• Title, Summary, Keyword: Resonant frequency

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Plasmonic Enhanced Light Absorption by Silver Nanoparticles Formed on Both Front and Rear Surface of Polycrystalline Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells

  • Park, Jongsung;Park, Nochang;Varlamov, Sergey
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.493-493
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    • 2014
  • The manufacturing cost of thin-film photovoltics can potentially be lowered by minimizing the amount of a semiconductor material used to fabricate devices. Thin-film solar cells are typically only a few micrometers thick, whereas crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer solar cells are $180{\sim}300\mu}m$ thick. As such, thin-film layers do not fully absorb incident light and their energy conversion efficiency is lower compared with that of c-Si wafer solar cells. Therefore, effective light trapping is required to realize commercially viable thin-film cells, particularly for indirect-band-gap semiconductors such as c-Si. An emerging method for light trapping in thin film solar cells is the use of metallic nanostructures that support surface plasmons. Plasmon-enhanced light absorption is shown to increase the cell photocurrent in many types of solar cells, specifically, in c-Si thin-film solar cells and in poly-Si thin film solar cell. By proper engineering of these structures, light can be concentrated and coupled into a thin semiconductor layer to increase light absorption. In many cases, silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NP) are formed either on the front surface or on the rear surface on the cells. In case of poly-Si thin film solar cells, Ag NPs are formed on the rear surface of the cells due to longer wavelengths are not perfectly absorbed in the active layer on the first path. In our cells, shorter wavelengths typically 300~500 nm are also not effectively absorbed. For this reason, a new concept of plasmonic nanostructure which is NPs formed both the front - and the rear - surface is worth testing. In this simulation Al NPs were located onto glass because Al has much lower parasitic absorption than other metal NPs. In case of Ag NP, it features parasitic absorption in the optical frequency range. On the other hand, Al NP, which is non-resonant metal NP, is characterized with a higher density of conduction electrons, resulting in highly negative dielectric permittivity. It makes them more suitable for the forward scattering configuration. In addition to this, Ag NP is located on the rear surface of the cell. Ag NPs showed good performance enhancement when they are located on the rear surface of our cells. In this simulation, Al NPs are located on glass and Ag NP is located on the rear Si surface. The structure for the simulation is shown in figure 1. Figure 2 shows FDTD-simulated absorption graphs of the proposed and reference structures. In the simulation, the front of the cell has Al NPs with 70 nm radius and 12.5% coverage; and the rear of the cell has Ag NPs with 157 nm in radius and 41.5% coverage. Such a structure shows better light absorption in 300~550 nm than that of the reference cell without any NPs and the structure with Ag NP on rear only. Therefore, it can be expected that enhanced light absorption of the structure with Al NP on front at 300~550 nm can contribute to the photocurrent enhancement.

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Analysis of Elements for Efficiencies in Magnetically-Coupled Wireless Power Transfer System Using Metamaterial Slab (메타물질 Slab이 포함된 자계 결합 무선 전력 전송 시스템 효율 요소 분석)

  • Kim, Gunyoung;Oh, TaekKyu;Lee, Bomson
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.25 no.11
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    • pp.1128-1134
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    • 2014
  • In this paper, the effects of a metamaterial slab with negative permeability in a magnetically coupled wireless power transfer system (WPT) in the overall performance are analyzed quantitatively in terms of the effective quality factors of the loop resonators and coupling coefficient considering the slab losses, based on an equivalent circuit. Using the ideal metamaterial slab(lossless slab), the WPT efficiency is improved considerably by the magnetic flux focusing. However, the practical lossy slab made of RRs or SRRs limits the significant enhancement of WPT efficiency due to the relatively high losses in the slab consisting of RRs or SRRs near the resonant frequency. For the practical loop resonator, other than a point magnetic charge, using the practical lossy metamaterial slab in order to improve the transfer efficiency, the width of the slab needs to be optimized somewhat less than the half of the distance between two loop resonators. For the low-loss slab with its loss tangent of 0.001, the WPT efficiency is maximized at 93 % when the ratio of the slab width and the distance between the two resonators is approximately 0.35, compared with 53 % for the case without the slab. The efficiency in case of employing the high-low slab(loss tangent: 0.2) is maximized at 61 % when the slab ratio is 0.25.

