• Title, Summary, Keyword: Religious Orientation

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An Explorative Study on the Health Behavior of Middle-Aged Women in the Middle East Area Using the Q-Methodological Approach (Q-방법론을 이용한 중동지역내 중년여성의 건강행위에 관한 탐색적 연구)

  • Park, Chung-Sun
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.408-418
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of the study is to understand the types and the features of the health behavior of middle-aged women in the Middle East using Q-methodology. A survey was carried out during the period from the 1st of October to the 30th of December, 2006. Data for thirty five (35) women out of forty-nine (49) were analyzed through Principal Component Analysis and WRAP (Weighted Rotational Analytical Procedure). Analysis results showed that the group was divided into four types: Type I is health management; Type II is social activity; Type III is exercise orientation; and Type IV is religious dependency. Types I, II, and III were in a positive correlation with one another, and Type IV was not correlated with the other types. Subjective perception on the health behavior of middle-aged women in the Middle East (Jordan) was investigated and compared with middle-aged Korean women. The results of this study may provide more effective ways to improve the condition of health management and to promote the quality of life.

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THE INFLUENCE OF FAMILY ENVIRONMENT AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT TO CONDUCT DISORDER IN ADOLESCENTS (청소년의 가정환경과 도덕발달단계가 행동장애에 미치는 영향)

  • Chin, Tae-Won;Kim, Sa-Jun;Lee, Heung-Pyo;Cho, Soo-Churl
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.163-174
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    • 1997
  • This study was to know the influence of familial environment and moral development on conduct disorder. Subjects were composed of 47 male and female patients with conduct disorder(patients group), 113 general male and female students(normal group), and 173 juvenile prisoners(JP group). The Korean Form of the Family Environment Scale(FES) was used to assess the family environment of the subjects and the Korean Defining Issues Test(DIT) was used to assess the moral development. Conduct disorder was diagnosed with the DSM-III-R criteria for conduct disorder. The influence of familial environment and moral development on conduct disorder was analyzed with ANOVA and the differences among groups were verified with Scheffe test. There was no difference in the socioeconomic status and the physical abuse by the parents among the three groups. But the rates of divorce or separation of the parents were significantly highest in the JP group and higher in the patients group than in the normal group. Especially the subjects of the JP group experienced the divorce or separation of their parents during the preschool or the elementary school periods. In regard to the family environment, there was no difference among the three groups in the Subscales of Expressiveness, Independence, Intellectual-cultural orientation, Moral-religious emphasis, Organization, and Control. ‘Cohesion Subscale’ was significantly higher in the normal group than in the JP group. ‘Conflict Subscale’ was significantly higher in the JP and patients groups than in the normal group. ‘Achievement orientation Subscale’ was significantly lower in the JP group than in the patients and normal groups. ‘Activerecreational orientation’ was significantly lower in the normal group than in the JP and patients groups. In gegard to the moral developmental stage, the lower moral developmental step was higher in the JP and patients groups than in the normal group. The higher steps were significantly higher in the normal group than in the JP group. There was no significant correlation between the degree of ‘Moral-religious emphasis Subscale’ and the moral development. The clinical implication and limitation of present study were listed and discussed.

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A Specificity and Narrative Structure of the Russian Iconostasis and Korean Amrtakundalin(amrita painting, 甘露幀畵) (러시아 이코노스타시스(iconostasis)와 한국 감로탱화(甘露幀畵)의 특수성과 서사구조)

  • Lee, Kyw-Young
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.42
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    • pp.419-449
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    • 2016
  • The Russian icon and Korean tangwha (幀畵, altar portrait of Buddha) are based on the similarity of the divine Being. Each has the characteristic index that forms an existential connection with the object and at the same time, implies the symbolic meaning of the scriptures and doctrines of the Russian Orthodox and Buddhists. Russian icon and Korean tangwha with these attributes have origins in the Byzantine, India and China. Unlike most religious art, Russian icon and Korean tangwha clearly reveal profane orientation and mystical elements. This artistic phenomenon has evolved from the mystical religious culture in Russia and tantric rituals of the early Joseon period. Iconostasis, created from historical figures of the Old Testament, Jesus, the New Testament represent the principles of the macrocosm. Each icon of iconostasis has integrity, while each floor has another narrative and a meta-discourse on the entire composition. Three-Platforms of amrtakundalin can also have a huge epic that is directed from the Low-Platform to the High-Platform for the purpose of salvation. While the narrative of iconostasis has a time structure, from the beginning of the universe up to date in chronological time, amrtakundalin have pictorial transitions of time and space that rises from this life to a heavenly world. Despite the different world views of the Russian Orthodox and Buddhists, iconographical format and symbolism of heaven and hell in the Iconostasis, Last Judgment and amrtakundalin are similar. There is a constant antagonism between heaven and hell, light and darkness, water and flame. Iconographical contents include the water of life and nectar, the book of life and 'eoppu', and the scales and mirror of Karma that discriminate between the good and evil before judgment. The dualistic coordinate concept such as light and darkness, life and death, or heaven and hell that appears in the narrative structure of iconostasis, the Last Judgment and amrtakundalin leads the people to spiritual awakening.

