• Title/Summary/Keyword: Relative survival

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Relative Survival of Breast Cancer Patients in Iran

  • Kasaeian, Amir;Mosavi-Jarrahi, Alireza;Abadi, Alireza;Mahmoodi, Mahmood;Mehrabi, Yadollah;Mohammad, Kazem;Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza;Zare, Ali
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.14
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    • pp.5853-5858
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    • 2015
  • Background: The survival rate reflecting prognosis of breast cancer patients is usually estimated based on crude survival methods such as observed and cause-specific. In situations where data are based on population-cancer registries, this method may produce biased estimations. This study therefore aimed to estimate the net survival of breast cancer based on relative survival. Materials and Methods: Data for 622 breast cancer patients diagnosed at the Iran Cancer Institute during 1990-95 and tracked till the end of 2000 were analyzed. For estimation of relative survival, Ederer's second method and SAS (9.1) and STATA (11) software were used. Results: Threeyear relative survivals of 85%, 90%, 80% and 67% were observed for age groups 15-44, 55-59, 60-74, and 75+years-old, respectively. A relative survival of approximately one was observed for two subsequent years for age-group 45-59 years-old. A value greater than one for two subsequent years of follow-up was observed in the age-group 60-74 years-old. Conclusions: Tracking the diagnosis of breast cancer, the relative survival decreases as we go to higher age-groups. It is also perceived that through follow-up, relative survival first decreased and then increased a little. The statistical cure point is acceptable for age group 45-59 years-old while for age-groups 15-44 and 60-74 years old is a sign of low quality data for some follow-up intervals.

Survival of Stomach Cancer Cases in Khon Kaen, Thailand 2000-2012

  • Nanthanangkul, Sirinya;Suwanrungruang, Krittika;Wiangnon, Surapon;Promthet, Supannee
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.2125-2129
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    • 2016
  • Background: Stomach cancer is an aggressive malignancy that is difficult to detect at an early stage and therefore is characterized by poor survival rates. Over the last two decades, there has been no report of gastric cancer survival in Khon Kaen province, Thailand. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to provide up-to-date information about the survival of gastric cancer patients in this province. Materials and Methods: Data from Khon Kaen population-based cancer registry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University were newly obtained on 650 patients who were diagnosed with stomach cancer during the period 1 January, 2000 to 31 December, 2012. These were then followed up until death or the end of the study (31 December 2014). We calculated the observed survival with the actuarial life table method, and relative survival, defined as the ratio of observed survival in the group of the stomach cancer patients to the expected survival in the entire Thai population from the estimated generation life tables for Thailand of five-year birth cohorts from 1900 - 2000. Results: The 5 year observed and 5 year relative survival rates were 17.2 % (95% CI: 13.54-21.14) and 18.2 % (95% CI: 14.3-22.4), respectively. The highest 5 year relative survival rates were demonstrated among patients aged 45-65, with stage I or II lesions, with adenocarcinomas, with a body of stomach location, well differentiated and receiving surgery and/or chemotherapy. Conclusions: The observed and relative survival rates were close to each other. Our findings provide basic information beneficial to development of an effective treatment system and appropriately improved population-based cancer registration.

Influence of Distance from Home to Hospital on Survival among Lung Cancer Patients

  • Tanaka, Rina;Matsuzaka, Masashi;Nakaji, Shigeyuki;Sasaki, Yoshihiro
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.5025-5030
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to clarify how distance from place of residence to the nearest specialist cancer hospital affects the survival of lung cancer patients and the treatment received. For all patients diagnosed with lung cancer in the Aomori cancer registry database for the period from 2009 to 2011 (n=3,986). The distance to the treating hospital was measured as the straight line from a person's place of residence, and compared with findings from the Ederer II method for calculating relative survival. Information on treatments given was obtained by data extraction. We defined a hospital having respiratory medicine as specialist, while all private hospitals and clinics were included in the general category. Patients attending specialist hospitals numbered 2,548 (67.0%), and those treated at general institutions were 1,255 (33.0%). The patients who had the lowest relative survival with localized lesions lived <20 km from general hospitals and clinics. With more advanced stages, relative survival of those living <20 km from a specialist hospital was the lowest. Although the survival rate was not affected by the distance between place of residence and hospital, even when patients are diagnosed at a localized stage at a general hospital or clinic within 20 km from their home, they did survive longer in comparison with patients diagnosed at a specialist hospital.

Effects of Ginseng Protein on Relative Survival and Chromosome Aberration of UV Irradiated Cells

  • Kim, Choon-Mi;Park, So-Young
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.225-229
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    • 1988
  • A ginseng protein fraction which has been reported to have radiation protective effect was purified from Korean ginseng and its effects on relative survival and chromosome aberration were studied in UV irradiated CHO-K1 cells. When the protein fraction $(100\;{\mu}g/ml)$ was added to the cells before UV irradiation at 4\;J/$m^2$,, the survival rates were increased to 53.8% from 40.6% in control. Addition of the protein $(100\;{\mu}g/ml)$ after UV irradiation at 4 and $8\;J/m^2$ raised the rates to 85.4 and 24.0% from 79.2 and 11.5% in control, respectively. When the ginseng protein $(800\;{\mu}g/ml)$ was added to the cells exposed to UV light at 10, 20, $30\;J/m^2$, the frequencies of chromosome aberration (CA) were reduced significantly to almost same level regardless of the UV dose increment and there was no significant difference between pre- and post-treatment. When the concentration of ginseng protein was increased from 200 to $800\;{\mu}g/ml$, at UV dose of 10, 20, $30\;J/m^2$ each, the CA frequencies were decreased consistently as the dose of ginseng protein increased, at all UV doses tested. Similar effects were observed in both cases of pre- and post-treatment. The data suggest that the protein may reduce cell damage caused by UV light, especially damage to DNA molecule, or play a role in repair processes of damaged DNA, to increase cell survival and reduce chromosome aberrations.

