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S-MADP : Service based Development Process for Mobile Applications of Medium-Large Scale Project (S-MADP : 중대형 프로젝트의 모바일 애플리케이션을 위한 서비스 기반 개발 프로세스)

  • Kang, Tae Deok;Kim, Kyung Baek;Cheng, Ki Ju
    • KIPS Transactions on Software and Data Engineering
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    • v.2 no.8
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    • pp.555-564
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    • 2013
  • Innovative evolution in mobile devices along with recent spread of Tablet PCs and Smart Phones makes a new change not only in individual life but also in enterprise applications. Especially, in the case of medium-large mobile applications for large enterprises which generally takes more than 3 months of development periods, importance and complexity increase significantly. Generally Agile-methodology is used for a development process for the medium-large scale mobile applications, but some issues arise such as high dependency on skilled developers and lack of detail development directives. In this paper, S-MADP (Smart Mobile Application Development Process) is proposed to mitigate these issues. S-MADP is a service oriented development process extending a object-oriented development process, for medium-large scale mobile applications. S-MADP provides detail development directives for each activities during the entire process for defining services as server-based or client-based and providing the way of reuse of services. Also, in order to support various user interfaces, S-MADP provides detail UI development directives. To evaluate the performance of S-MADP, three mobile application development projects were conducted and the results were analyzed. The projects are 'TBS(TB Mobile Service) 3.0' in TB company, mobile app-store in TS company, and mobile groupware in TG group. As a result of the projects, S-MADP accounts for more detailed design information about 'Minimizing the use of resources', 'Service-based designing' and 'User interface optimized for mobile devices' which are needed to be largely considered for mobile application development environment when we compare with existing Agile-methodology. Therefore, it improves the usability, maintainability, efficiency of developed mobile applications. Through field tests, it is observed that S-MADP outperforms about 25% than a Agile-methodology in the aspect of the required man-month for developing a medium-large mobile application.

Development of Domestic Rainwater Treatment System and its Application in the Field (소규모 빗물처리시설 개발 및 현장 적용성 평가 연구)

  • Pak, Gijung;Park, Minseung;Kim, Hwansuk;Lim, Yoonsoo;Kim, Sungpyo
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.24-31
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    • 2016
  • The increase of impervious area in cities caused the unbalanced water cycle system and the accumulated various contaminants, which make troubles as introducing into watershed. In Korea, most of rainfall in a year precipitate in a summer season. This indicate that non-point source pollution control should be more important in summer and careful rainfall reuse strategy is necessary. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to monitor the characteristics of rainfall contaminants harvested in roofs and to develop the rainfall treatment system which are designed to fit well in a typical domestic household including rain garden. The rain garden consists of peatmoss, gravel and san to specially treat the initial rainfall contaminants. For this purpose, lab scale experiments with synthetic rainfall had been conducted to optimize the removal efficiency of TN, TP and CODcr. After lab scale experiments, field scale rainfall treatment system installed as a pilot scale in a field. This system has been monitored during June to July in 2015 in four time rainfall events as investigating the function of time, rainfall, and pollutant concentrations. As results, high loading of pollutants were introduced to the rainfall treatment system and its removal efficiency is increased as increase of pollutant concentrations. Since it is common that the mega-size of rainfall treatment system is not attractive in urban area, small scale rainfall treatment system is promising to treat the non-point source contaminants from cities. In addition, this small scale rainfall treatment system could have a potential to water resue system in islands, which usually suffer the shortage of water.