Design and Fabrication of 4-beam Silicon-Micro Piezoresistive Accelerometer for TPMS Application (TPMS용 4빔 실리콘 미세 압저항형 가속도센서의 설계 및 제작)

  • Park, Ki-Woong;Kim, Hyeon-Cheol
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SD
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2012
  • This paper presents the accelerometer which is a key component of TPMS(Tire Pressure Monitoring System). Generally a piezoresistive accelerometer has characteristics of lower cost, better linearity and better immunity about the environmnet noise than a capacitive one. Three types of piezoresistive accelerometers are degined and simulated using ANSYS program. The best one is a piezoresistive sensor which is supported by four beams located at the center of the edge of the mass after comparing the characteristics of resonant frequency of the three types. Considering the sensor size and a simulated maximum stress and maximum displacement, the length of beams is set as $200{\mu}m$. The size of a piezoresistive accelerometer is $3.0mm{\times}3.0mm{\times}0.4mm$. The sensor output is characterized by measuring the output characteristic depending on angle. As a result the offset voltage of the accelerometer is 43.2 mV and its sensitivity is $42.5{\mu}V/V/g$. The temperature bias drift is measured. The shock durability of the sensor is 1500g and the measuring range is 0 ~ 60 g.

Non-invasive Measurements of the Thickness of YBCO Thin Films by Using Microwave Resonators: Roles of the Uncertainty in the Calibration Film Thickness (마이크로파 공진기를 이용한 YBCO 박막 두께의 비파괴적 측정: 캘리브레이션 박막 두께의 불확도의 역할)

  • Kim, Myung-Su;Jung, Ho-Sang;Yang, Woo-Il;Lee, Sang-Young
    • Progress in Superconductivity
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.45-51
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    • 2012
  • Microwave metrology for the thickness of metallic or superconductive films provides a new way to measure the film thickness in a non-invasive way by using microwave resonators, with the measurement accuracy affected by standard uncertainties in the resonator quality factor, temperature-dependent resonant frequency and the dimensions of the resonators. Here we study effects of the standard uncertainty in the thickness, $t_{cal}$, of a calibration $YBa_2Cu_3O_{7-{\delta}}$ (YBCO) film on the measured thicknesses, $t_{RF}$, by using a ~ 40 GHz microwave resonator. For the study, we used five YBCO films having the thicknesses of 70 - 360 nm, for which relative standard uncertainties in $t_{RF}$ due to that in $t_{cal}$ are obtained. The standard uncertainty in $t_{cal}$ was determined with the surface roughness of the film taken into account. It appeared that relative standard uncertainty in $t_{cal}$ significantly affects the $t_{RF}$ values, with the values of 1% (5%) in the former resulting in those of 1-2% (5-9%) for the latter at 10 K. Our results show that, for realizing relative standard uncertainties less than 5% in $t_{RF}$ for all the YBCO films, the surface roughness of the calibration films should be small enough to realize a relative standard uncertainty of less than 2.7% in $t_{cal}$.

Analysis of Surface Plasmon Resonance on Periodic Metal Hole Array by Diffraction Orders

