• Title, Summary, Keyword: Release

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Consequence Analysis Using Release Scenario of API-581 BRD for Gas Explosion by Vessel Release (용기누출로 인한 가스 폭발사고에서 API-581 절차의 누출 시나리오에 의한 사고결과 분석)

  • Kim, Tae-Ok;Lee, Hern-Chang;Cho, Ji-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.15-24
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    • 2007
  • For consequence analysis at a gas explosion by vessel release, release rates, demage areas of facilities, and fatality areas were estimated and analyzed at various conditions(release materials, temperatures, pressures, and vessel types) by using the release scenario of API-581 BRD. Simulation results showed that release rates and consequences in the vessel release were higher than those in the pipe release, and the order of release rates and damage areas was as follows; tank>reactor>drum> column.

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Is Pancapsular Release More Effective than Selective Capsular Release for the Treatment of Adhesive Capsulitis?

  • Moon, Nam Hoon;Lee, Seung-Jun;Shin, Won Chul;Lee, Sang Min;Suh, Kuen Tak
    • Clinics in Shoulder and Elbow
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.28-35
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    • 2015
  • Background: We assessed the effectiveness of arthroscopic capsular release for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis. Further, we tried to ascertain the clinical benefits, if any, of pancapsular release over selective capsular release, where the two differ by performing or not performing a posterior capsular release, respectively. Methods: Thirty-five consecutive patients with either primary or secondary adhesive capsulitis who failed conservative treatment for more than 6 months were enrolled in the study. A total of 16 patients allocated in group 1 received a pancapsular release that comprises the release of the rotator interval, anteroinferior capsular, and the posterior capsular release, whereas 19 patients in group 2 received a selective capsular release that comprises only the release of the rotator interval release and anteroinferior capsular release. The clinical outcomes, visual analogue scale (VAS) score, Constant score, and range of motion, were assessed preoperative and postoperatively. Results: In both groups, the preoperative VAS score, Constant score, and ROM showed a significant improvement by the 6-month follow-up. We found that the immediate postoperative internal rotation was significantly higher in group 1 than group 2. Despite significant differences seen between the two groups at the initial postoperative period, there were no significant differences in Constant score, VAS score, and the ROM at all the subsequent follow-ups between the two groups. Conclusions: Arthroscopic capsular release for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis is very effective. However, pancapsular release did not show any advantage over selective capsular release in terms of overall clinical outcome.

Release Characteristics of Terbutaline Sulfate Sustained-Release Beads In Vitro (서방성 Terbutaline sulfate bead의 방출특성)

  • Kim, Ki Man;Kim, Young Il;Hong, Soon Uk
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 1991
  • The sustained-release beads containing terbutaline sulfate (TBS) were prepared by rotogranulation method. The drug was dusted on the non-pareil seeds in a CF-granulator. The sustained-release beads were obtained by coating the active beads with ethylcellulose or $Eudragits^{(R)}$, using in any case the same granulator employed for active beads preparation. The release characteristics of sustained-release beads were examined in vitro by rotating basket method applied to $Bricanyl^{(R)}$ durules which is a sustained-release TBS matrix tablet. The release of terbutaline from the beads in vitro was first-order, and the release rate was dependent on both the coat weight ratio and membrane hydrophilicity. Both surfaces of the beads before and after dissolution were smooth. The drug release pattern from the beads could be thought the diffusion through the polymer membrane. The release rate and the surface of the beads stored for 3 years at room temperature were the same with those of the initial beads.

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Controlled Release of Drugs from Silicone Rubber Matrices-Effects of Physical Properties of Drugs and Release Controlling Agents on Drug Release Mechanisms- (실리콘 마트릭스로부터의 약물조절 방출-약물 및 방출조절제의 물성이 방출기전에 미치는 영향-)

  • Jeon, So-Young;Lee, Seung-Jin
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.237-245
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    • 1991
  • Matrix type silicone rubber devices were designed for long-term implantable drug delivery system. Release controlling agents (RCA), i.e., polypropylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, were employed to control drug release from the devices. The release rate of drug from RCA dispersed silicone matrices was mainly dependent on hydrophilicity-hydrophobicity of drug and RCA. In the case of hydrophilic drug, the release from the RCA dispersed matrix was regulated by swelling kinetics. Especially when the relatively hydrophobic polypropylene glycol was used, swelling control mechanism induced zero-order release kinetics. Whereas, the release of hydrophobic drug was resulted from partition mechanism. The effect of RCA was to increase drug diffusivity.

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The Influence of Source Term Release Parameters on Health Effects

  • Jeong, Jongtae;Ha, Jaejoo
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.294-302
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    • 1999
  • The influence of source term release parameters on offsite health effects was examined for the YGN 3&4 nuclear power plants. The release parameters considered in this study are release height, heat content, and release time. The effects of core inventory change as a function of fuel burnup was also examined. The health effects by the change of release parameters are early fatalities, cancer fatalities, and early fatality distance. The results showed that early fatalities and early fatality distance decrease as release height increases, although it does not have significant influence on cancer fatalities. The values of both early and late health effects decrease as heat content increases. As release time increases, health consequence shows maximum value in 2 hours of release time and then decreases rapidly. As fuel burnup increases, early fatalities decrease rapidly, while cancer fatalities increase rapidly. Both cases show little variation afterward. Early fatality distance is almost same in all fuel turnup history. The information obtained through this research is very useful in developing strategies for reducing offsite consequences when combined with the influence of weather conditions on offsite risks.