An Analysis of Process-oriented Design in the Invited Entries of International Competition for the Master Plan of the Yongsan Park, Korea (용산공원 설계 국제공모 출품작에 나타난 프로세스적 설계 분석)

  • So, Jin;Sung, Jong-Sang;Pae, Jeong-Hann
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.11-26
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    • 2013
  • Designing large parks such as Yongsan Park requires the open-ended process-oriented design approach in complex layers rather than the conventional self-completed master plan method. This study aims to examine the characteristics of process-oriented design in the eight invited entries of "International Competition for the Master Plan of the Yongsan Park, Korea"(2012). For this purpose, it analyzed each entry according to three criteria: objects of process-oriented approach, time factor and its features of phasing plan, and presentation method of the process. This analysis can not only critically review the current level of the process-centered design methodology but also suggest strategic future directions for Yongsan Park. The objects of process-oriented design in the eight works were order of physical space development, restoration process of ecosystem, recovering process of publicity, and economic operation and management. Main considerations in the objects were connections to adjacent urban fabrics, links to regional green and water system, reuse of existing buildings and infrastructures in the site. The temporal criteria of the phasing plan had two aspects. One was planning a certain time and period, and the other was just establishing an order of phases. Most of the presentation method of process was the phasing plan, but some of the entries suggested a scenario plan. The eight works of "International Competition for the Master Plan of Yongsan Park" did not attempt process-oriented designs entirely and completely. Rather, they tried to introduce the phasing plan as part of a process-centered design. Also, they took an eclectic approach between master plan and process-oriented design instead of rejecting the conventional master plan approach.

Effects of Feedback Signals on DTV Repeaters (DTV 중계기의 궤환신호의 영향)

  • Kang, Sang-Gee
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.10 no.10
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    • pp.1737-1743
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    • 2006
  • OCR(On channel repeater) provides the high frequency reuse efficiency for allocating frequency bands to repeaters because the frequency of input and output signals of OCRs is the same. However the oscillation probability of OCRs is high due to the same input and output frequency. In order to prevent a repeater from oscillating, we must keep the antenna isolation higher than the gain of the repeater with a some margin. In this paper we simulated the effects of the amplitude, phase and time delay of feedback signals (m the characteristics of non-regeneration OCR. Simulation results show that the highest probability of oscillation is occurred when the gain of a repeater is the same value of the isolation. From the simulation results, we know that the phase of feedback signals can be adjusted to reduce the possibility of oscillation if a non-regeneration repeater has a narrow operation bandwidth or a signal bandwidth is narrow. As the time delay increases, the probability of oscillation and the fluctuation of gain over a certain frequency band increase also. The effects of the amplitude and phase of feedback signals on S/N of 8-VSB signal for generation and non-generation repeater were tested. The measured results show that the set-top can receive 8-VSB signal when the received signal power is $17{\sim}18dB$ higher than the noise power. When the isolation is almost same as the gain of the repeater, then the set-top can not receive 8-VSB signals due to the oscillation of the repeater. And the phase of feedback signals affects S/N at the output of the repeater when the isolation is $11.75{\sim}13.75dB$ larger than the gain of the repeater. In this case the set-top can not receive 8-VSB signal of at $48^{\circ}\;and\;347^{\circ}$ of the phase of feedback signals. However the phase of feedback signals can not affect the S/N of 8-VSB signals of the generation repeater because of the demodulation and modulation process of the generation repenter. The set-top can not receive 8-VSB signals when the amplitude of feedback signals is $12.6{\sim}13.6dB$ larger than the wanted signal power at the input port of the repeater. It's because that the amplitude of feedback signals saturates the front end of the repeater.

Ontology-Based Process-Oriented Knowledge Map Enabling Referential Navigation between Knowledge (지식 간 상호참조적 네비게이션이 가능한 온톨로지 기반 프로세스 중심 지식지도)