Subjectivity toward Death among HIV-Positive Men (HIV 감염인 남성의 죽음에 대한 주관성)

  • Lee, Eun-Ju
    • The Korean Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.142-150
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study was to identify the attitude of Korean HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)-positive men toward death. Methods: A Q-methodology was performed with 20 HIV-positive male individuals. Participants were asked to select and answer questions among a set of 40 Q-statements using a 9-point scale. The collected data were analyzed using the PC QUANL program. Results: Participants' attitudes toward death were categorized into four types. Type I was characterized by respect for life, type II by reality orientation, type III by pain evasion and type IV religious beliefs. Conclusion: It is necessary to develop an assessment tool and an intervention program for HIV-positive individuals.

A Study on the Effects of Seogye Deuk-Yoon Lee on Cheongju Sarim(Forest of Scholars) (청주 사림의 학맥과 서계 이득윤과의 관계에 대한연구)

  • Lee, Jong Kawn
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.1092-1100
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    • 2015
  • This thesis is a part of a case study conducted in order to understand the trends of the 16th~17th century Cheongju region bigwigs, and has examined the life and academic stream of Seogye Deuk-Yoon LEE (1553-1630) focused on the previous study, "The Great Family Genealogy of Ikjaegong of the Gyeongju LEE Family". Seogye Deuk-Yoon LEE learned from his father Seomgye Jam LEE, and GiSEO, Ji-Hwa PARK from an early age, and based the basic orientation of his studies on one's moral and religious self one's moral and religious self'. This is how he became to emphasize "Sohak" (an introductory book of Confucianism for children), and he made an effort to realize the world of Neo-Confucianism by distributing the 'YEO's Hyangyak(Lue-shih-hsiang-yueeh : autonomic regulations of the district areas)' published on "Sohak". Furthermore, he made great effort in education of the Cheongju by regarding it as his own mission to teach young scholars, continuing on the footsteps of his father. Considering this, Seogye was not only a Confucian scholar that devoted himself to 'Sugi(moral training of himself', but was also a practical scholar that committed his sense of social responsibility in ' teaching' and 'governing the people, who greatly affected the academic world of the regional bigwigs of the Cheongju during the 17th century. Furthermore, Deuk-Yoon LEE was a member of the 'Nangseongpalhyeon(eight wise men of the Cheongju region) together with his disciple Deok-soo LEE, who performed a core role in establishing the 'Gihohakpa(Capital and Chungcheong province School)' and 'Hoseosarim(forest of scholars in Chungcheong province)' of the Cheongju region. As a main figure in establishing the Sinhang Confucian academy, he prepared the socio-economic basis for the 'Gihohakpa' to take place in the Cheongju, and by academically associating with Sagye Jang-Seng Kim without regarding their conflicting parties, he became the bridge in allowing his disciple, Deok-Soo LEE to associate with the academic stream and the 'Gihohakpa'. Through such roles, he allowed the relatively easy establishment of the 'Gihohakpa' and 'Hoseosarim', which continued to Jang-Seng KIM and Si-Yeol SONG, in order to prepare the basis and establish the strength of its basis in the Cheongju region from the late 17th century.

