• Title, Summary, Keyword: Renal tumors

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Clinicopathologic Patterns of Adult Renal Tumors in Pakistan

  • Hashmi, Atif Ali;Ali, Rabia;Hussain, Zubaida Fida;Faridi, Naveen
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.2303-2307
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    • 2014
  • Background: Renal cancer is a serious public health problem which may be under reported and registered in our setup, since the Karachi cancer registry documented only 43 cases out of 4,268 incident cancer cases over 3 year duration. Therefore we aimed to determine the clinicopathologic characteristics of adult renal tumors in our setup. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in histopathology department, Liaquat National Hospital and included total of 68 cases of adult renal tumors over 4 years. Detailed histopathologic characteristics of tumors were analyzed. Results: Mean age of patients was 56.4 (18-84) years. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was the most common cell type (78%) cases; followed by transitional/urothelial carcinoma (12.5%), leiomyosarcoma (4.7%), oncocytoma (1.6%), squamous cell carcinoma (1.6%) and high grade pleomorphic undifferentiated sarcoma (1.6%). Among 50 RCC cases; 62% were conventional/clear cell RCC (CCRCC) type followed by papillary RCC(PRCC), 24%; chromophobe RCC(CRCC), 6% and sarcomatoid RCC(SRCC), 8%. Mean tumor size for RCC was 7.2 cm. Most RCCs were intermediate to high grade (60% and 40% respectively). Capsular invasion, renal sinus invasion, adrenal gland involvement and renal vein invasion was seen in 40%, 18%, 2% and 10% of cases respectively. Conclusions: We found that RCC presents at an earlier age in our setup compared to Western populations. Tumor size was significantly larger and most of the tumors were of intermediate to high grade. This reflects late presentation of patients after disease progression which necessitates effective measures to be taken in primary care setup to diagnose this disease at an early stage.

Changes in Cell Proliferation During the Development of Renal Cell Tumors Induced by N-Nitrosomorpholine in Rats (흰쥐에서 신장암이 발생하는 동안 세포분열속도의 변화)

  • 안영수
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.127-131
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    • 1995
  • Sequential changes in cell proliferation during the development of epitherial kidney tumors induced in rats were investigated by autoradiographic determination of the $^3H$-thymidine-labeling index. Renal cell tumors were induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by oral administration of N-nitrosomorpholine at the concentration of 120 mg/l in the drinking water for 7 weeks. At different times between 12 and 34 weeks after withdrawal of the carcinogen (stop model) animals were sacrificed. According to cytological criteria, neoplastic lesions were classified into clear cell, acidophilic cell, basophilic cell and oncocytic tumors. The labeling index was found to be increased in all types of preneoplastic tubules as compared to their corresponding original tubules. A much stronger elevation of cell proliferation was ocurred during the development of renal cell tumors from preneoplastic tubules. Of four tumor types, acidophilic cell tumor showed the highest labeling index while oncocytoma exhibited the lowest proliferative activity. These findings are in good accordance with the clinical observations that acidophilic cell tumors have a worse prognosis than oncocytoma. The data presented in this study suggest that the individual proliferation rates may be an objective biological marker of kidney tumor aggressiveness.

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Urine Cytology of Renal Cell Carcinoma - Analysis of 11 cases - (신세포암종의 요세포학적 소견 - 11예의 분석 -)

  • Chun, Yi-Kyeong;Cho, Hye-Jae;Ko, Ill-Hyang
    • The Korean Journal of Cytopathology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.137-142
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    • 1994
  • Urine cytology is of limited value in the diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma with reported detection rates of $0\sim80%$. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the usefulness of urine cytology in renal cell carcinoma. In the eleven histologically proven cases of renal cell carcinoma, urinary smears were reevaluated. The cytologic results were as follows; positive for malignant cells in 3 cases(27%), suspicious in 2 cases(18%) and negative in 6 cases(55%). The average diameter of the tumor of the 5 cases reported as positive or suspicious for malignant cells was 9.7cm and 3 had invaded the renal pelvis. The other 6 tumors, reported as negative, were 5.7 cm in average diameter and one of them showed involvement of the renal pelvis. These results suggest that urine cytology is considered unsatisfactory in the early defection of renal cell carcinoma. However, careful examination of urinary smear could improve the detection rate especially in more advanced cases involving the renal pelvis as well as those of larger tumors.

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Clinical Significance of Soluble Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Chain-related A in Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients

