joo;Kim, Young-Jin;Ryu, Han-Young;Cho, Hyun-Min
    • Journal of Trauma and Injury
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.12-17
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: A rib fracture secondary to blunt thoracic trauma continues to be an important injury with significant complications. Unfortunately, there are no definite treatment guidelines for severe multiple rib fractures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the result of early operative stabilization and to find the risk factors of surgical fixation in patients with bilateral multiple rib fractures or flail segments. Methods: From December 2005 to December 2008, the medical records of all patients who underwent operative stabilization of ribs for severe multiple rib fractures were reviewed. We investigated patients' demographics, preoperative comorbidities, underlying lung disease, chest trauma, other associated injuries, number of surgical rib fixation, combined operations, perioperative ventilator support, and postoperative complications to find the factors affecting the mortality after surgical treatment. Results: The mean age of the 96 patients who underwent surgical stabilization for bilateral multiple rib fractures or flail segments was 56.7 years (range: 22 to 82 years), and the male-to-female ratio was 3.6:1. Among the 96 patients, 16 patients (16.7%) underwent reoperation under general or epidural anesthesia due to remaining fracture with severe displacement. The surgical mortality of severe multiple rib fractures was 8.3% (8/96), 7 of those 8 patients (87.5%) dying from acute respiratory distress syndrome or sepsis. And the other one patient expired from acute myocardial infarction. The risk factors affecting mortality were liver cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, concomitant severe head or abdominal injuries, perioperative ventilator care, postoperative bleeding or pneumonia, and tracheostomy. However, age, number of fractured ribs, lung parenchymal injury, pulmonary contusion and combined operations were not significantly related to mortality. Conclusion: In the present study, surgical fixation of ribs could be carried out as a first-line therapeutic option for bilateral rib fractures or flail segments without significant complications if the risk factors associated with mortality were carefully considered. Furthermore, with a view of restoring pulmonary function, as well as chest wall configuration, early operative stabilization of the ribs is more helpful than conventional treatment for patients with severe multiple rib fractures.

The Role of Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis in Rib Fixation: A Review

  • Bemelman, Michael;van Baal, Mark;Yuan, Jian Zhang;Leenen, Luke
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2016
  • More than a century ago, the first scientific report was published about fracture fixation with plates. During the 1950's, open reduction and plate fixation for fractures were standardized by the founders of Arbeitsgemeinschaft $f{\ddot{u}}r$ osteosynthesefragen/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation. Since the introduction of plate fixation for fractures, several plates and screws have been developed, all with their own characteristics. To accomplice more fracture stability, it was thought the bigger the plate, the better. The counter side was a compromised blood supply of the bone, often resulting in bone necrosis and ultimately delayed or non-union. With the search and development of new materials and techniques for fracture fixation, less invasive procedures have become increasingly popular. This resulted in the minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) technique for fracture fixation. With the MIPO technique, procedures could be performed with smaller incisions and thus with less soft tissue damage and a better preserved blood supply. The last 5 years rib fixation has become increasingly popular, rising evidence has becomeavailable suggesting that surgical rib fixation improves outcome of patients with a flail chest or isolated rib fractures. Many surgical approaches for rib fixation have been described in the old literature, however, most of these techniques are obscure nowadays. Currently mostly large incisions with considerable surgical insult are used to stabilize rib fractures. We think that MIPO deserves a place in the surgical treatment of rib fractures. We present the aspects of diagnosis, preoperative planning and operative techniques in regard to MIPO rib fixation.

Diagnosis with Ultrasound for Rib Fractures in the Golf (골프 운동중 발생한 늑골 골절의 초음파 진단)

  • Lim, Che-Joon;Youn, Te-Hyun;An, Ki-Yong
    • Journal of Korean Orthopaedic Sports Medicine
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.50-54
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: In most cases, the main cause of chest or back pain during playing golf is rib fractures. This kind of rib fractures can be easily overlooked in plain radiographs. The purpose of this article is to clarify the value of the ultrasound in detecting rib fractures. Materials and Methods: We compared the findings of chest-X rays (anteroposterior, left or right lateral, both oblique view) with those of the ultrasound in 56 patients between the ages of 20th & 60th who were diagnosed rib fractures. Their chief complaints were chest or back pain which developed during playing golf. The results were analyzed statistically. Results: Among 56 cases of rib fractures, 34 cases were diagnosed with initial X-rays. 51 cases were diagnosed with ultrasound. The sensitivity of radiograph and ultrasound were 60.71% & 91.07%, respectively. Dignosis was ultrasound with statical significance whereas radiography did not(p=0.0004). Conclusion: It was concluded that ultrasound is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of the rib fractures which were undetected with X-rays during playing golf.

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Rib Fixation for a Patient with Severely Displaced and Overlapped Costal Cartilage Fractures

  • Han, Sung Ho;Chon, Soon-Ho;Lee, Jong Hyun;Lee, Min Koo;Kwon, Oh Sang;Kim, Kyoung Hwan;Kim, Jung Suk;Lee, Ho hyoung
    • Journal of Trauma and Injury
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.12-15
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    • 2018
  • Rib fixations for flail chest or displaced rib fractures are not a new technique. However, reports on rib fixations involving costal cartilage fractures are very few and surprisingly there are no reports of internal fixations involving only the costal cartilage in the English literature. The diagnosis is difficult and the necessity of the procedure may be quite controversial. Placing plates in screws into the costal cartilage alone may seem unstable and easily dislodged or stripped through the cartilage. We report a 31-year-old male scuba diver instructor who underwent rib fixations over his 7th and 8th costal cartilage ribs for severe pain. The procedure was done with conventional plates and screws. He had the plates and screws removed 2 months later due to lingering pain, but with them removed he is now quite happy with the results without pain. The procedure for fixation of painful overlapped costal cartilage is quite simple and can be done with the usual conventional methods, fixating plate and screws directly over the cartilage alone without fixation over the bony rib.

Cardiac Arrest during Thoracic Epidural Blockade in the Patient with Multiple Rib Fractures -A case report- (다발성 늑골골절 환자에서 흉부 경막외 차단중 발생한 심정지 -증례 보고-)

  • Bae, Sei-Kwan;Lee, Young-Bok;Yoon, Kyung-Bong;Im, Kong-Been
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.138-141
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    • 1997
  • Rib fracture due to intense pain, may restrict patients from inadequate coughing. These conditions may produce varying degrees of complications such as atelectasis, pneumonia and arterial hypoxemia. Thoracic epidural analgesia has been used to treat pain associated multiple rib fractures because of its marked improvement in vital capacity and dynamic lung compliance. However, there are complications related to thoracic epidural analgesia which may include damage to spinal cord, perforation of dura, respiratory depression, decrease heart rate and arterial blood pressure. We experienced such a case of cardiac arrest during thoracic epidural analgesia while treating a patient for multiple rib fractures.

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