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Evaluation of MTF Image by Target/Filter Combined of X-ray Tube Using Mammography (유방촬영용 X선관 target/filter 조합에 따른 MTF영상평가에 관한 고찰)

  • Yang, Han-Jun;Joo, Mi-Hwa;Ko, Sin-Kwan
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.113-119
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    • 2007
  • It is important to consider the contrast of object in Mammography because an absorption gap between tissues of body and breast in breast is low. This study is to evaluate MTF image with resolution chart according to change of combination of target and filter. The results were as follows : 1. There were significant differences in X-ray energy according to combination of filter(Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh. Mo/Al, Rh/Rh, Rh/Al) and acrylic thickness(2 cm, 3 cm, 4 cm). 2. The value of lp/mm on MTF to 0.5 showed that the sharpness in MTF curve was 2.4 compared to Mo/Mo and 2cm acryl, 2.63 in Mo/Rh and 4 cm acryl, and 2.9 in Rh/Rh and 6cm acryl. 3. The value of lp/mm on MTF showed that the resolution in MTF curve was 6.0 compared to Mo/Mo and 2 cm acryl, 4.60 in Rh/Al and 4cm acryl, and 6.03 in Rh/Al and 6 cm acryl. 4. The value of MTF on 2.5 lp/mm distinguishable visually was 0.48 compared to Mo/Mo and 2 cm acryl, 0.53 in Mo/Rh and 4cm acryl, and 0.59 in Rh/Rh and 6cm acryl. 5. For the evaluation of an image of the mammo-phantom, the score of Mo/Mo was 12 points, Mo/Rh 11, Rh/Rh 10.5, Mo/Al 10, Rh/Al 9.0, respectively.

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Synthesis, ESR and Electrochemical Characterization of Dioxygen Binding to Dirhodium Complexes with 2-anilinopyridinato Bridging Ligand (2-아닐리노 피리딘을 배위자로 하는 이핵 로듐착물의 두 산소첨가 생성물에 대한 합성 및 전기화학적 성질)

  • Kwang Ha Park;Moo Jin Jun;John. L. Bear
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.633-643
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    • 1989
  • The R$Rh_2(ap)_4$(2,2-trans) isomer (ap = 2-anilinopyridinate), which has two anilino nitrogens and two pyridyl nitrogens bound to each rhodium ion trans to their own kind, shows activation towards the one electron reduction of dioxygen at -0.40 V vs SCE. The ESR spectrum taken at 123 K proves the formation of a $[Rh_2(ap)_4(O_2)]$ ion with oxygen axially bound to one rhodium ion and the complex is at a RhⅡ2 oxidation state. The complex will form [$Rh_2(ap)_4(O_2)(CH_3CN)]^-$ in presence of $CH_3CN/CH_2Cl_2$ mixture without breaking the Rh-$O_2^-$ bond. When oxidized at -0.25 and 0.55 V, $[Rh_2(ap)_4(O_2)]$ will undergo two one electron oxidations to form $Rh_2(ap)_4(O_2)[Rh_2(ap)_4(O_2)]^+$. Both species have an axially bound superoxide ion but the former is at $Rh^{II}Rh^{III }$and the later at $Rh^{III}_2$ oxidation states. The ESR spetra and $CH_3CN$ addition study, on the other hand, show that the later complex is better described as $[Rh_{II}Rh^{III}(ap)_4(O_2)]^+$ with the odd electron localized on rhodium ion and the complex has an axially coordinated molecular oxygen. The electrochemical and ESR studies also show that the degree of dioxygen activation is a function of electrochemical redox potential.

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Conception Rate of Ovulation-Estrus Synchronization Method in Hanwoo (한우에 있어서 발정ㆍ배란 동기화법에 의한 수태율)

  • 박정준;임석기;이명식;전기준;박수봉;정영훈;우제석;나기준
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.207-213
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    • 2003
  • This objective of this experiment were to evaluate the effect of various estrus synchronization programs on estrus detection rate and pregnancy rate in Hanwoo. After Postpartum 60 Days, a total of 150 cows divided into 2 groups. Cows Group 1 were treated with one luteolytic dosage of PGF$_2$$\alpha$(25 mg, im; lutalyse. USA) on Day 0, and with a second dosage 14 d later; cows in Group 2 were treated with GnRH(l00 $\mu\textrm{g}$, im; Conceral. Korea) on Day 0, PGF$_2$$\alpha$ 7 d later, GnRH 2 d later, and then time-inseminated approximately 16 h after this second treatment with GnRH. Ovarian morphology was monitored cows by trans-rectal ultrasonography from 24 hr to 32 hrs after second GnRH injection. The result obtained summarized as follows: 1. Cows synchronization of estrus with GnRH+PGF$_2$$\alpha$+GnRH(Ov-synch) and PGF$_2$$\alpha$ were 91.3 and 40.0%, respectively. 2. Induced ovulation were 24 to 32hr after the second GnRH injection, but high induced ovulation was 28hr. 3. High conception rate were 24hr insemination after the second GnRH injection. 4. Conception rate with PGF$_2$$\alpha$, CIDR and GnRH treatment were 50.0, 36.0 and 76.9%, respectively.

