• Title, Summary, Keyword: Reversibility

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Predictive Factors for Improvement of Atrophic Gastritis and Intestinal Metaplasia: A Long-term Prospective Clinical Study (위축성 위염과 장상피화생의 호전에 영향을 미치는 인자에 대한 전향적 연구)

  • Hwang, Young-Jae;Kim, Nayoung;Yun, Chang Yong;Kwon, Min Gu;Baek, Sung Min;Kwon, Yeong Jae;Lee, Hye Seung;Lee, Jae Bong;Choi, Yoon Jin;Yoon, Hyuk;Shin, Cheol Min;Park, Young Soo;Lee, Dong Ho
    • The Korean journal of helicobacter and upper gastrointestinal research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.186-197
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    • 2018
  • Background/Aims: To investigate the predictive factors for improvement of atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM). Materials and Methods: A total of 778 subjects were prospectively enrolled and followed up for 10 years. Histological analysis of AG and IM was performed by using the updated Sydney system. To find the predictive factors for reversibility of AG and IM, 24 factors including genetic polymorphisms and bacterial and environmental factors were analyzed. Results: In all subjects, the predictive factor by multivariate analysis for improvement of both antral and corpus AG was successful eradication. The predictive factors for improvement of antral IM were age and successful eradication. The predictive factor for improvement of corpus IM was successful eradication. In patients with Helicobacter pylori infection, age and cagA were predictive factors for improvement of AG and IM. In patients with H. pylori eradication, monthly income and cagA were predictive factors for improvement of AG and IM. Conclusions: H. pylori eradication is an important predictive factor of regression of AG and IM and would be beneficial for the prevention of intestinal-type gastric cancer. Young age, high income, and cagA are additional predictive factors for improving AG and IM status. Thus, various factors affect the improvement of AG and IM.

Diagnostic Accuracy and Evaluation of Myocardial Viability by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Comparison with Thallium-201 Myocardial SPECT (급성심근경색증에서의 심장자기공명영상술의 진단 정확도와 심근 생존력 평가: TI-201 심근관류 SPECT와의 비교)

  • Kim Hye-seon;Park Dong Woo;Kim Yongsoo;Kim Young-sun;Choi Yo Won;Jeon Seok Chul;Seo Heung Suk;Hahm Chang Kok;Kim Soon Kil;Ahn You hern;Choi Yoon Young;Park Choong-Ki
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.100-107
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    • 2003
  • Purpose : To assess the usefulness of cardiac MR imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction and in the assessment of myocardial viability in comparision with T1-201 SPECT. Materials and Methods : We retrospectively studied 17 patients who complained of chest pain and dyspnea with cardiac MRI . The patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of high signal intensity on T2-weighted image (T2wI), abnormal wall motion on 2D-FIESTA, perfusion defect on Gd-DTPA enhanced T1WI, and delayed myocardial enhancement on 15-minutes delay Gd-DTPA enhanced T1WI. The results were correlated with the images on T1-201 SPECT, taken at rest and stress, through which reversibility of perfusion defect was assessed. Results : Both cardiac MRI and T1-201 SPECT proved to be useful methods for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction. In order of decreasing correspondence, T2WI, T1-201 SPECT, delayed enhancement study, and wall motion images all showed significant statistical correlation with the clinical diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Perfusion MRI, on the other hand, showed no significant statistical difference was found between T1-201 SPECT and cardiac MRI. The results on T2WI showed high accordance with those on Tl-201 SPECT, while delayed myocardial enhancement and wall motion studies showed no agreement with Tl-201 SPECT. Conclusion : Cardiac MRI is useful method for diagnosis of acute myocardiac infarction. With respect to the assessment of myocardial viability, the results obtained on cardiac MRI showed high agreement with those on Tl-201 SPECT. However, further study is necessary at this point for standardization and establishment of the methods for assessing myocardial viability on cardiac MRI.