  • Qiu, Yu;Zhao, Ya-Kun;Yuan, Gang-Jun;Zhu, Qing-Guo
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.5651-5655
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    • 2013
  • Objective: Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related A (MICA) is a stress-inducible glycoprotein that can be shed as a soluble protein. This study was conducted to determine the expression of MICA in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and examine the clinical relevance of soluble MICA (sMICA) in this disease. Methods: Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR analyses were performed to assess the expression of MICA in 48 pairs of RCC and adjacent normal renal tissues. Serum levels of sMICA were measured in 48 RCC patients, 12 patients with benign renal tumors, and 20 healthy individuals. The correlations between sMICA levels and clinicopathological parameters were analyzed and the diagnostic performance of sMICA in RCC was evaluated. Results: RCCs exhibited elevated expression of MICA compared to adjacent normal tissues. Serum concentrations of sMICA were significantly greater in RCC patients ($348.5{\pm}32.5pg/ml$) than those with benign disease ($289.3{\pm}30.4pg/ml$) and healthy controls ($168.4{\pm}43.2pg/ml$) and significantly correlated with advanced tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, vascular invasion, and higher histological grade. Using a cut-off point of 250 pg/ml, sMICA demonstrated a specificity and sensitivity of 63.2% and 75.6%, respectively, in distinguishing between RCC and benign renal tumors. Conclusion: MICA expression is upregulated in RCC and increased serum sMICA levels predict aggressive tumor behavior. However, the applicability of sMICA alone is limited in distinguishing RCC from benign renal tumors.

Analysis of Radiofrequency Ablation of Small Renal Tumors in Patients at High Anesthetic and Surgical Risk: Urologist Experience with Follow-up Results in the Initial Six Months

  • Yuksel, Mehmet Bilgehan;Karakose, Ayhan;Gumus, Bilal;Tarhan, Serdar;Atesci, Yusuf Ziya;Akan, Zafer
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.6637-6641
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    • 2013
  • Background: To evaluate the results of various types of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatment of renal tumors in patients with excessive anesthetic and surgical risk. Materials and Methods: Data for RFA performed in in high risk patients were retrospectively evaluated. Other RFA applications in patients with no anesthetic and/or surgical risk were excluded. RFA was by ultrasound or CT guided percutaneous (USG/CT-PRFA) and retroperitoneally or transperitoneally laparoscopic (R/T-LRFA) techniques under general or local anethesia. Follow-up data of enhanced CT or MRI after 1, 3 and 6 months were analysed for twelve RFA applications. Results: The RFA applications included 4 (40%) left-sided, 5 (50%) right-sided and 1 (10%) bilaterally RFA (simultaneously 1 right and 2 left). The localizations of tumors were 2 (16.6%) upper, 5 (41.6%) mid and 5 (41.6%) lower pole. The RFA applications included 9 (75%) USG-PRFA, 1 (8.3%) CT-PRFA, 1 (8.3%) T-LRFA and 1 (8.3%) R-LRFA. The mean age was $65.3{\pm}8.5$ (52-76) years. The mean tumor size was $29.6{\pm}6.08$ (15-40) mm. No complications related to the RFA were encountered in any of the cases. Failure (residual tumour) was determined in 8.3% (1/12) of USG-RFA application. The success rate was thus 91.7% (11/12). Other 1st, 3rd and 6th months follow-up data revealed no residua and recurrence. Conclusions: RFA application appears to be safe as a less invasive and effective treatment modality in selected cases of small renal tumors in individuals with excessive anesthetic and also surgical risk.

Childhood Cancer Incidence and Survival 1985-2009, Khon Kaen, Thailand

  • Wiangnon, Surapon;Jetsrisuparb, Arunee;Komvilaisak, Patcharee;Suwanrungruang, Krittika
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7989-7993
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    • 2014
  • Background: The Khon Kaen Cancer Registry (KKCR) was established in 1984. Previous population-based incidences and survivals of childhood cancer in Thailand were determined using a short cancer registration period. Materials and Methods: Data were retrieved of all children residing in Khon Kaen, between 0-15 years, diagnosed as having cancer and registered in the KKCR (1985-2009). The follow-up censored date was December 31, 2012. The childhood cancers were classified into 12 diagnostic groups, according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer. The incidence was calculated by the standard method. Survival of childhood cancer was investigated using the KKCR population-based registration data and overall survival calculated using the Kaplan Meier method. Results: In the study period, 912 newly diagnosed cases of childhood cancer were registered. The respective mean and median age was 6.4 (SD=4.6) and 6 (0-14) years. The age-peak for incidence was 0-4 years. The age-standardized rate (ASR) was 83 per million. Leukemia was the most common cancer (N=360, ASR 33.8) followed by neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS, N=150, ASR 12.8) and lymphoma (N=79, ASR 7.0). The follow-up duration totaled 101,250 months. The death rate was 1.11 per 100 person-months (95%CI: 1.02 -1.20). The 5-year overall survival was 52% (95%CI: 53-56.9) for all cancers. The respective 5-year overall survival for (1) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), (2) acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL), (3) lymphoma, (4) germ cell tumors, (5) renal tumors, (6) retinoblastoma, (7) soft tissue tumors, (8) CNS tumors, (9) bone tumors, (10) liver tumors, and (11) neuroblastoma was (1) 51%, (2) 37%, (3) 63%, (4) 74%, (5) 67%, (6) 55%, (7) 46%, (8) 44%, (9) 36%, (10) 34%, and (11) 25%. Conclusions: The incidence of childhood cancer is lower than those of western countries. Respective overall survival for ALL, lymphoma, renal tumors, liver tumors, retinoblastoma, soft tissue tumors is lower than that reported in developed countries while survival for CNS tumors, neuroblastoma and germ cell tumors is comparable.

