• Title, Summary, Keyword: Reversibility

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REMARKS ON WEAK REVERSIBILITY-OVER-CENTER

  • Chen, Hongying;Lee, Yang;Piao, Zhelin
    • East Asian mathematical journal
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.417-424
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    • 2020
  • Huang et al. proved that the n by n upper triangular matrix ring over a domain is weakly reversible-over-center by using the property of regular matrices. In this article we provide a concrete proof which is able to be available in the related study of centers. Next we extend an example of weakly reversible-over-center, which was argued by Huang et al., to the general case.

양이온성 전분의 특징에 따른 마이크로파티클 보류시스템의 변화

  • 이학래;황남선;고창헌
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.44-44
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    • 2001
  • 최근들어 환경보호, 자원절약 및 산업의 경제성 확립을 위하여 전세계적으로 자원의 재활 용에 대한 일반 대중의 관심이 고조되고 있으며, 이와 때를 같이하여 각종 재활용 촉진을 위한 법규와 제도가 강화되어가고 있다. 이러한 분위기는 제지산업 분야의 경우 재생펄프 의 사용량 증가로 나타나고 있다. 그 동안 고지를 주된 원료로 사용하던 신문지, 판지 및 라이너지 등의 지종은 고지 사용 비율을 점차 높혀가고 있으며 천연펄프를 주된 원료로 이용하던 고급 인쇄용지와 화장지 분야에도 재생펄프의 사용이 시도되거나 확대되고 있 다. 아울러 전 지종에 걸쳐서 고수율 펄프의 활용 증대를 통한 산림자원 보호 및 경제성 확립에도 많은 노력이 경주되고 있다. 이러한 고지 및 고수율 펄프의 이용 증가 추세는 단 순한 경제적 이유에서 뿐만이 아니라 갈수록 강화되고 있는 환경보전과 자원절감을 달성 하기 위해서 지속되리라고 판단된다. 재생펄프의 이용과 함께 날로 엄격해지는 폐수 배출 규제와 관련하여 제지 공정을 폐쇄 화 방안이 적극 검토되고 있거나 실제로 적용되고 있다. 이에 따라 초지계의 백수 조건이 악화되고 있으며 앞으로 이러한 추세는 심화될 것이 자명하다. 이러한 백수계의 오염은 각종 첨가제의 기능 저하를 유발시키므로 공정 폐쇄화에 대처할 수 있는 새로운 기능성 보류시스템의 개발이 선행되지 않는다면 보류되지 못한 첨가제 혹은 미세분이 초지계를 오염시키는 악순환이 거듭될 것이 자명하다. 따라서 고지 재활용 및 공정 폐쇄화에 적극적으로 대처하기 위해서는 변화되는 원료 및 용수 조건에 능동적으로 대처할 수 있는 새로운 기능성 보류시스템으로서 전분과 마이크 로파티클로 구성된 보류 시스템을 검토하였다. 특히 마이크로파티클 시스템의 구성요소의 하나인 양성전분의 개질에 따른 효과를 평가하기 위해서 다양한 종류의 양성전분을 준비 하고 그 사용에 따른 미세분 보류도, reversibility 등을 측정하였다. 특히 reversibility를 측정함으로써 제지공정상에서의 전단력에 의한 응집에 파괴이후의 재응집 능력을 평가하 였다.

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Effect of the Synchronization of Meiotic Resumption in Bovine Oocytes Matured In Vitro (감수분열 재개 동기화가 소 미성숙 난자의 체외 성숙에 미치는 영향)

  • 박종임;장유니
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.263-267
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out to test the efficacy of pharmacological inhibitors of the cell cycle transition in keeping bovine oocytes at the germinal vesicle(GV) stage and the reversibility of this inhibition. Bovine oocytes were incubated for 22∼24 hrs in the presence of various inhibitors : cycloheximide (2$\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$), 6-DMAP (2 mM), and roscovitine (50$\mu$M). Bovine oocytes cultured with any of the inhibitors were significantly blocked at the GV stage. Reversibility of pharmacological inhibitors was assessed by culturing oocytes an additional 22∼24 hours in inhibitor-free medium. Examination of oocytes revealed that the inhibitory effect was fully reversible and effect of resuming meiotic progression on nuclear maturation varied according to the various inhibitors. This study suggests that cycloheximide, 6-DMAP and roscovitine can be applied to control meiotic arrest and resumption in maturation culture of bovine oocytes in vitro. More investigations are needed to better understand how the cell cycle of oocyte is blocked without problems to future developmental competence.

