• Title, Summary, Keyword: Religiosity

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The Kokutai Theology of State Shinto and Notion of Public-Private : Focusing on Kokutai no Hongi (국가신도의 국체신학과 공사(公私)관념: 《국체의 본의》를 중심으로)

  • Park, Kyutae
    • The Critical Review of Religion and Culture
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    • no.26
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    • pp.150-193
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    • 2014
  • The point in the thought of modern Japanese State Shinto(國家神道) liesin the concept of "kokutai"(國體) which was highly connected with theideology of Emperor system. The kokutai, mainly made up of "the oracle byAmaterasu blessing Japan to be as eternal as heaven and earth"(天壤無窮の神勅), "an unbroken line of Emperors"(萬世一系), and the notion of"Emperor as living God"(現人神), was clearly manifested at Kokutai noHongi(國體の本義), published by the Ministry of Education, Science andCulture 1n 1937. Then, the notion of public-private represented by "selflessdevotion"(滅私奉公) was the prevailing substance of that kokutai. Thepurpose of this essay is to examine the way how the "theology of kokutai" -kokutai ideology based upon such a notion of public-private represented by"selfless devotion" - had been described at Kokutai no Hongi, and tounderstand the mythological, theological meaning of that "theology ofkokutai" associated with the religiosity of State Shinto. Additionally, this essaywill explore a kind of aesthetical way how to reproduce the State Shinto incontemporary Japanese society from the perspective of "collusion betweenpublic and private". In doing so, this paper will pay attention to the principaltexts of State Shinto such as Meiji Constitution(大日本帝國憲法, 1889),Imperial Rescript on Education(敎育勅語, 1890), Kamunagara no Taido(惟神の大道, 1940), Shinmin no Michi(臣民の道, 1941), Kokushi Kaisetsu(國史槪說, 1943), and Jinja Hongi(神社本義,1944), including Kokutai no Hongi.

Sagehood - An Interconnectivity of Confucianism and Mythology (유가 사상과 신화적 사유의 상호 관계성 연구 - 성인 관념을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Jongseok
    • The Journal of Korean Philosophical History
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    • no.53
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    • pp.255-281
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    • 2017
  • This study examines the ways in which Confucianism developed in connection with other thoughts. Mythology especially had an great impact on the formation of Confucian thoughts. This study focuses on the concept of sage and examines how Confucianism and mythological thoughts influenced on formation and reformation of the concepts. In ancient religion, sages as a hierophantic figure, mediates human beings and gods, delivering the gods' messages to the human and the human's wishes to the gods. The fused role of shaman and ruler began to separate. A new type of leader without political power, but with a religious role with a moral authority is the Confucian concept of sage. A sage in Confucianism is an ideal person like Confucius, Mencius, and Xunzi, an ordinary person can attain with effort. Anyone can become a sage in Confucianism. The early Confucian sage was more like a hyper-human with unaccessible authority in mythology. Later, a sage in Confucianism began to be described as a model figure that any human being can become. The aspect of shamans and diviners (wushi 巫師) did not disappear, but merged into a kingly power and transformed into a sage-king with moral authority. The new images are reflected in Confucian ideology of statehood or its religiosity. This study has explored the ways in which Confucianism and mythological thoughts interacted and influenced to each other through a concept of sage as an ideal personhood.

Pre-service Biology Teachers' Understanding of the Real-World Application of Evolutionary Theory (생물 예비교사들의 진화 이론의 실용성에 관한 인식)

  • Ha, Min-Su;Lee, Jun-Ki
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.31 no.8
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    • pp.1186-1198
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    • 2011
  • The understanding of real-world application of scientific knowledge such as the evolutionary theory has been emphasized in science curriculum. Despite this, many students and biology educators misunderstand the use and practical application of the evolution theory. The purpose of this study is to explore variables related to the understanding of practical application of evolution. Methodologically, we employed large-scale survey that examined three independent variables (major, academic year, and religion) and five dependent variables (understanding of practical application of evolution, knowledge of, interest in, and acceptance of evolution, and religiosity). Two hundred and thirty three biology pre-service teachers and 405 non-biology pre-service teachers participated in the survey. The results demonstrate that the biology teacher education program does not help in increasing the understanding of the practical application of evolution. Rather, the understanding of practical application of evolution was associated with their religion. In addition, the understanding of the practical application of evolution was associated with the acceptance of and interest in evolution. The results of this study inform the development of new biology teacher education programs to improve their understanding of practical application of the evolution theory. We also suggest further areas of research for other scientific concepts that could be used to gauge teachers' understanding of the practical application of scientific knowledge.

Theory of the Dead's Mind: Does the Mind of the Dead Transcend Time and Space? (죽은 사람의 마음 이론: 죽은 사람의 마음은 시공간을 초월하는가?)