CHARACTERISTICS OF UNRULY & DELINQUENT ADOLESCENTS ADMITTED TO A PSYCHIATRIC INPATIENT UNIT (청소년 병동에 입원한 비행 청소년의 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Young-Sik;Kim, Wun-Jung;Carey, Michael
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.70-82
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    • 1997
  • Objective:This study was performed to identify and understand the characteristics of adolescents who had a history of police arrest and/or were adjudicated unruly/delinquent by the juvenile court. Method:The study employed a retrospective reivew of coumputer-recorded data set on 210 consecutive admissions to an adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit. Three groups(No Police Contact, N=115;Police Contact Only, N=60;Adjudicated, N=35) were compared on the areas of a) cognitive and educational performance b) emotion:anxiety, depression, suicidality c) personality d) family and life experiences. Standardized assessments were administered to all subjects using WISC-Ⅲ, Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory, Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale, Revised-Chilren’s Manifest Anxiety Scale, Suicide Ideation Questionnarie, Suicide Behavior Interive, Life Events Checklist, and Family Environmental Scale. A subgroup of the subjects, 60 cases also received a standardized interview by Child Assessment Schedule. Results:The characteristic findings of the delinquent group(the police contact only and adjudicated subjects combined) included (1) a high rate of adoption, sexual promiscuity, out of home placement, and repeated psychiatric hospitalization, (2) low verbal IQ scores and educational achievements, (3) high impulsivity, low social conformity, and high forcefulness in personality inventory, (4) low activityrecreation orientation and low moral religious emphasis in family environment, (5)a high frequency of adverse life experiences, (6) among 3 groups, the Police Contact Only group showed the lowest depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation scores, (7) a high diagnostic frequency of conduct disorder, ODD, and ADHD. Conclusions:The adolescent psychiatric inpatients with a delinquent history presented with a certain clinical, family, psychometric characteristics that warrant specific clinical intervention strategies for their cognitive deficits, an impulsive personality style, family dysfunction with adverse life experiences and disruptive behavioral disorders, different from the rest of adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

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FAMILY ENVIRONMENT OF ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (주의력결핍 ${\cdot}$ 과잉운동장애의 가정환경에 대한 연구)

  • So, Jun-Hyun;Shin, Yon-O;Cho, Soo-Churl
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.44-51
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    • 1996
  • Objective : The authors investigated family environemtn of ADHD referred to child psychiatric clinics. Method : Seventy two patients were grouped into pure ADHD and comorbid ADHD. Patient's lither and mother conducted the Korean Form of the Family Environment Scale(K-FES). And then, scores were compared with that of 77 normal controls. Results : Among subscales of K-FES, expressiveness, achievement orientation and organization were scored significantly lower in ADHD mothers' reporting than ADHD fathers' And only organization subscale was scored significantly lower in ADHD fathers' reporting than controls' In post hoc comparison, subscales of expressiveness, moral-religious emphasis and organization were significantly lower in mothers' reporting of pure ADHD and comorbid ADHD than of controls, and only organization subscale was significantly lower in fathers' reporting of comorbid ADHD than of controls. Conclusion : Parents of ADHD patients agreed that their families were not well organized, and each perceived somewhat differently on the family environment. Further study is needed to eludicate whether specific family environment causes ADHD or is caused by behavior of ADITD patients.

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Life Satisfaction According to Baby Boomers' Social Activity Type (베이비부머의 사회활동참여유형에 따른 삶의 만족도)

  • Kim, Yun-Jeong;Kang, Hyun-Jung
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.1090-1099
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to examine difference in life satisfaction by social activity type in baby boomers. Sampling 1,115 baby boomers, gender and region were assigned. A questionnaire survey was carried out from August to October in 2011. As a result of research, first, the typology of social activity in baby boomers includes 3 groups. The passive social-participation type is the cluster to which 36.8% of the baby boomers belong. They do not join income activity or civic-group activity at all. A case of doing religious activity or family activity includes a minority. There are primarily lots of women and posteriori baby boomers. Academic background level or household income is lower compared to other clusters. The life satisfaction level is moderate. Second, the active social-participation type is the cluster to which 33.8% of the baby boomers belong. They are positive in all the social activities including income activity. What there are lots of women and posteriori baby boomers is similar to the passive social-participation type. However, the academic background or the averagely monthly household income is the highest compared to other clusters. Even the life satisfaction level is the highest. Third, the economic activity orientation type is the cluster to which 29.4% of the baby boomers belong. They participate in income activity, but don't participate in civic-group activity, educational activity, and social activity such as spending time alone. Distribution of priori-and-posteriori baby boomers, distribution of academic background, or monthly household income is moderate level of other clusters. However, unlike other clusters, there are many men. The life satisfaction level is the lowest. Based on result of this study are suggested ways to improve in life satisfaction by social activity type in baby boomers.