Investigation of the orientational changes of monolayer on the water surface by measuring the displacement current. (변위전류 측정에 의한 수면상 단분자막의 배향변화 관찰)

  • Park, Tae-Gone;Song, Kyung-Ho;Park, Keun-Ho;Kwon, Young-Soo;Kang, Dou-Yol
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.1320-1322
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    • 1994
  • Photoisomerization characteristics of 4-octyl-4'-(5-carboxy-pentamethyleneoxy) azobenzene molecules (8A5H) were attained by measurement of absorbtion spectra. 8A5H in chroloform($6.0{\times}10^{-5}[M/l]$) shows trans to cis and cis to trans isomerization by irradiation of lights of 360[nm] and 450[nm] wavelength. From LB monolayer films of 8A5H, also the cis/trans photoisomerization was obtained and it has reversibility and memory characteristics. We are now trying to detect these properties of 8A5H electrically. On this paper, we investigated the structural changes of monolayer on the water surface by measuring the displacement current as a preliminary experiment. The measuring system was constructed at home-made Kuhn type LB(Langmuir-Blodgett) deposition apparatus. 8A5H solution was spreaded at the air-water interface and the currents induced by the dynamic behavior of molecules were measured when the molecules were pressed by barrier. The reversibility of displacement currents by compression and expansion was obtained from 8A5H molecules, which shows the compressed molecules have a tendency to disperse after the compression. From this experiment, we conclude that the behavior of molecules on water surface can be monitored electrically by using this current measuring method, and this method can also be applied to detect the photoisomerization of monolayers on water surface.

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Understanding the Effects of the Dispersion and Reflection of Lamb Waves on a Time Reversal Process (램파의 분산성과 파 반사가 시간반전과정에 미치는 영향의 이해)

  • Park, Hyun-Woo;Kim, Sung-Bum;Sohn, Hoon
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.89-103
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    • 2009
  • This study investigates the applicability of the time reversal concept in modem acoustics to the Lamb waves, which have been widely studied for defect detection in plate-like structures. According to conventional time reversal acoustics, an input signal can be reconstructed at an excitation point if an output signal recorded at another point is reversed in the time domain and emitted back to the original source point. However, the application of a time reversal process(TRP) to Lamb wave propagations is complicated due to velocity and amplitude dispersion characteristics of Lamb waves and reflections from the boundaries of a structure. In this study, theoretical investigations are presented to better understand the time reversibility of Lamb waves. In particular, the effects of within-mode dispersion, multimode dispersion, amplitude dispersion, and reflections from boundaries on the TRP are theoretically formulated. Simple numerical case studies are conducted to validate the theoretical findings of this study.

Charge-Discharge Characteristics of Carbonaceous Materials for a Negative Electrode in Lithium-Ion Batteries (리튬이온전직용 카본계부극재료의 충방전 특성)

  • 김정식;박영태;김상열;장영철
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.69-74
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    • 1999
  • Graphite and carbonaceous materials intercalate and deintercalate Li-ion reversibly into their layered structures. These materials show an excellent capacity for using a negative electrode in Li-ion batteries, because the electrochemical potential of Li-ion intercalated carbon is almost identical with that of lithium metal. Carbon used in this study was obtained by the pyrolysis of petroleum pitch, and heat-treated at the several temperatures between $700^{\circ}C$ and $1300^{\circ}C$. XRD analysis revealed that crystallization of carbon increased with increasing the heat treatment temperature. Charge/discharge properties were studied by a constant-current step at the rate of 0.1C, and the interfacial reaction between the electrolyte and the surface of carbon electrode was studied by cyclic voltammetry. Cell capacities were investigated in terms of the heat treatment temperature and the cycle number. Reversible capacity increased with the heat treatment temperature up to $1000^{\circ}C$, thereafter decreased continuously. Also, charge capacity decreased with the cycle number, while the reversibility improved with it.