  • Kim, Euisun;Kim, Sung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.105-120
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    • 2018
  • Current neuroscience views the mind-body problem from the monistic perspective which claims that the human mind is the result of brain activity and that the mind shuts down when the brain does. However, a considerable number of lay people still believe in the existence of the soul and the afterlife, concepts that are hard to explain from the monistic perspective. This study examines whether lay people think that the mind of the dead is capable of exceeding the physical constraints if they believe that such mind exists. After reading one of three vignettes which describes the state of the protagonist as alive, dead, or brain dead, the participants evaluated the protagonist's general mental capacity and transcendental ability to obtain new information. The participants rated that the dead protagonist had more 'transcendental ability to obtain new information' than the alive one if they evaluated high general mental capacity to the protagonist. In addition, unlike the alive condition, in the dead and the brain dead condition, there was a correlation between the general mind capacity rating and the transcendental ability rating. The results suggest that lay people expect the mind of the alive and the dead to be different, as they believe the latter's general mind capacity connotes transcendental ability. We also found that the participants' religiosity affected their beliefs about the transcendental ability of dead person.

A Study of Perspective on Cheon Gwan(天觀) of Toegye (퇴계(退溪)의 천관(天觀) 연구(硏究))

  • Hwang, Sang Hee
    • (The)Study of the Eastern Classic
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    • no.56
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    • pp.147-170
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    • 2014
  • To divide by the concept of Cheon (天) before and after the period of Song Dynasty: before Song Dynasty; according to the ancient Book of Odes (Sigyeong-詩經), "Cheon (天) gives birth to a large number of people", and, Confucius(孔子) say "Cheon(天) gave me Virtue(德)." Mencius(孟子) say "The person done with all his heart knows Seong(性, personality), so if he knows such Seong(性, personality), then he knows Cheon(天)." In Doctrine of the Mean(中庸), it says "Cheon(天) ordered it to be called - Seong(性, personality)." So, Cheon(天) had a religious meaning, such as Sangje(上帝) - Supreme Ruler. During the Song period, Cheon(天), the source of its existence, had construed as Mugeuk i Taegeuk Non(無極而太極論 - Theory of Supreme Ultimate while being Indeterminate) and Theory of li and ki (iginon-理氣論). Juja (朱子, a honorary name of Juhui, 朱熹) had said a reasonable Cheon(天), that is, Heavenly Principle (天理 - Cheolli) by interpreting Cheon(天) as Taegeuk(太極 - Supreme Polarity) and li(理) of Muwi(無爲 - uncontrived action). That's why Juja had lost the religiosity because of his reasonable frame. The purpose of this dissertation is to identify of the quality of being religious of li(理) on the basis of attribute of Cheon(天) argued by Toegye and Juja. In the text of Seomyeong(西銘 - Western Inscription), we can see their interpretation of the content that Toegye as "西銘考證講義"(Lecture on Historical Research of Western Inscription), and Juja as "西銘解"(Commentary on the Western Inscription). Seomyeong(西銘 - Western Inscription) was expounded as a logic of 'iil bunsu' (理一分殊 - coherence is one and distinguished into many). '理一分殊' means to live in as meaningful as possible according to the human nature that has been bestowed upon thyself. Juja and Toegye both said that in the aspect of 'iil'(理一 - coherence is one), Reverence(事天) ought to be done, but to look into the aspect of 'bunsu'(分殊-distinguished into many), Juja argued that people should follow the order of Heavenly Principle(天理 - Cheolli), and Toegye argued that people should have to perform the filial piety(孝). There are differences in methods of Toegye and Juja on account of distinction between attributes of Cheon(天). Such a distinction affects the attribute of li(理). Juja said divisively that Soiyeon(所以然-why its principle is so) is li(理), and Sodangyeon(所當然-what should be so) is Sa(事-divine project). Toegye argued that Sodangyeon(所當然-what should be so) is indeed li(理). It is the position of Toegye that to know Seong(性-the personality) of Sodangyeon(所當然-what should be so) is the first, rather than to know Cheon(天) of Soiyeon(所以然-why its principle is so) that is out of reach in a faraway place. Seong(性-the personality) is li(理) that bestowed by Cheon(天). In view of discussion about the essence and existence, for Toegye, the existence is the first, rather than the essence. The issues of existence is now enabled to talk about amid the discussion of metaphysics, namely li(理). Different from Juja, a theory noticed in Toegye is the theory of 'Lijado'(理自到). 'Lijado'(理自到) denotes 'Li(理) leads on their own.' It tells that separate from thing-in-itself, there is an energy that moves and oversees the thing. This is an issue of response between "I" as the principal agent and other people. If "I" as the principal agent is sincere to others, the others will come to me insomuch as they will be revealed through me. Here, a problem between the host and guest arises. Toegye perceived this problem that do not see me and others as same, and also do not see me and others as two. This is the logic of 'ilii iiil'(一而二 二而一 - looks like one but two, looks like two but one) of '理一分殊' (coherence is one and distinguished into many). The first thing to do between these two processes is to recognize the existence of 'iil'(理一). Toegye strongly displays a religious attitude identifying Cheon(天)=Li (理)=Sangje(上帝- Supreme Ruler) in the same light.