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Effects of Forskolin on Endogenous Dopamine and Acetylcholine Release in Rat Neostriatal Slices

  • Kim, Hwa-Jung
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.520-528
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    • 1996
  • The involvement of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) effector system in the release of endogenous dopamine and acetylcholine from the rat neostriatum was assessed. Forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, was used to enhance cAMP production, and the consequence of this enhancement on the spontaneous and potassium stimulated release of dopamine and acetylcholine was evaluated. Neostriatal slices were prepared from Fischer 344 rats and after a preincubation period the release of each endogenous neurotransmitter was measured from the same slice preparation. To measure acetylcholine release the slice acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was inhibited with physostigmine, but the release from slices with intact AChE activity was also determined (choline, instead of acetylcholine was detected in the medium). Under both conditions forskolin induced a significant dose-dependent increase in the potassium-evoked release of dopamine. In the same tissue preparations the release of neither acetylcholine (AChE inhibited) nor choline (AChE intact) was affected by forskolin. The results indicate that the CAMP second messenger system might be involved in neuronal mechanisms that enhance neostriatal dopamine release, but stimulation of this second messenger by forskolin does not further enhance neostriatal acetylcholine release.

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Effect of Frictional Resistance Force on a Liquid Pool Spreading Model with Continuous and Instantaneous Release (마찰저항이 연속누출과 순간누출을 가지는 액체 풀의 확산에 미치는 영향에 대한 해석적 연구)

  • Kim, Tae Hoon;Choi, Byung-Il;Kim, Myungbae;Do, Kyu Hyung;Han, Yong-Shik
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.487-494
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    • 2013
  • In this study, solutions for a liquid pool spreading model with continuous and instantaneous release are discussed based on the model used in the FERC's report. The effects of the release time on the liquid pool volume and radius are investigated for the continuous release. For the continuous release with the frictional resistance force in the liquid pool spreading model, the vaporization time decreases as the release time increases. On the other hand, for the continuous release without the frictional resistance force in the liquid pool spreading model, the vaporization time increases as the release time increases. These phenomena are deeply related to the pool radius. In addition, the effects of the initial pool radius for the instantaneous release in the liquid pool spreading model are discussed. For the case with the frictional resistance force in the liquid pool spreading model, as reducing release time in the model with the frictional resistance force for the continuous release, the solution for a continuous release approaches to that for an instantaneous release. On the contrary to this, the pool volume and radius for the instantaneous release without the frictional resistance force are totally different from those for the continuous release without the frictional resistance force.

On the clutch adjuster (무조정식 clutch release cylinder에 관하여)

  • 서동식
    • Journal of the korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.1-4
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    • 1981
  • Clutch disc 의 facing은 사용할 때마다 마찰로 인하여 마멸된다. 마멸함에 따라 clutch cover의 구조상 clutch cover의 release lever가 올라와 clutch release bearing (thrust bearing)과의 간 극이 작아져서 드디어 이 간극이 없어지게 되면 release lever가 clutch release bearing을 누르게 되어 평상에도 clutch가 절반 정도로 떨어지는 상태로까지 됨으로써 clutch의 완전한 연결을 할 수 없어 slip이 일어나게 된다. 이상과 같은 문제점들을 해소하기 위하여 clutch의 control system을 수시로 조정하지 않으면 안되며 이러한 번거로움을 피하기 위하여 release lever가 올라옴으로써 release bearing과의 간극이 작아져서 자동적으로 일정한 간극을 유지하여 clutch의 slip을 방지하고 clutch기구의 내구성을 향상시키기 위한 것이 무조정식 release cylinder, 혹은 clutch adjuster이다. 이에 대한 신형식 두 종류의 구조, 작동 및 특징에 대하여 해설하여 본다.

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Selection of Release Scenario and Consequence Analysis for Gas Explosion by Pipe Release (배관누출에 의한 가스 폭발사고에서 누출 시나리오 선정 및 사고결과 분석)

  • Kim, Tae-Ok;Lee, Hern-Chang;Ryoo, Jun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.52-62
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    • 2006
  • In this study, we tried to propose a selection method of release scenarios and a method of consequence analysis at a gas explosion by pipe release. Thus, release rates, damage areas of the facilities, and fatality areas were estimated and analyzed at various release conditions(temperature, pressure, release material, etc). As a results, we could conclude that the rupture was the worst case of release scenarios, and at release rates and damage areas were better estimated by the weighted average method considering a generic failure frequency of the release hole than by an arbitrary selection of the release hole.

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Effect of Econazole on ATP- and Compound 48/80-Induced Histamine Release in Rat Peritoneal Mast Cells (흰쥐의 복강비만세포에서 ATP와 Compound 48/80에 의한 Histamine 유리에 미치는 Econazole의 영향)

  • 장용운;이윤혜;이승준;서무현;윤정이
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.282-286
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    • 2001
  • To investigate the different mechanism between ATP and compound 48/80 (C$_{48}$80/)-induced histamine release, we observed effects of calcium antagonists in histamine release of rat peritoneal mast cells. Verapamil and diltiazem (voltage-dependent calcium channel blocker) and TMB-8 (a blocker of intracellular calcium release) significantly inhibited ATP-induced histamine release, but did not inhibit $C_{48}$80/-induced histamine release. Econazole (a blocker of receptor-operated calcium channel) dose-dependently inhibited both ATP and $C_{48}$80/-induced histamine release, but inhibitory effect of econazole in ATP-induced histamine release was more potent than that in $C_{48}$80/-induced histamine. EGTA dose-dependently inhibited ATP and $C_{48}$80/-induced histamine release, but $C_{48}$80/-induced histamine release was slightly inhibited by high concentrations (>2 mM) of EGTA. These results suggest that ATP-induced histamine release is related to broth intracellular calcium release and extracellular calcium influx via voltage-dependent calcium channel and receptor-operated calcium channel. $C_{48}$80/-induced histamine release is related to extracellular calcium influx, especially by receptor-operated calcium channel rather than voltage-dependent calcium channel.

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