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Comparison between Overall, Cause-specific, and Relative Survival Rates Based on Data from a Population-based Cancer Registry

  • Utada, Mai;Ohno, Yuko;Shimizu, Sachiko;Hori, Megumi;Soda, Midori
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.5681-5685
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    • 2012
  • Three kinds of survival rates are generally used depending on the purpose of the investigation: overall, cause-specific, and relative. The differences among these 3 survival rates are derived from their respective formulas; however, reports based on actual cancer registry data are few because of incomplete information and short follow-up duration recorded on cancer registration. The aim of this study was to numerically and visually compare these 3 survival rates on the basis of data from the Nagasaki Prefecture Cancer Registry. Subjects were patients diagnosed with cancer and registered in the registry between 1999 and 2003. We calculated the proportion of cause of death and 5-year survival rates. For lung, liver, or advanced stage cancers, the proportions of cancer-related death were high and the differences in survival rates were small. For prostate or early stage cancers, the proportions of death from other causes were high and the differences in survival rates were large. We concluded that the differences among the 3 survival rates increased when the proportion of death from other causes increased.

Trends and Outcomes of Non-compliance with Treatment for Gastric Cancer in Korea over the 16 years from 1999 to 2015

  • Eom, Bang Wool;Jung, Kyu-Won;Won, Young-Joo;Kim, Young-Woo
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.92-101
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the trend of non-compliance with treatment (NCT) among gastric cancer patients in the Korean population. Materials and Methods: Using data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry from 1999 to 2015, patients who did not receive any treatment for gastric cancer within 4 months after diagnosis were defined as the NCT group. The annual incidence rate, distributions according to age group and stage, and 5-year relative survival of the patients exhibiting NCT were analyzed. Results: The number of NCT patients was 5,871 (30.6%) in 1999 and continuously decreased to 4,434 (15.3%) in 2015. Between 2006 and 2015, the proportions of NCT patients decreased from 72.9% to 55.0% among those 80 years old or older and from 9.2% to 5.4% among patients younger than 40 years. In patients with distant metastases, this proportion decreased from 35.5% to 32.7%, and this proportion also decreased from 17.6% to 8.2% among those with localized disease. The 5-year relative survival rates of NCT patients between 2011 and 2015 were significantly lower than those of the treated patients in each stage (60.2% vs. 99.7%, 13.8% vs. 67.1%, and 2.0% vs. 8.3% among those with localized, regional, and distant disease, respectively). Conclusions: The proportion of NCT gastric cancer patients has decreased during the last 16 years. However, considerable numbers of elderly patients are still NCT. There must be a strategy to decrease NCT and improve the nationwide survival rate of patients with gastric cancer.

Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Korea: Recent Trends

  • Park, Ji Young;Jang, Seung Hun
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.79 no.2
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    • pp.58-69
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    • 2016
  • Lung cancer causes the most cancer deaths in Korea. Although the smoking rate has begun to decrease, the prevalence of lung cancer is still increasing. We reviewed the national lung cancer registry data and the data published about lung cancer in Korea. In 2012, the crude incidence rate of lung cancer was 43.9 per 100,000. The age-standardized mortality rate of lung cancer was 19.8 per 100,000. The 5-year relative survival rate for lung cancer was 11.3% from 1993 to 1995 and increased to 21.9% in the period from 2008 to 2012. Lung cancer occurring in never-smokers was estimated to increase in Korea. Adenocarcinoma is steadily increasing in both women and men and has replaced squamous cell carcinoma as the most common type of lung cancer in Korea. In patients with adenocarcinoma, the frequency of EGFR mutations was 43% (range, 20%-56%), while that of the EMK4-ALK gene was less than 5%.

Metformin May Improve the Prognosis of Patients with Pancreatic Cancer

  • Zhang, Jia-Wei;Sun, Qing
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.3937-3940
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    • 2015
  • Background: Pancreatic cancer risk is increased in patients with type 2 diabetes, while being reduced by metformin treatment. However, it is unclear whether metformin could be associated with clinical outcomes of patients with pancreatic cancer and concurrent type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: A pooled analysis of 4 publications including 1,429 patients was performed to investigate the association of metformin and overall survival(OS) in patients with pancreatic cancer and concurrent type 2 diabetes. Results: A borderline significant relative survival benefit was found in metformin treated patients compared with non-metformin treated patients (hazard ratio 0.80; 95% CI: 0.62-1.03). Conclusions: These results suggest that further investigation is warranted of whether metformin may benefit the survival of patients with pancreatic cancer and concurrent type 2 diabetes.