  • Hwang, Jeong-U;Yun, Su-Jin;Gang, Sang-U;No, Sam-Gyu;Lee, Sang-Jun;Urbas, Augustine;Ku, Zahyun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.176-177
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    • 2013
  • Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) have attracted the attention of scientists and engineers involved in a wide area of research, microscopy, diagnostics and sensing. SPPs are waves that propagate along the surface of a conductor, usually metals. These are essentially light waves that are trapped on the surface because of their interaction with the free electrons of conductor. In this interaction, the free electrons respond collectively by oscillating in resonance with the light wave. The resonant interaction between the surface charge oscillation and the electromagnetic field of the light constitutes the SPPs and gives rise to its unique properties. In this papers, we studied theoretical and experimental extraordinary transmittance (T) and reflectance (R) of 2 dimensional metal hole array (2D-MHA) on GaAs in consideration of the diffraction orders. The 2d-MHAs was fabricated using ultra-violet photolithography, electron-beam evaporation and standard lift-off process with pitches ranging from 1.8 to $3.2{\mu}m$ and diameter of half of pitch, and was deposited 5-nm thick layer of titanium (Ti) as an adhesion layer and 50-nm thick layer of gold (Au) on the semiinsulating GaAs substrate. We employed both the commercial software (CST Microwave Studio: Computer Simulation Technology GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany) based on a finite integration technique (FIT) and a rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) to calculate transmittance and reflectance. The transmittance was measured at a normal incident, and the reflectance was measured at variable incident angle of range between $30^{\circ}{\sim}80^{\circ}$ with a Nicolet Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR) spectrometer with a KBr beam splitter and a MCT detector. For MHAs of pitch (P), the peaks ${\lambda}$ max in the normal incidence transmittance spectra can be indentified approximately from SP dispersion relation, that is frequency-dependent SP wave vector (ksp). Shown in Fig. 1 is the transmission of P=2.2 um sample at normal incidence. We attribute the observation to be a result of FTIR system may be able to collect the transmitted light with higher diffraction order than 0th order. This is confirmed by calculations: for the MHAs, diffraction efficiency in (0, 0) diffracted orders is lower than in the (${\pm}x$, ${\pm}y$) diffracted orders. To further investigate the result, we calculated the angular dependent transmission of P=2.2 um sample (Fig. 2). The incident angle varies from 30o to 70o with a 10o increment. We also found the splitting character on reflectance measurement. The splitting effect is considered a results of SPPs assisted diffraction process by oblique incidence.

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A Study on Resonance Properties of a Terahertz Asymmetric Split-Loop Resonator Type Metamaterial for High Quality Factor (테라헤르츠 비대칭 분리고리공진기 메타물질의 높은 품질인자를 위한 공진 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Dae-Jun;Ryu, Han-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.663-669
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    • 2016
  • A terahertz asymmetric split-loop resonator (ASLR) was analyzed for use in high-sensitivity sensing applications. Its structural asymmetricity induces an asymmetric Fano resonance which has a high quality factor compared to the symmetric eigen-resonance. The variations of the resonant frequency, transmission coefficient, and quality factor of the ASLR in the eigen and Fano resonances are analyzed as a function of its structural asymmetricity. Also, the surface current densities on the ASLR in both resonances are calculated to analyze the main cause of the variations of its transmission characteristics. The surface current of the ASLR in the eigen resonance shows a dipole resonance, which increases the radiation loss and reduces the quality factor. On the other hand, the surface current of the ASLR in the Fano resonance shows a trapped or quadrupole mode which has a low radiation loss. Therefore, the ASLR operated in the Fano resonance has a high quality factor. Terahertz, high-performance filters and high sensitivity sensors can be developed based on our analysis results of the ASLR having a high quality factor. These high-performance devices based on terahertz metamaterials could increase the adoption of terahertz industrial applications.

Microwave Dielectric Properties of $PbWO_{4}-TiO_{2}-CuO-B_{2}O_{3}$ Ceramics ($PbWO_{4}-TiO_{2}-CuO-B_{2}O_{3}$ 세라믹의 고주파 유전특성)