A Study for Improvement of Nursing Service Administration (병원 간호행정 개선을 위한 연구)

  • 박정호
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.13-40
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    • 1972
  • Much has teed changed in the field of hospital administration in the It wake of the rapid development of sciences, techniques ana systematic hospital management. However, we still have a long way to go in organization, in the quality of hospital employees and hospital equipment and facilities, and in financial support in order to achieve proper hospital management. The above factors greatly effect the ability of hospitals to fulfill their obligation in patient care and nursing services. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal methods of standardization and quality nursing so as to improve present nursing services through investigations and analyses of various problems concerning nursing administration. This study has been undertaken during the six month period from October 1971 to March 1972. The 41 comprehensive hospitals have been selected iron amongst the 139 in the whole country. These have been categorized according-to the specific purposes of their establishment, such as 7 university hospitals, 18 national or public hospitals, 12 religious hospitals and 4 enterprise ones. The following conclusions have been acquired thus far from information obtained through interviews with nursing directors who are in charge of the nursing administration in each hospital, and further investigations concerning the purposes of establishment, the organization, personnel arrangements, working conditions, practices of service, and budgets of the nursing service department. 1. The nursing administration along with its activities in this country has been uncritical1y adopted from that of the developed countries. It is necessary for us to re-establish a new medical and nursing system which is adequate for our social environments through continuous study and research. 2. The survey shows that the 7 university hospitals were chiefly concerned with education, medical care and research; the 18 national or public hospitals with medical care, public health and charity work; the 2 religious hospitals with medical care, charity and missionary works; and the 4 enterprise hospitals with public health, medical care and charity works. In general, the main purposes of the hospitals were those of charity organizations in the pursuit of medical care, education and public benefits. 3. The survey shows that in general hospital facilities rate 64 per cent and medical care 60 per-cent against a 100 per cent optimum basis in accordance with the medical treatment law and approved criteria for training hospitals. In these respects, university hospitals have achieved the highest standards, followed by religious ones, enterprise ones, and national or public ones in that order. 4. The ages of nursing directors range from 30 to 50. The level of education achieved by most of the directors is that of graduation from a nursing technical high school and a three year nursing junior college; a very few have graduated from college or have taken graduate courses. 5. As for the career tenure of nurses in the hospitals: one-third of the nurses, or 38 per cent, have worked less than one year; those in the category of one year to two represent 24 pet cent. This means that a total of 62 per cent of the career nurses have been practicing their profession for less than two years. Career nurses with over 5 years experience number only 16 per cent: therefore the efficiency of nursing services has been rated very low. 6. As for the standard of education of the nurses: 62 per cent of them have taken a three year course of nursing in junior colleges, and 22 per cent in nursing technical high schools. College graduate nurses come up to only 15 per cent; and those with graduate course only 0.4 per cent. This indicates that most of the nurses are front nursing technical high schools and three year nursing junior colleges. Accordingly, it is advisable that nursing services be divided according to their functions, such as professional, technical nurses and nurse's aides. 7. The survey also shows that the purpose of nursing service administration in the hospitals has been regulated in writing in 74 per cent of the hospitals and not regulated in writing in 26 per cent of the hospitals. The general purposes of nursing are as follows: patient care, assistance in medical care and education. The main purpose of these nursing services is to establish proper operational and personnel management which focus on in-service education. 8. The nursing service departments belong to the medical departments in almost 60 per cent of the hospitals. Even though the nursing service department is formally separated, about 24 per cent of the hospitals regard it as a functional unit in the medical department. Only 5 per cent of the hospitals keep the department as a separate one. To the contrary, approximately 12 per cent of the hospitals have not established a nursing service department at all but surbodinate it to the other department. In this respect, it is required that a new hospital organization be made to acknowledge the independent function of the nursing department. In 76 per cent of the hospitals they have advisory committees under the nursing department, such as a dormitory self·regulating committee, an in-service education committee and a nursing procedure and policy committee. 