  • Yoo, Kee-Dong
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.61-83
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    • 2012
  • A knowledge map describes the network of related knowledge into the form of a diagram, and therefore underpins the structure of knowledge categorizing and archiving by defining the relationship of the referential navigation between knowledge. The referential navigation between knowledge means the relationship of cross-referencing exhibited when a piece of knowledge is utilized by a user. To understand the contents of the knowledge, a user usually requires additionally information or knowledge related with each other in the relation of cause and effect. This relation can be expanded as the effective connection between knowledge increases, and finally forms the network of knowledge. A network display of knowledge using nodes and links to arrange and to represent the relationship between concepts can provide a more complex knowledge structure than a hierarchical display. Moreover, it can facilitate a user to infer through the links shown on the network. For this reason, building a knowledge map based on the ontology technology has been emphasized to formally as well as objectively describe the knowledge and its relationships. As the necessity to build a knowledge map based on the structure of the ontology has been emphasized, not a few researches have been proposed to fulfill the needs. However, most of those researches to apply the ontology to build the knowledge map just focused on formally expressing knowledge and its relationships with other knowledge to promote the possibility of knowledge reuse. Although many types of knowledge maps based on the structure of the ontology were proposed, no researches have tried to design and implement the referential navigation-enabled knowledge map. This paper addresses a methodology to build the ontology-based knowledge map enabling the referential navigation between knowledge. The ontology-based knowledge map resulted from the proposed methodology can not only express the referential navigation between knowledge but also infer additional relationships among knowledge based on the referential relationships. The most highlighted benefits that can be delivered by applying the ontology technology to the knowledge map include; formal expression about knowledge and its relationships with others, automatic identification of the knowledge network based on the function of self-inference on the referential relationships, and automatic expansion of the knowledge-base designed to categorize and store knowledge according to the network between knowledge. To enable the referential navigation between knowledge included in the knowledge map, and therefore to form the knowledge map in the format of a network, the ontology must describe knowledge according to the relation with the process and task. A process is composed of component tasks, while a task is activated after any required knowledge is inputted. Since the relation of cause and effect between knowledge can be inherently determined by the sequence of tasks, the referential relationship between knowledge can be circuitously implemented if the knowledge is modeled to be one of input or output of each task. To describe the knowledge with respect to related process and task, the Protege-OWL, an editor that enables users to build ontologies for the Semantic Web, is used. An OWL ontology-based knowledge map includes descriptions of classes (process, task, and knowledge), properties (relationships between process and task, task and knowledge), and their instances. Given such an ontology, the OWL formal semantics specifies how to derive its logical consequences, i.e. facts not literally present in the ontology, but entailed by the semantics. Therefore a knowledge network can be automatically formulated based on the defined relationships, and the referential navigation between knowledge is enabled. To verify the validity of the proposed concepts, two real business process-oriented knowledge maps are exemplified: the knowledge map of the process of 'Business Trip Application' and 'Purchase Management'. By applying the 'DL-Query' provided by the Protege-OWL as a plug-in module, the performance of the implemented ontology-based knowledge map has been examined. Two kinds of queries to check whether the knowledge is networked with respect to the referential relations as well as the ontology-based knowledge network can infer further facts that are not literally described were tested. The test results show that not only the referential navigation between knowledge has been correctly realized, but also the additional inference has been accurately performed.

A Study on the Design of Case-based Reasoning Office Knowledge Recommender System for Office Professionals (사례기반추론을 이용한 사무지식 추천시스템)

  • Kim, Myong-Ok;Na, Jung-Ah
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.131-146
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    • 2011
  • It is becoming more essential than ever for office professionals to become competent in information collection/gathering and problem solving in today's global business society. In particular, office professionals do not only assist simple chores but are also forced to make decisions as quickly and efficiently as possible in problematic situations that can end in either profit or loss to their company. Since office professionals rely heavily on their tacit knowledge to solve problems that arise in everyday business situations, it is truly helpful and efficient to refer to similar business cases from the past and share or reuse such previous business knowledge for better performance results. Case-based reasoning(CBR) is a problem-solving method which utilizes previous similar cases to solve problems. Through CBR, the closest case to the current business situation can be searched and retrieved from the case or knowledge base and can be referred to for a new solution. This reduces the time and resources needed and increase success probability. The main purpose of this study is to design a system called COKRS(Case-based reasoning Office Knowledge Recommender System) and develop a prototype for it. COKRS manages cases and their meta data, accepts key words from the user and searches the casebase for the most similar past case to the input keyword, and communicates with users to collect information about the quality of the case provided and continuously apply the information to update values on the similarity table. Core concepts like system architecture, definition of a case, meta database, similarity table have been introduced, and also an algorithm to retrieve all similar cases from past work history has also been proposed. In this research, a case is best defined as a work experience in office administration. However, defining a case in office administration was not an easy task in reality. We surveyed 10 office professionals in order to get an idea of how to define a case in office administration and found out that in most cases any type of office work is to be recorded digitally and/or non-digitally. Therefore, we have defined a record or document case as for COKRS. Similarity table was composed of items of the result of job analysis for office professionals conducted in a previous research. Values between items of the similarity table were initially set to those from researchers' experiences and literature review. The results of this study could also be utilized in other areas of business for knowledge sharing wherever it is necessary and beneficial to share and learn from past experiences. We expect this research to be a reference for researchers and developers who are in this area or interested in office knowledge recommendation system based on CBR. Focus group interview(FGI) was conducted with ten administrative assistants carefully selected from various areas of business. They were given a chance to try out COKRS in an actual work setting and make some suggestions for future improvement. FGI has identified the user-interface for saving and searching cases for keywords as the most positive aspect of COKRS, and has identified the most urgently needed improvement as transforming tacit knowledge and knowhow into recorded documents more efficiently. Also, the focus group has mentioned that it is essential to secure enough support, encouragement, and reward from the company and promote positive attitude and atmosphere for knowledge sharing for everybody's benefit in the company.