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Sorption Studies of $Cd^{2+}$ on Calcite: Kinetics and Reversibility (방해석의 $Cd^{2+}$ 흡착현상에 대한 연구)

  • Yoon, Hyeon;Reeder, Richard J.
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.104-113
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    • 2002
  • The sorption of Cd$^{2+}$ on calcite was studied in aqueous solutions of several electrolytes. The Cd$^{2+}$ concentration, 10$^{-8}$ M, was kept well below saturation with respect to CdCO$_3$(s). Sorption behavior of Cd$^{2+}$ in different ionic strengths of NaClO$_4$solutions shows that sorption is independent of ionic strength. This result suggests that Cd$^{2+}$ sorption on calcite surface is of a specific nature, and adsorption is controlled by an inner-sphere type of surface complex. Two stages in the sorption behavior could be identified: an initial rapid uptake, followed by slower uptake reaching a maximum steady state by 145 hrs. No evidence was observed for surface precipitation, although it can not be entirely ruled out. Desorption of Cd$^{2+}$ from the calcite surface after resuspension into Cd-free solution is initially very rapid, but depends partly on the previous sorption history. Desorption behavior of Cd$^{2+}$ show that an initial rapid desorption followed either by slow uptake reaching a maximum, as in the adsorption experiments, or slowing desorption to reach a steady state minimum. This irreversible behavior of Cd$^{2+}$ sorption and desorption may act as one of the controls for regulating the mobility of dissolved Cd$^{2+}$ natural aqueous systems. Calculated adsorption partition coefficients suggest that overall sorption and desorption process in the concentration range are controlled by d single mechanism.ingle mechanism.

Comparison of Characteristics of Electrodeposited Lithium Electrodes Under Various Electroplating Conditions (다양한 전착조건에서 제작된 리튬 전극의 특성 연구)

  • Lim, Rana;Lee, Minhee;Kim, Jeom-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.128-137
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    • 2019
  • A lithium is the lightest metal on the earth. It has some attractive characteristics as a negative electrode material such as a low reduction potential (-3.04 V vs. SHE) and a high theoretical capacity ($3,860mAh\;g^{-1}$). Therefore, it has been studied as a next generation anode material for high energy lithium batteries. The thin lithium electrode is required to maximize the efficiency and energy density of the battery, but the physical roll-press method has a limitation in manufacturing thin lithium. In this study, thin lithium electrode was fabricated by electrodeposition under various conditions such as compositions of electrolytes and the current density. Deposited lithium showed strong relationship between process condition and its characteristics. The concentration of electrolyte affects to the shape of deposited lithium particle. As the concentration increases, the shape of particle changes from a sharp edged long one to a rounded lump. The former shape is favorable for suppressing dendrite formation and the elec-trode shows good stripping efficiency of 92.68% (3M LiFSI in DME, $0.4mA\;cm^{-2}$). The shape of deposited particle also affected by the applied current density. When the amount of current applied gets larger the shape changes to the sharp edged long one like the case of the low concentration electrolyte. The combination of salts and solvents, 1.5M LiFSI + 1.5M LiTFSI in DME : DOL [1 : 1 vol%] (Du-Co), was applied to the electrolyte for the lithium deposition. The lithium electrode obtained from this electrolyte composition shows the best stripping efficiency (97.26%) and the stable reversibility. This is presumed to be due to the stability of the surface film induced by the Li-F component and the DOL effect of providing film flexibility.

Interpretation of Bronchodilator Response in Patients with Obstructive Airway Disease (폐쇄성 기도 질환자에서 기관지 확장제 반응에 대한 평가)

  • Choi, Hee-Jin;Kim, Ki-Bum;Cho, Young-Bock;Cho, Ihn-Ho;Chung, Jin-Hong;Lee, Kwan-Ho;Lee, Hyun-Woo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.332-341
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    • 1995
  • Background: Measurement of bronchodilator response is necessary to establish reversibility of airflow obstruction that was helpful to estimate the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis in obstructive airway disease. An useful index should be able to detect the bronchodilator response more sensitively not related with degree of airflow obstruction and also be independent of initial $FEV_1$. Method: Sensitivities of bronchodilator response in each group classified by degree of airflow obstruction in $FEV_1$, FVC, $FEF_{25\sim75%}$, Isovolume $FEF_{25\sim75%}$, sGaw were studied and correlation coefficients were calculated between initial $FEV_1$ and reversibilities expressed as absolute, %initial, % predicted, %possible in $FEV_1$. Result: Sensitivities of bronchodilator response were 61.5% in FVC, Isovolume $FEF_{25\sim75%}$ and sGaw, in severe group, and 56.3% in Isovolume $FEF_{25\sim75%}$ and sGaw, in moderate group, and 62.5% in $FEV_1$ and sGaw and 50.0% in FVC and Isovolume $FEF_{25\sim75%}$, in mild group, and 60.0% in sGaw and 58.0% in Isovolume $FEF_{25\sim75%}$ in total patients. Correlation coefficients between initial $FEV_1$(L) and absolute, % initial, % predicted, % possible were 0.15, -0.22(p<0.05), 0.02, 0.24(p<0.05) and correlation coefficients between initial $FEV_1$(% predicted) and absolute, % initial, % predicted, %possible were 0.06, -0.28(p<0.05), 0.08, 0.39(p<0.05). Conclusion: Volume related parameters were more sensitive index not related with degree of airway obstruction and the change in $FEV_1$ expressed as % predicted was the least dependent on initial $FEV_1$ and reversibilities, expressed as % initial or as % possible(predicted minus initial $FEV_1$)were correlated with initial $FEV_1$.