9. Personnel arrangement and working conditions of nurses 1) The ratio of nurses to patients is as follows: In university hospitals, 1 to 2.9 for hospitalized patients and 1 to 4.0 for out-patients; in religious hospitals, 1 to 2.3 for hospitalized patients and 1 to 5.4 for out-patients. Grouped together this indicates that one nurse covers 2.2 hospitalized patients and 4.3 out-patients on a daily basis. The current medical treatment law stipulates that one nurse should care for 2.5 hospitalized patients or 30.0 out-patients. Therefore the statistics indicate that nursing services are being peformed with an insufficient number of nurses to cover out-patients. The current law concerns the minimum number of nurses and disregards the required number of nurses for operation rooms, recovery rooms, delivery rooms, new-born baby rooms, central supply rooms and emergency rooms. Accordingly, tile medical treatment law has been requested to be amended. 2) The ratio of doctors to nurses: In university hospitals, the ratio is 1 to 1.1; in national of public hospitals, 1 to 0.8; in religious hospitals 1 to 0.5; and in private hospitals 1 to 0.7. The average ratio is 1 to 0.8; generally the ideal ratio is 3 to 1. Since the number of doctors working in hospitals has been recently increasing, the nursing services have consequently teen overloaded, sacrificing the services to the patients. 3) The ratio of nurses to clerical staff is 1 to 0.4. However, the ideal ratio is 5 to 1, that is, 1 to 0.2. This means that clerical personnel far outnumber the nursing staff. 4) The ratio of nurses to nurse's-aides; The average 2.5 to 1 indicates that most of the nursing service are delegated to nurse's-aides owing to the shortage of registered nurses. This is the main cause of the deterioration in the quality of nursing services. It is a real problem in the guest for better nursing services that certain hospitals employ a disproportionate number of nurse's-aides in order to meet financial requirements. 5) As for the working conditions, most of hospitals employ a three-shift day with 8 hours of duty each. However, certain hospitals still use two shifts a day. 6) As for the working environment, most of the hospitals lack welfare and hygienic facilities. 7) The salary basis is the highest in the private university hospitals, with enterprise hospitals next and religious hospitals and national or public ones lowest. 8) Method of employment is made through paper screening, and further that the appointment of nurses is conditional upon the favorable opinion of the nursing directors. 9) The unemployment ratio for one year in 1971 averaged 29 per cent. The reasons for unemployment indicate that the highest is because of marriage up to 40 per cent, and next is because of overseas employment. This high unemployment ratio further causes the deterioration of efficiency in nursing services and supplementary activities. The hospital authorities concerned should take this matter into a jeep consideration in order to reduce unemployment. 10) The importance of in-service education is well recognized and established. 1% has been noted that on the-job nurses. training has been most active, with nursing directors taking charge of the orientation programs of newly employed nurses. However, it is most necessary that a comprehensive study be made of instructors, contents and methods of education with a separate section for in-service education. 10. Nursing services'activities 1) Division of services and job descriptions are urgently required. 81 per rent of the hospitals keep written regulations of services in accordance with nursing service manuals. 19 per cent of the hospitals do not keep written regulations. Most of hospitals delegate to the nursing directors or certain supervisors the power of stipulating service regulations. In 21 per cent of the total hospitals they have policy committees, standardization committees and advisory committees to proceed with the stipulation of regulations. 2) Approximately 81 per cent of the hospitals have service channels in which directors, supervisors, head nurses and staff nurses perform their appropriate services according to the service plans and make up the service reports. In approximately 19 per cent of the hospitals the staff perform their nursing services without utilizing the above channels. 3) In the performance of nursing services, a ward manual is considered the most important one to be utilized in about 32 percent of hospitals. 25 per cent of hospitals indicate they use a kardex; 17 per cent use ward-rounding, and others take advantage of work sheets or coordination with other departments through conferences. 4) In about 78 per cent of hospitals they have records which indicate the status of personnel, and in 22 per cent they have not. 5) It has been advised that morale among nurses may be increased, ensuring more efficient services, by their being able to exchange opinions and views with each other. 6) The satisfactory performance of nursing services rely on the following factors to the degree indicated: approximately 32 per cent to the systematic nursing activities and services; 27 per cent to the head nurses ability for nursing diagnosis; 22 per cent to an effective supervisory system; 16 per cent to the hospital facilities and proper supply, and 3 per cent to effective in·service education. This means that nurses, supervisors, head nurses and directors play the most important roles in the performance of nursing services. 11. About 87 per cent of the hospitals do not have separate budgets for their nursing departments, and only 13 per cent of the hospitals have separate budgets. It is recommended that the planning and execution of the nursing administration be delegated to the pertinent administrators in order to bring about improved proved performances and activities in nursing services.

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