The Effects of Customer Product Review on Social Presence in Personalized Recommender Systems (개인화 추천시스템에서 고객 제품 리뷰가 사회적 실재감에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Jae-Won;Lee, Hong-Joo
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.115-130
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    • 2011
  • Many online stores bring features that can build trust in their customers. More so, the number of products or content services on online stores has been increasing rapidly. Hence, personalization on online stores is considered to be an important technology to companies and customers. Recommender systems that provide favorable products and customer product reviews to users are the most commonly used features in this purpose. There are many studies to that investigated the relationship between social presence as an antecedent of trust and provision of recommender systems or customer product reviews. Many online stores have made efforts to increase perceived social presence of their customers through customer reviews, recommender systems, and analyzing associations among products. Primarily because social presence can increase customer trust or reuse intention for online stores. However, there were few studies that investigated the interactions between recommendation type, product type and provision of customer product reviews on social presence. Therefore, one of the purposes of this study is to identify the effects of personalized recommender systems and compare the role of customer reviews with product types. This study performed an experiment to see these interactions. Experimental web pages were developed with $2{\times}2$ factorial setting based on how to provide social presence to users with customer reviews and two product types such as hedonic and utilitarian. The hedonic type was a ringtone chosen from Nate.com while the utilitarian was a TOEIC study aid book selected from Yes24.com. To conduct the experiment, web based experiments were conducted for the participants who have been shopping on the online stores. Participants were a total of 240 and 30% of the participants had the chance of getting the presents. We found out that social presence increased for hedonic products when personalized recommendations were given compared to non.personalized recommendations. Although providing customer reviews for two product types did not significantly increase social presence, provision of customer product reviews for hedonic (ringtone) increased perceived social presence. Otherwise, provision of customer product reviews could not increase social presence when the systems recommend utilitarian products (TOEIC study.aid books). Therefore, it appears that the effects of increasing perceived social presence with customer reviews have a difference for product types. In short, the role of customer reviews could be different based on which product types were considered by customers when they are making a decision related to purchasing on the online stores. Additionally, there were no differences for increasing perceived social presence when providing customer reviews. Our participants might have focused on how recommendations had been provided and what products were recommended because our developed systems were providing recommendations after participants rating their preferences. Thus, the effects of customer reviews could appear more clearly if our participants had actual purchase opportunity for the recommendations. Personalized recommender systems can increase social presence of customers more than nonpersonalized recommender systems by using user preference. Online stores could find out how they can increase perceived social presence and satisfaction of their customers when customers want to find the proper products with recommender systems and customer reviews. In addition, the role of customer reviews of the personalized recommendations can be different based on types of the recommended products. Even if this study conducted two product types such as hedonic and utilitarian, the results revealed that customer reviews for hedonic increased social presence of customers more than customer reviews for utilitarian. Thus, online stores need to consider the role of providing customer reviews with highly personalized information based on their product types when they develop the personalized recommender systems.