  • 이경호;최병훈
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.143-148
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    • 2001
  • PbWO$_4$ can be densified at 85$0^{\circ}C$ and it shows fairy good microwave dielectric properties; dielectric constant($\varepsilon$$_{r}$) of 21.5, quality factor(Q $\times$f$_{0}$) of 37,224 GHz, and temperature coefficient of resonant frequency($\tau$/suf f/) of -31ppm/$^{\circ}C$. Due to its low sintering temperature, PbWO$_4$ can be used as a multilayered chip component at microwave frequency with high electrical performance by using high conductive electrode metals such as Ag and Cu. However, in order to use this material for microwave communication devices, the $\tau$$_{f}$ of PbWO$_4$ must be stabilized to near zero with high Q$\times$f$_{0}$. In present study, PbWO$_4$ was modified by adding TiO$_2$, B$_2$O$_3$, and CuO in order to improve the microwave dielectric properties without increasing the sintering temperature. The addition of TiO$_2$ increased the $\tau$$_{f}$ and $\varepsilon$$_{r}$, due to its high rr(200ppm/$^{\circ}C$) and $\varepsilon$$_{r}$(100). However, the addition of TiO$_2$ reduced the Q$\times$f$_{0}$ value. When the mot ratio of PbWO$_4$ and TiO$_2$ was 0.913:7.087, near zero $\tau$$_{f}$(0.2ppm/$^{\circ}C$) was obtaibed with $\varepsilon$$_{r}$=22.3, and Q$\times$f/$_{0}$=21,443GHz. With this composition, various amount of B$_2$O$_3$ and CuO were added in order to improve the quality factor. The addition, of B$_2$O$_3$ decreased the $\varepsilon$$_{r}$. However, increased Q$\times$f$_{0}$ and $\tau$$_{f}$. When 2.5 wt% of B$_2$O$_3$ was added to the 0.913PbWO$_4$-0.087TiO$_2$ ceramic, $\tau$$_{f}$ =8.2, $\varepsilon$$_{r}$=20.3, Q$\times$f$_{0}$=54784 GHz. When CuO added to the 0.913PbWO$_4$-0.087TiO$_2$ ceramic, $\tau$$_{f}$ was continuously decreased. And $\varepsilon$$_{r}$ . and Q$\times$f$_{0}$ were increased up to 1.0 wt% then decreased. At 0.1 wt% of CuO addition, the 0.913PbWO$_4$-7.087Ti0$_2$ Ceramic Showed $\varepsilon$$_{r}$=23.5, $\tau$$_{f}$=4.4ppm/$^{\circ}C$, and Q$\times$f$_{0}$=32,932 GHz.> 0/=32,932 GHz.X>=32,932 GHz.> 0/=32,932 GHz.

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The influence of implant diameter, length and design changes on implant stability quotient (ISQ) value in artificial bone (임플란트의 직경, 길이 및 디자인변화가 임플란트 안정성지수(ISQ)에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jeong-Yol;Lee, Won-Chang;Kim, Min-Soo;Kim, Jong-Eun;Shin, Sang-Wan
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.292-298
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to ascertain the stability of the implant by comparing the effects of the change of implant diameter, length and design on implant stability quotient. Materials and methods: To remove the variable due to the difference of bone quality, the uniform density (0.48 g/$cm^3$) Polyuretane foam blocks (Sawbones$^{(R)}$, Pacific Research Laboratories Inc, Vashon, Washington) were used. Implants (Implantium$^{(R)}$, Dentium, Seoul, Korea) were placed with varying diameters (${\phi}3.8$, ${\phi}4.3$ and ${\phi}4.8$) and length (8 mm, 10 mm and 12 mm), to assess the effect on implant stability index (ISQ). Also the influence of the design of the submerged and the non-submerged (SimplelineII$^{(R)}$, Dentium, Seoul, Korea) on ISQ was evaluated. To exclude the influence of insertion torque, a total of 60 implants (n = 10) were placed with same torque to 35 N. Using Osstell$^{TM}$ mentor (Integration Diagnostic AB, Sweden) ISQ values were recorded after measuring the resonant frequency, one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test results were analyzed. (${\alpha}$=0.05). Results: 1. The change of the diameter of the implant did not affect the ISQ (P>.05), but the increase of implant length increased the ISQ(P<.001). 2. The change in implant design were correlated with the ISQ, and the ISQ of submerged design was significantly higher than that of the non-submerged design(P<.05). Conclusion: In order to increase implant stability, the longer implant is better to be selected, and on the same length of implant, submerged design is thought to be able to get a higher ISQ than the non-submerged.