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Triple Detector SPECT Imaging with $^{99m}Tc-DMSA$ in Adult Patients with Urinary Tract Infection (성인 요로 감염 환자에서 $^{99m}Tc-DMSA$ 삼중검출기 SPECT 영상의 유용성)

  • Ryu Jin-Sook;Bae, Won-Gyu;Moon Dae-Hyuk;Lee, Myung-Hae;Kim, Soon-Bae,;Park, Su-Kil;Park, Jung-Sik;Hong, Chang-Gi D.;Cho, Kyung-Sik
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.290-298
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    • 1992
  • Although early diagnosis of urinary tract infection is important, the radiologic evaluation is still controversial because of the low sensitivity and the lack of cost-effectiveness. This study was carried out to evaluate the clinical utility of high resolution triple head $^{99m}Tc-DMSA$ SPECT imaging in urinary tract infection. We prospectively performed $^{99m}Tc-DMSA$ planar and SPECT imaging, ultrasound of kidney (US), intravenous pyelography (IVP) and voiding cystourethrography (VCU) in all 60 adult patients with UTI [26 with first episode of acute pyelonephritis (APN), 22 with recurrent APN, and 12 persistent asymptomatic pyuria] and 25 normal persons. To assess reversibility of the renal cortical defect (RCD), $^{99m}Tc-DMSA$ SPECT was repeated 1 to 8 months later in those patients with abnormal initial findings. Overall detection rate of $^{99m}Tc-DMSA$ SPECT imaging was 83% (50/60), but planar, US, IVP and VCU showed abnormal findings in 68%, 28%, 32% and 13%, respectively. 25 out of 27 patients with normal or single RCD were all normal in other radioligic studies. Only two patients showed vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) on VCU (grade I) and mild hydronephrosis on IVP. But, high proportion of those with multiple RCD showed abnormal findings on US (17/33), IVP (18/33), and VCU (7/33): 67% in any of these 3 studies. Especially, 3 out 7 patients with VUR showed multiple RCD on $^{99m}Tc-DMSA$ SPECT without any abnormality on IVP or US. 25 normal persons showed normal findings in all studies except one false positive finding on $^{99m}Tc-DMSA$ SPECT imaging. Follow-up $^{99m}Tc-DMSA$ SPECT was done in 28 patients (13 with single RCD, 15 with multiple RCD). All 13 patients with single RCD showed improvement. Those with multiple RCD presented improvement in 4, no change in 10, and aggravation in 1 on follow-up studies. With these results, we conclude: 1) $^{99m}Tc-DMSA$ SPECT imaging is superior to planar imaging, US, IVP or VCU in detection of renal lesion in urinary tract infection. $^{99m}Tc-DMSA$ SPECT is useful as a initial diagnostic tool in adult patients with urinary tract infection. 2) The multiple RCD on $^{99m}Tc-DMSA$ SPECT represent the high probability of irreversible tissue change and need of extensive urological work-up.

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Viability Assessment with T1-201 Rest-24 hour Delay Redistribution SPECT before Coronary Artery Bypass Graft in Coronary Artery Diseases (관상동맥 질환에서 우회로 수술 전 T1-201 휴식-24시간 지연 심근 관류 SPECT를 이용한 심근생존능의 평가)