Production of the Rare Ginsenoside Rh2-MIX (20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, Rk2, and Rh3) by Enzymatic Conversion Combined with Acid Treatment and Evaluation of Its Anti-Cancer Activity

  • Song, Bong-Kyu;Kim, Kyeng Min;Choi, Kang-Duk;Im, Wan-Taek
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.1233-1241
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    • 2017
  • The ginsenoside Rh2 has strong anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic effects. However, the application of ginsenoside Rh2 is restricted because of the small amounts found in Korean white and red ginsengs. To enhance the production of ginsenoside Rh2-MIX (comprising 20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, Rk2, and Rh3 as a 10-g unit) with high specificity, yield, and purity, a new combination of enzymatic conversion using the commercial enzyme Viscozyme L followed by acid treatment was developed. Viscozyme L treatment at pH 5.0 and $50^{\circ}C$ was used initially to transform the major ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd into ginsenoside F2, followed by acid-heat treatment using citric acid 2% (w/v) at pH 2.0 and $121^{\circ}C$ for 15 min. Scale-up production in a 10-L jar fermenter, using 60 g of the protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside mixture from ginseng roots, produced 24 g of ginsenoside Rh2-MIX. Using 2 g of Rh2-MIX, 131 mg of 20(S)-Rh2, 58 mg of 20(R)-Rh2, 47 mg of Rk2, and 26 mg of Rh3 were obtained at over 98% chromatographic purity. Then, the anti-cancer effect of the four purified ginsenosides was investigated on B16F10, MDA-MB-231, and HuH-7 cell lines. As a result, these four rare ginsenosides markedly inhibited the growth of the cancer cell lines. These results suggested that rare ginsenoside Rh2-MIX could be exploited to prepare an anti-cancer supplement in the functional food and pharmaceutical industries.

Evolutionary Viewpoint on GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) in Chordata - Amino Acid and Nucleic Acid Sequences

  • Choi, Donchan
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.119-132
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    • 2018
  • GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) is a supreme hormone regulating reproductive activity in most animals. The sequences of amino acid and nucleic acid of GnRH reported up to now are examined from the evolutionary framework of Chordata. All identified GnRH are classified into GnRH1, GnRH2, or GnRH3. In all three forms of GnRH both N-terminal and C-terminal are conserved, which allows for effective binding to their receptors. The three amino acids in the middle of GnRH1 sequence have altered diversely from the primitive Chordata, which is indicative of the adaptation process to the ambient environment. GnRH2 and GnRH3 sequences are well conserved. There are more diverse modifications in the nucleic acids than in amino acid sequence of GnRH1. These variations can result from meiosis, mutation, or epigenetics and indicate that GnRH is the product of natural selection.

Reactivity of RhCp* Complexes Containing Labile Ligands toward Potential Linking Ligands Containing Terminal Thiophene or Furan Rings:Preparation and Structures of [Cp*Rh(L1)Cl2], [Cp*Rh(η2-NO3)(L1)](OTf),and {[Rh(L2)] · (OTf)}[L1 = 1,2-Bis((thiophen-2-yl)methylene)hydrazine); L2 = 1,2-Bis((furan-2-yl)methylene)hydrazine]

  • Lee, Kyung-Eun;Lee, Soon-W.
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.31 no.12
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    • pp.3600-3604
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    • 2010
  • Rhodium(III)-$Cp^*$ complexes containing labile ligands, $[Cp^*RhCl_2]_2$, [$Cp^*Rh({\eta}^2-NO_3)$(OTf)], and $[Cp^*Rh(OH_2)_3](OTf)_2$, reacted with potential linking ligands [$L^1$ = (2-thiophene)-CH=N-N=CH-(2-thiophene); $L^2$ = (2-furan)-CH=N-N=CH-(2-furan)] to give two molecular compounds, [$Cp^*Rh(L^1)Cl_2$] (1) and [$Cp^*Rh({\eta}^2-NO_3)(L^1)$]$(OTf){\cdot}CH_2Cl_2$ ($2{\cdot}CH_2Cl_2$), and one 1-dimensioanl coordination polymer, $\{[Rh(L^2)]{\cdot}(OTf)}_{\infty}$ (3). Whereas one imine nitrogen atom within the ligand is coordinated to the Rh metal in compounds 1 and 2, both nitrogen atoms are bound to two neighboring Rh metals in compound 3 to lead to a 1-D chain polymer.