Microwave Dielectric Properties and Multilayer Characteristics of (1-x)BiNbO4-xCaNb2O6 Ceramics ((1-x)BiNbO4-xCaNb2O6 세라믹스의 마이크파 유전특성 및 적층체 특성)

  • Kim, Eung-Soo;Choi, Woong;Kim, Jong-Dae;Kang, Seung-Gu;Shim, Kwang-Bo
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.39 no.12
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    • pp.1190-1196
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    • 2002
  • Microwave dielectric properties and multilayer characteristics $(1-x)BiNbO_4-xCaNb_2O_6$ (0${\le}$x${\le}$1.0) ceramics were investigated as a function of $CaNb_2O_6$ content. In the composition range of 0.25${\le}$x${\le}$0.75, the mixture phases of $BiNbO_4$ with stibotantalate structure and $CaNb_2O_6$ with columbite structure were detected and secondary phase or phase transition were not detected. Dielectric constant (K) of $(1-x)BiNbO_4-xCaNb_2O_6$ ceramics was largely dependent on the existing phase and could be estimated by the dielectric mixing rule calculated from maxwell equation. Typically, dielectric constant (K) of 26, quality factor (Qf) of 4300 GHz and Temperature Coefficient of resonant Frequency (TCF) of -18 ppm/${\circ}C$ were obtained for $0.5BiNbO_4-0.5CaNb_2O_6$ specimens with 0.8 wt% $CuV_2O_6$ sintered at 1000${\circ}C$ for 3h. The deviation of X-Y shrinkage and camber value of the multilayers obtained from $0.5BiNbO_4-0.5CaNb_2O_6$ green sheet sintered at 850∼950${\circ}C$ for 20 min. were smaller than those of $BiNbO_4$ multilayers.

Crystal structure refinement and microwave dielectric characteristic of $(1-x)CaTiO_3-x(La_{1/3}Nd_{1/3})TiO_3$ ($(1-x)CaTiO_3-x(La_{1/3}Nd_{1/3})TiO_3$계의 결정구조 해석 및 마이크로파 유전 특성)

  • 조남웅;성경필;문종하;최주현
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.478-486
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    • 1998
  • $CaTiO_3-x(La_{1/3}Nd_{1/3}TiO_3\;(0\le \textrm x\le0.8)$ system was prepared by reaction of $CaCO_3,\;LaO_3,\;Nd_2CO_3$ and ,TEX>$TiO_2$ mixture at 1673 K, which can be applied for microwave dielectric ceramic materials. The lattice parameters of(1-x))$CaTiO_3-x(La_{1/3}Nd_{1/3}TiO_3\;(0\le \textrm x\le0.8)$ system increased with the increase of x. Its structure was investigated by Rietveld profile-analysis of XRD in detail. Cations $ La^{3+}$ and Nd^{3+}$ were located at the $Ca^{2+}$ site in the range of $0\le \textrm x\le0.8$. crystal structure in $;(0\le \textrm x\le0.6)$ maintained space group Pnma with CaTiO_3 structure. The tiled and distorted $TiO_6$ was gradually released with the increase of x in $0\le \textrm x\le0.6$ .The structure was changed to a new space group of $Pmn2_1$ at the x value of 0.8. The relative dielectric constant $(\epsilon_r)$ of $(1-x)CaTiO_3-x(La_{1/3} Nd_{1/3})TiO_3$ ($(0\le \textrm x\le0.8)$) system was exponentially decreased by with the increased of x. The temperature coefficient of resonant frequency $(\tau_f)$ decreased with the increase of x in $0\le \textrm x\le0.6$ and then increased again at x=0.8 due to the change of crystal structure. The value of Q$\cdot f_o$ was 13800 (GHz) at x=0.2 and was very low under 2000 (GHz) in 0.4$\leq$x$\leq$0.8.

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