  • Yoon, Seok-Nam;Kim, Ki-Bong;Lee, Won-Woo;Chung, June-Key;Lee, Myung-Chul;Seo, Jung-Don;Koh, Chang-Soon;Lee, Dong-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.493-501
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    • 1996
  • To assess contribution of T1-201 rest-24 hour delay redistribution in detection of viable myocardium, we studied the predictive value of this redistribution in 17 patients who peformed rest-24 hour delay perfusion SPECT before bypass surgery. Regional wall motion was compared with gated SPECT in 10 patients and echocardiography in 7 patients before and after bypass surgery. Rest and 24 hour delayed uptakes were scored from 0 (normal perfusion) to 3 (defect). In rest SPECT, 56 segments showed perfusion decrease. Thirty four segments(61%) improved after surgery and were defined as viable Nineteen(34%) segments had more uptake of T1-201 at 24 hour delay, and the other 37 segments did not. In 81%(25/31) of segments with mildly decreased perfusion, wall motion after bypass surgery improved, 57% (8/14) of segments with severely decreased perfusion improved, and 9%(1/11) of segments with defects improved. In 14 among 19 segments which had more T1-201 uptakes at 24 hour delay, wall motion was improved(positive predictive value of redistribution: 74%). 20 among 37 segments which had persistent decreases in rest-24 hour redistribution improved and 17 did not(negative predictive value: 46%). Segments having severe perfusion decrease or defects showed improved wall motion after surgery in 64%(7/11), if it had redistribution at delay. Segments with either mildly decreased uptake in resting or rest-delayed redistribution showed improved wall motion in 76%(32/42). Among the 14 segments which showed improvement in wall motion, 10 had partial reversibility in stress-rest images and the other 4 had persistent perfusion defects in stress-rest images. These 4 segments were found viable only with rest-24 hour delayed perfusion SPECT. We concluded that rest T1-201 uptake or redistribution at 24 hour delay should be referred as an evidence to warrant postoperative improvement of abnormal wall motion and we could predict myocardial viability with preoperative rest-24 hour delay perfusion SPECT in the segments with rest perfusion decreases.

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Effect of $Cd^{2+}$ on the Oocyte Maturation and Developmental Stages of Brown Frog Embryo, Rana dybowskii in vitro ($Cd^{2+}$이 북방산개구리의 난자성숙과 배아발달에 미치는 영향)

  • Ko Sun-Kun
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.345-351
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    • 2006
  • This study investigates the toxic effects of $Cd^{2+}$on frog (Rana dybowskii) by the determination of oocyte maturation and development of embryo exposure to different concentrations of the toxicant. The results show that $Cd^{2+}$ concentration of 0.1ppm suppressed the maturation of the oocytes. To examine the reversibility of the inhibitory effects, the oocytes were exposed to the $Cd^{2+}$ only for 3 hours, and then transferred to plain medium and cultured further for 17 hours. The oocytes were recovered from the toxic effect of the $Cd^{2+}$ when they were exposed to 1ppm, but not to 2.5ppm of the $Cd^{2+}$. The development of 2 cell embryos to 32 cell was completely suppressed at 0.1ppm and the longer the embryos were exposed to the $Cd^{2+}$, the more damage appeared to the embryos and the cytolysis of the 32 cell was induced by $Cd^{2+}$ at 0.1ppm. On the other hand, the embryos of blastula stage were cultured 96 hours in presence of the $Cd^{2+}$ at various concentrations and were examined. The rates of mortality and malformed larvae were investigated by probit analysis. From the results of LC$_{50}$ of 0.1ppm and EC$_{50}$ of 0.08ppm, Tl of 5.0 was derived, which indicates $Cd^{2+}$ is to be considered a teratogenic compound. Such specific malformations occurred in 14.3% as spine deformations at the 0.05ppm, in 75.0% as tail deformations at the 0.1ppm, in 66.7% as abdominal deformations at the 0.01ppm and in 26.0% as profound deformations at the 0.1ppm of $Cd^{2+}$ concentration which living embryos were exposed to. $Cd^{2+}$ suppressed growth to head-tail length at 0.1ppm. In conclusion, The study results reveal that $Cd^{2+}$ must be considered highly toxic effect to oocyte maturation and embryonic development.