Influences of Discharge Waters from Wastewater Treatment Plants on Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Growth and Percolation Water Salinity (폐수처리장 방류수 관개가 벼생육 및 침출수 염농도에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Joung-Du;Lee, Jong-Sik;Kim, Won-Il;Lee, Chang-Eun;Yun, Sun-Gang;Eom, Ki-Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.24-31
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    • 2003
  • Objective of this study was to assess rice growth and percolation water salinity under the irrigation of the discharge waters from the municipal wastewater treatment plant and from the industrial wastewater treatment plant as alternative water resources during transplanting season. Three kinds of waters were irrigated; the discharge water from an industrial wastewater treatment plant (DIWT), the discharge water from the municipal wastewater treatment plant (DMWT), and groundwater. Concentrations of $COD_{er}$, $NH_4{^+}_-N$, $Mn^{2+}$, and $Ni^+$ in DIWT, SS content and $PO_4-P$ concentrations in DMWT were higher than those of reuse water criteria of other country for agricultural irrigation. The plant height in the irrigation of DMWT was shorter by 2 cm than the groundwater irrigation except for 10 days irrigation. However, the number of tillerings was not significantly different between DMWT and the groundwater. For the harvest index, there were no significant difference between DMWT and DIWT for 20 days irrigation, but slightly higher in DIWT than that of DMWT for 30 days irrigation regardless of soil types. The salinity of percolation water in the rhizosphere with irrigation of DIWT had more twofold than DMWT, but SAR value from DMWT had no significantly different from the groundwater irrigation. The average $EC_i$ values in the rooting zone irrigated with DIWT and DMWT for 30 days after rice transplanting were 4.7 and $3.4dS\;m^{-1}$ in clay loam soil, and were 3.5 and $2.5dS\;m^{-1}$ in sandy loam soil, respectively. There was dramatic decrease in $EC_i$ value at 30 days after rice transplanting even though $EC_i$ of DIWT had more twofold than DMWT. However, $EC_i$ from DMWT had no significant difference from the groundwater. Therefore, it might be considered that there was limited possibility to irrigate DMWT to overcome drought injury of rice transplanting season in paddy field.

A MVC Framework for Visualizing Text Data (텍스트 데이터 시각화를 위한 MVC 프레임워크)

  • Choi, Kwang Sun;Jeong, Kyo Sung;Kim, Soo Dong
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.39-58
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    • 2014
  • As the importance of big data and related technologies continues to grow in the industry, it has become highlighted to visualize results of processing and analyzing big data. Visualization of data delivers people effectiveness and clarity for understanding the result of analyzing. By the way, visualization has a role as the GUI (Graphical User Interface) that supports communications between people and analysis systems. Usually to make development and maintenance easier, these GUI parts should be loosely coupled from the parts of processing and analyzing data. And also to implement a loosely coupled architecture, it is necessary to adopt design patterns such as MVC (Model-View-Controller) which is designed for minimizing coupling between UI part and data processing part. On the other hand, big data can be classified as structured data and unstructured data. The visualization of structured data is relatively easy to unstructured data. For all that, as it has been spread out that the people utilize and analyze unstructured data, they usually develop the visualization system only for each project to overcome the limitation traditional visualization system for structured data. Furthermore, for text data which covers a huge part of unstructured data, visualization of data is more difficult. It results from the complexity of technology for analyzing text data as like linguistic analysis, text mining, social network analysis, and so on. And also those technologies are not standardized. This situation makes it more difficult to reuse the visualization system of a project to other projects. We assume that the reason is lack of commonality design of visualization system considering to expanse it to other system. In our research, we suggest a common information model for visualizing text data and propose a comprehensive and reusable framework, TexVizu, for visualizing text data. At first, we survey representative researches in text visualization era. And also we identify common elements for text visualization and common patterns among various cases of its. And then we review and analyze elements and patterns with three different viewpoints as structural viewpoint, interactive viewpoint, and semantic viewpoint. And then we design an integrated model of text data which represent elements for visualization. The structural viewpoint is for identifying structural element from various text documents as like title, author, body, and so on. The interactive viewpoint is for identifying the types of relations and interactions between text documents as like post, comment, reply and so on. The semantic viewpoint is for identifying semantic elements which extracted from analyzing text data linguistically and are represented as tags for classifying types of entity as like people, place or location, time, event and so on. After then we extract and choose common requirements for visualizing text data. The requirements are categorized as four types which are structure information, content information, relation information, trend information. Each type of requirements comprised with required visualization techniques, data and goal (what to know). These requirements are common and key requirement for design a framework which keep that a visualization system are loosely coupled from data processing or analyzing system. Finally we designed a common text visualization framework, TexVizu which is reusable and expansible for various visualization projects by collaborating with various Text Data Loader and Analytical Text Data Visualizer via common interfaces as like ITextDataLoader and IATDProvider. And also TexVisu is comprised with Analytical Text Data Model, Analytical Text Data Storage and Analytical Text Data Controller. In this framework, external components are the specifications of required interfaces for collaborating with this framework. As an experiment, we also adopt this framework into two text visualization systems as like a social opinion mining system and an online news analysis system.