Posttransplant Malignancies in Renal Transplant Recipients: 22-years Experience from a Single Center in Pakistan

  • Yunus, Mahira;Aziz, Tahir;Mubarak, Muhammed
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.575-578
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    • 2012
  • Objective: To study the incidence, types and distribution pattern of malignant tumors in renal transplant recipients at a single center in Pakistan. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was conducted at Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT) and included all transplant patients on regular follow-up from November 1986 to December 2008. The original biopsy reports and case files of all patients who developed posttransplant malignancies were reviewed and relevant demographic, clinical, radiological, and histopathological data were retrieved and analyzed. SPSS version 10.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Over 22 years of study period, 1816 renal transplants were carried out at our center. Among these, 44 patients developed malignancies constituting an overall incidence rate of 2.4%. All patients in this study were males with a mean age of $34.9{\pm}9.5$ years (range: 9 to 60 years). The most common type of malignancy was lymphoma (27 patients, 61.4%), followed by Kaposi's sarcoma (11 patients, 25%) and skin malignancies (3 patients, 6.8%). One case each of adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), conjunctival carcinoma-in-situ and seminoma were also diagnosed. Conclusion: Posttransplant malignancies occurring in our renal transplant recipients show different incidence rates and patterns as compared with western studies.

Primary Renal Cell Tumors in Four Nonhuman Primates (영장류의 신장종양 발생 4례)

  • Park, Jun-Won;Jung, Iruo;Jee, Hyang;Yoo, Mi-Jin;Kim, Dae-Yong;Shin, Nam-Shik
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.508-510
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    • 2009
  • Primary renal cell tumors were described in four nonhuman primates (Erythrocebus patas, Macaca cyclopis, Mandrillus sphinx, and Macaca fascicularis) that have been kept for exhibition at Seoul Zoo. Histologically, all of them were renal adenoma. Each one was clear cell type and tubular type, respectively. The rest two were papillary type adenoma. Clear cell type adenoma was bilaterally affected.

Efficacy and Safety of Microwave Ablation for Malignant Renal Tumors: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Literature Since 2012

  • Choi, Sang Hyun;Kim, Jong Woo;Kim, Jin Hyoung;Kim, Kyung Won
    • Korean Journal of Radiology
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.938-949
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    • 2018
  • Objective: To systematically determine the treatment outcomes of percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) in patients with malignant renal tumor. Materials and Methods: Original studies that reported the clinical outcomes of MWA in patients with malignant renal tumors were identified in MEDLINE and EMBASE from 2012 to June 30, 2017. Inverse variance and random-effects models were used to evaluate and acquire meta-analytic summary estimates of various clinical outcomes, including technical outcomes (technical success rate [TSR] and technical efficacy rate [TER]), oncologic outcomes (local tumor recurrence rate [LRR], cancer-specific survival rate [CSSR], and overall survival rate [OSR]), and complications. Results: Among the 145 articles screened, 13 articles including 567 patients carrying 616 malignant renal tumors were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analytic pooled TSR and TER were 97.3% (95% confidence interval, 94.3-99.4%; $I^2=0.0%$) and 97.6% (95.0-99.4%, $I^2=48.5%$), respectively. The meta-analytic pooled LRR was 2.1% (0.3-4.7%, $I^2=54.1%$). At 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year follow-up time points, the meta-analytic pooled CSSRs were 99.1% (97.2-100.0%; $I^2=0.0%$), 98.4% (95.1-100.0%; $I^2=31.2%$), 97.6% (93.4-99.9%; $I^2=52.3%$), and 96.9% (93.3-99.2%; $I^2=0.0%$) respectively, while the OSRs were 98.3% (96.1-99.8%; $I^2=0.0%$), 94.9% (91.7-97.5%; $I^2=0.0%$), 86.8% (81.9-91.1%; $I^2=22.1%$), and 81.9% (75.4-87.6%; $I^2=0.0%$). In terms of major complications, a 1.8% (0.6-3.3%; $I^2=0.0%$) rate of meta-analytic pooled incidence was found. Conclusion: Microwave ablation showed favorable technical and oncologic outcomes with a low incidence of major complications. Hence, image-guided percutaneous MWA can be considered as a safe and effective treatment for malignant renal tumors.

Tumor Resection and Reconstruction in Periacetabular Single Metastases of Renal Cell Carcinoma - A Case Report - (신장 암의 비구주위 단독 전이 환자에서 종양절제 및 재건술 - 증례 보고 -)

  • Shin, Duk-Seop;Han, Dong-Sung
    • The Journal of the Korean bone and joint tumor society
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.113-118
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    • 2007
  • Surgical treatment of pelvic bone tumors represent one of the most complicated problem in musculoskeletal oncology. Because of three dimensional anatomy of the pelvis, tumors reach huge sizes and the diagnosed late relatively to a similar tumors in extremity. Especially, there are limited reconstruction methods to keep the function of hip joint after resection of periacetabular tumors, and the results of reconstruction is not so promissing. We present one case of periacetabular metastatic tumor from renal cell carcinoma, which was resected with wide margin and reconstructed with composite of pasteurized autogenous bone graft and constrained total hip arthroplasty.

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