Dioxygen Binding to Dirhodium(Ⅱ, Ⅱ), (Ⅱ, Ⅲ), and (Ⅲ, Ⅲ) Complexes. Spectroscopic Characterization of $[Rh_{2}(ap)_{4}(O_{2})]^{+},\;Rh_{2}(ap)_{4}(O_{2}),\;and\;[Rh_{2}(ap)_{4}(O_{2})]^-$, where ap=2-anilinopyridinate Ion

  • Lee, Jae-Duck;Yao, Chao-Liang;Capdevielle, Francoise J.;Han, Bao-Cheng;Bear, John L.;Kadish, Karl M.
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.195-200
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    • 1993
  • The neutral, reduced, and oxidized 2,2-trans isomers of $Rh_2(ap)_4$ (ap=2-anilinopyridinate) were investigated with respect to dioxygen binding in $CH_2Cl_2$ containing 0.1 M tetrabutyl-ammonium perchlorate. $Rh_2(ap)_4$ binds dioxygen in nonaqueous media and forms a $Rh^{II}Rh^{III}$ superoxide complex, $Rh_2(ap)_4(O_2)$. This neutral species was isolated and is characterized by UV-visible and IR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and cyclic voltammetry. It can be reduced by one electron at $E_{1/2}$ = -0.45 V vs. SCE in $CH_2Cl_2$ and gives ${[Rh_2(ap)_4(O_2)]}^-$ as demonstrated by the ESR spectrum of a frozen solution taken after controlled potential reduction. The superoxide ion in ${[Rh_2(ap)_4(O_2)]}^-$ is axially bound to one of the two rhodium ions, both of which are in a +2 oxidation state. $Rh_2(ap)_4(O_2)$ can also be stepwise oxidized in two one-electron transfer steps at $E_{1/2}$ = 0.21 V and 0.85 V vs. SCE in $CH_2Cl_2$ and gives ${[Rh_2(ap)_4(O_2)]}^+$ followed by ${[Rh_2(ap)_4(O_2)]}^{2+}$. ESR spectra demonstrate that the singly oxidized complex is best described as ${[Rh^{II}Rh^{III}(ap)_4(O_2)]}^+$ where the odd electron is delocalized on both of the two rhodium ions and the axial ligand is molecular oxygen.

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Demineralized dentin matrix combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in rabbit calvarial defects

  • Um, In-Woong;Hwang, Suk-Hyun;Kim, Young-Kyun;Kim, Moon-Young;Jun, Sang-Ho;Ryu, Jae-Jun;Jang, Hyon-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.90-98
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the osteogenic effects of demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in rabbit calvarial defects with DDM and anorganic bovine bone (ABB) combined with rhBMP-2. Materials and Methods: Four round defects with 8-mm diameters were created in each rabbit calvaria. Each defect was treated with one of the following: 1) DDM, 2) ABB/rhBMP-2, or 3) DDM/rhBMP-2. The rhBMP-2 was combined with DDM and ABB according to a stepwise dry and dip lyophilizing protocol. Histological and microcomputed tomography (${\mu}CT$) analyses were performed to measure the amount of bone formation and bone volume after 2- and 8-week healing intervals. Results: Upon histological observation at two weeks, the DDM and ABB/rhBMP-2 groups showed osteoconductive bone formation, while the DDM/rhBMP-2 group showed osteoconductive and osteoinductive bone formation. New bone formation was higher in DDM/rhBMP-2, DDM and ABB decreasing order. The amounts of bone formation were very similar at two weeks; however, at eight weeks, the DDM/rhBMP-2 group showed a twofold greater amount of bone formation compared to the DDM and ABB/rhBMP-2 groups. The ${\mu}CT$ analysis showed markedly increased bone volume in the DDM/rhBMP-2 group at eight weeks compared with that of the DDM group. Notably, there was a slight decrease in bone volume in the ABB/rhBMP-2 group at eight weeks. There were no significant differences among the DDM, ABB/rhBMP-2, and DDM/rhBMP-2 groups at two or eight weeks. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, DDM appears to be a suitable carrier for rhBMP-2 in orthotopic sites.

Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Ethyl Pyruvate over Bimetallic Rh-Pt/Al2O3 Catalysts Modified with Dihydrocinchonidine (Dihydrocinchonidine으로 개질된 Rh-Pt/Al2O3 이원금속 촉매를 이용한 Ethyl Pyruvate의 비대칭 수소화)

  • Cho, Hong-Baek;Kang, Joon-seok;Park, Yeung-Ho
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.369-374
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    • 2006
  • $Rh-Pt/Al_{2}O_{3}$ catalysts were used for the first time to study its reaction characteristics in the asymmetric hydrogenation of ethyl pyruvate. The catalysts were prepared either by impregnation of Rh on a commercial $Pt/Al_{2}O_{3}$ or by sequential impregnation of Rh followed by impregnation of Pt on $Al_{2}O_{3}$. Reaction rate and enantiomeric excess (ee%) were compared according to the preparation method, Rh contents, and the reduction temperature of the catalyst. The physical characteristics of the catalysts were analyzed using XRD and TEM. Bimetallic $Rh-Pt/Al_{2}O_{3}$ catalysts showed an improved reaction rate and optical purity (63.6 ee%) with increasing the reduction temperature. The variation of the Rh contents as well as the preparation method elicited a big difference on the reaction rate, while enantiomeric excess (ee%) was lower (56~60%) with all bimetallic catalysts than with monometallic $Pt/Al_{2}O_{3}$ catalyst.