A Template-based Interactive University Timetabling Support System (템플릿 기반의 상호대화형 전공강의시간표 작성지원시스템)

  • Chang, Yong-Sik;Jeong, Ye-Won
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.121-145
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    • 2010
  • University timetabling depending on the educational environments of universities is an NP-hard problem that the amount of computation required to find solutions increases exponentially with the problem size. For many years, there have been lots of studies on university timetabling from the necessity of automatic timetable generation for students' convenience and effective lesson, and for the effective allocation of subjects, lecturers, and classrooms. Timetables are classified into a course timetable and an examination timetable. This study focuses on the former. In general, a course timetable for liberal arts is scheduled by the office of academic affairs and a course timetable for major subjects is scheduled by each department of a university. We found several problems from the analysis of current course timetabling in departments. First, it is time-consuming and inefficient for each department to do the routine and repetitive timetabling work manually. Second, many classes are concentrated into several time slots in a timetable. This tendency decreases the effectiveness of students' classes. Third, several major subjects might overlap some required subjects in liberal arts at the same time slots in the timetable. In this case, it is required that students should choose only one from the overlapped subjects. Fourth, many subjects are lectured by same lecturers every year and most of lecturers prefer the same time slots for the subjects compared with last year. This means that it will be helpful if departments reuse the previous timetables. To solve such problems and support the effective course timetabling in each department, this study proposes a university timetabling support system based on two phases. In the first phase, each department generates a timetable template from the most similar timetable case, which is based on case-based reasoning. In the second phase, the department schedules a timetable with the help of interactive user interface under the timetabling criteria, which is based on rule-based approach. This study provides the illustrations of Hanshin University. We classified timetabling criteria into intrinsic and extrinsic criteria. In intrinsic criteria, there are three criteria related to lecturer, class, and classroom which are all hard constraints. In extrinsic criteria, there are four criteria related to 'the numbers of lesson hours' by the lecturer, 'prohibition of lecture allocation to specific day-hours' for committee members, 'the number of subjects in the same day-hour,' and 'the use of common classrooms.' In 'the numbers of lesson hours' by the lecturer, there are three kinds of criteria : 'minimum number of lesson hours per week,' 'maximum number of lesson hours per week,' 'maximum number of lesson hours per day.' Extrinsic criteria are also all hard constraints except for 'minimum number of lesson hours per week' considered as a soft constraint. In addition, we proposed two indices for measuring similarities between subjects of current semester and subjects of the previous timetables, and for evaluating distribution degrees of a scheduled timetable. Similarity is measured by comparison of two attributes-subject name and its lecturer-between current semester and a previous semester. The index of distribution degree, based on information entropy, indicates a distribution of subjects in the timetable. To show this study's viability, we implemented a prototype system and performed experiments with the real data of Hanshin University. Average similarity from the most similar cases of all departments was estimated as 41.72%. It means that a timetable template generated from the most similar case will be helpful. Through sensitivity analysis, the result shows that distribution degree will increase if we set 'the number of subjects in the same day-hour' to more than 90%.