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5th Graders' Logical Development through Learning Division with Decimals (5학년 아동의 소수 나눗셈 원리 이해에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jong-Euk
    • School Mathematics
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.99-117
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    • 2007
  • In this paper it is discussed how children develop their logical reasoning beyond difficulties in the process of making sense of division with decimals in the classroom setting. When we consider the gap between mathematics at elementary and secondary levels, and given the logical nature of mathematics at the latter levels, it can be seen as important that the aspects of children's logical development in the upper grades in elementary school should be clarified. This study focuses on the teaching and learning of division with decimals in a 5th grade classroom, because it is well known to be difficult for children to understand the meaning of division with decimals. It is suggested that children begin to conceive division as the relationship between the equivalent expressions at the hypothetical-deductive level detached from the concrete one, and that children's explanation based on a reversibility of reciprocity are effective in overcoming the difficulties related to division with decimals. It enables children to conceive multiplication and division as a system of operations.

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Mechanical evolution of radioactive waste repository and rock mass - A review on ANDRA's case - (방사성 폐기물 지층 처분장과 암반의 역학적 특성 변화 - ANDRA의 예 -)

  • Chung, So-Keul;Synn, Joong-Ho
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.165-174
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    • 2008
  • Thermo-hydro-chemico-mechanical evolution of the radioactive waste repository and surrounding geological media is one of the key issues for the radioactive waste disposal. This article describes not only the basic context for the site selection but also a reasonable strategy for the repository related research based on the results of the French repository project carried out by ANDRA (National radioactive waste management agency). To have some alternatives for the determination of a preferable depth and geological media, it would be recommendable to establish a database system. The curing process of the fractures or microfissures in the EDZ (Excavation Disturbed Zone) during operation time has to be examined considering the evolution of the EDZ and the reversibility of the repository. It is prerequisite to carry out a feasibility study and to validate the design concept and design parameters in a properly constructed underground research laboratory (URL) in Korea.

Interval-based Audio Integrity Authentication Algorithm using Reversible Watermarking (가역 워터마킹을 이용한 구간 단위 오디오 무결성 인증 알고리즘)

  • Yeo, Dong-Gyu;Lee, Hae-Yeoun
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartB
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    • v.19B no.1
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    • pp.9-18
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    • 2012
  • Many audio watermarking researches which have been adapted to authenticate contents can not recover the original media after watermark removal. Therefore, reversible watermarking can be regarded as an effective method to ensure the integrity of audio data in the applications requiring high-confidential audio contents. Reversible watermarking inserts watermark into digital media in such a way that perceptual transparency is preserved, which enables the restoration of the original media from the watermarked one without any loss of media quality. This paper presents a new interval-based audio integrity authentication algorithm which can detect malicious tampering. To provide complete reversibility, we used differential histogram-based reversible watermarking. To authenticate audio in parts, not the entire audio at once, the proposed algorithm processes audio by dividing into intervals and the confirmation of the authentication is carried out in each interval. Through experiments using multiple kinds of test data, we prove that the presented algorithm provides over 99% authenticating rate, complete reversibility, and higher perceptual quality, while maintaining the induced-distortion low.

Harvesting of microalgae via submerged membranes: flux, fouling and its reversibility

  • Elcik, Harun;Cakmakci, Mehmet
    • Membrane Water Treatment
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    • v.8 no.5
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    • pp.499-515
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate membrane fouling caused by microalgal cells in submerged membrane systems consisting of polymeric and ceramic microfiltration membranes. In this study, one polymeric (flat-sheet, pore size: $0.2{\mu}m$) and two ceramic (flat-sheet, pore size: $0.2{\mu}m$ and cylindrical, pore size: $1{\mu}m$) membranes were used. Physical cleaning was performed with water and air to determine the potential for reversible and irreversible membrane fouling. The study results showed that substantial irreversible membrane fouling (after four filtration cycles, irreversible fouling degree 27% (cleaning with water) and 38% (cleaning with air)) occurs in the polymeric membrane. In cleaning studies performed using water and air on ceramic membranes, it was observed that compressed air was more effective (recovery rate: 87-91%) for membrane cleaning. The harvesting performance of the membranes was examined through critical flux experiments. The critical flux values for polymeric membrane with a pore size of $0.20{\mu}m$ and ceramic membranes with a pore size of $0.20{\mu}m$ and $1{\mu}m$ were ${\leq}95L/m^2hour$, ${\leq}70L/m^2hour$ and ${\leq}55L/m^2hour$, respectively. It was determined that critical flux varies depending on the membrane material and the pore size. To obtain more information on membrane fouling caused by microalgal cells, the characterization of the fouled polymeric membrane was performed. This study concluded that ceramic membranes with a pore size of $0.2-1{\mu}m$ in the submerged membrane system could be efficiently used for microalgae harvesting by cleaning the membrane with compressed air at regular intervals.