A Inquiry of the Perception of Death in School Age (학령기 아동의 죽음인식에 관한 탐색적 연구)

  • Joun, Young-Ran
    • Korean Journal of Hospice Care
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.13-28
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: This paper aims to examine the subjective structures and types of school age children's perception of death through an investigative study on their perception of death in order to provide a basic material for them to understand death, and develop and carry out an effective death education program. Methods: The study method used the Q Methodology which can investigate the subjective structures and types of school age children's perception of death. For Q-population, 20 school age children were used as subjects for neutral interviews and open surveys, and through documentary research, a total of 132 statements were collected, For Q-samples, 23 statements (Q-samples) were derived through a non-structural method. P-samples were 31 school age children (8-13 year olds), Q-sorting was carried out using Q-cards, and the collected data was analyzed using the PC QUANL program. Results: As a result of the study, children's perception of death was divided into five types. The first type was functional type, characterized by prominent subjective perception regarding the elements of death, such as non-reversibility, universality, non-functionality, and causality. The second was after-life type, characterized by a strong, focus on life after death in one's perception of death, and it included children with Christian background and those who had experienced death in their immediate family. The third was religious type, characterized by a strong belief in being able to still watch over one's family and friends after one's death, resulting in a positive faith in the after-life. The fourth was fearful type, characterized by a deeper fear of death in comparison to other types. The fifth was realistic type, characterized by a strong and positive assent to the perception of good death. Conclusion: The significance of the results of this paper's study to Nursing is as follows. In terms of understanding the subjectivity of school age children's perception of death in nursing practice, and understanding the compositional elements of death presented with strong emphasis in existing literature and studies, the results will expand these understandings and allow us to understand the level of perception in school age children regarding the definition of death, after-life, and good death, be utilized as useful material in developing an effective death education program for them according to their type characteristics, and become the fertilizer for enabling the children to live a proper life and preventing the tendency to make light of death that occur in adolescence and the spread of suicides. In terms of nursing theory, the description and examination of the subjective structures and the characteristics of the different, types of school age children's perception of death can be utilized as useful material for building a model of school age children's perception of death, and be further used for teaching respect for life. In terms of nursing research, the results can contribute to research describing the effects of nursing intervention strategies and developing tools for providing psychosocial nursing in terms of giving school age children a positive perception of death according to their types as well respect for life.

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Characteristic Findings of Exercise ECG Test, Perfusion SPECT and Coronary Angiography in Patients with Exercise Induced Myocardial Stunning (게이트 심근관류 SPECT상 운동 유발성 기절심근을 보이는 환자의 운동부하 심전도, 관류 SPECT 및 심혈관 조영술 소견)

  • Ahn, Byeong-Cheol;Seo, Ji-Hyoung;Bae, Jin-Ho;Jeong, Shin-Young;Park, Hun-Sik;Lee, Jae-Tae;Chae, Shung-Chul;Lee, Kyu-Bo
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.225-232
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    • 2004
  • Purpose : Transient wall motion abnormality and contractile dysfunction of the left ventricle (LV) can be observed in patients with coronary artery disease due to post-stress myocardial stunning. To understand clinical characteristics of stress induced LV dysfunction, we have compared the findings of exercise stress test, myocardial perfusion SPECT and coronary angiography between subjects with and without post-stress LV dysfunction. Materials and Methods : Among subjects who underwent exercise stress test, myocardial perfusion SPECT and coronary angiography within a month of interval, we enrolled 36 patients with post-stress LV election fraction (LVEF) was $\geq5%$ lower than rest (stunning group) and 16 patients with difference of post-stress and rest LVEF was lesser than 1 %(non-stunning group) for this study. Treadmill exercise stress gated myocardial perfusion SPECT was performed with dual head SPECT camera using 740 MBq Tc-99m MIBI and coronary angiography was also performed by conventional Judkins method. Results : Stunning group had a significantly higher incidence of hypercholesterolemia than non-stunning group(45.5 vs. 7.1%, p=0.01). Stunning group also had higher incidence of diabetes mellitus and lower incidence of hypertension, but these were not statistically significant. Stunning group had larger and more severe perfusion defect in stress perfusion myocardial SPECT than non-stunning group(extent 18.2 vs. 9.2%, p=0.029; severity 13.5 vs. 6.9, p=0.040). Stunning group also had higher degree of reversibility of perfusion defect, higher incidence of positive exercise stress test and higher incidence of having severe stenosis ($80{\sim}99%$) in coronary angiography than non-stunning group, but these were not statistically significant. In stunning group, all of 4 patients without perfusion defect had significant coronary artery stenosis and had received revascularization treatment. Conclusion : Patients with post-stress LV dysfunction had larger and more severe perfusion defect and severe coronary artery stenosis than patients without post-stress LV dysfunction. All of the patients without perfusion defect in stunning group had significant coronary artery stenosis and needed revascularization. Therefore, we suggest that invasive diagnostic procedures and therapeutic interventions might be needed in patients with post-stress LV dysfunction.