The purpose of this study is to examine clothing benefits seeking and buying behavior depending on the level of environmental awareness. The results showed a significant relationship between the level of environmental awareness and the factors of demographic characteristics, such as age, marital status, educational status, and type of housing, occupation, and average household income. However, there was no significant difference between those by gender. In relationship between the level of environmental awareness and clothing benefits seeking behavior, there were significant differences between the following groups. such as social stability-oriented, brand-oriented, individuality-oriented, and comfort-oriented group. With regard to the relationship between environment-friendly consuming behavior and demographic characteristics, there were significant differences in all factors of the demographic characteristics. Buying behavior showed a significant relationship with all factors of demographic characteristics except type of housing. Using behavior matched a significant relationship with all factors of demographic characteristics. Disposition behavior demonstrated a significant relationship with all factors except marital status. In terms of the effect of clothing benefits sought on the environment-friendly consuming behavior, the results suggested a significant relationship of brand-oriented, individuality-oriented, comfort-oriented, and price-oriented factors. Buying behavior showed a significant relationship with brand-oriented, comfort-oriented, and price-oriented factors. Using behavior demonstrated a strongly significant relationship with comfort-oriented factor while disposition behavior suggested a strong relationship with price-oriented factor.
The purpose of the study was to find out the preference of small house as the social relations of university students. The data for the analysis were collected through questionnaire survey method from September 24 to October 12, 2012, and the sample consisted of 283 students of the university in Seoul. The social relationship has been surveyed using modified life-style indicators. The community spaces and equipment in the small house has been divided into 21 community spaces and 3 equipments. The characteristics of small house preference were consisted of the residential comments, residence time, resident partner, house size, considered factors of the residence and small house ownership. The finding of this study were as following: 1) The social relationship of respondents were typed as the type of relationship oriented (oriented family, oriented friends and neighbors) and type of non-relationship oriented. The social relationship of respondents were the type of relationship oriented. 2) The respondents are willing to live in small houses, to live with 1-2 people and after work. When living in small house, they consider public transport accessibility and ease of use amenities. But neighbor relationship is not considered. 3) They are preferred security office, administrative office, home storage, parks and green space.
The contingency theory of leadership was proposed by F. Fiedler. In his theory, he divided the group into Task oriented and Relationship-oriented people based on work-style by LPC(Least Preffered Co-workers) test. This survey searches significance of interaction usage depending on which group has more aggressive interaction on the address list with mobile phones focusing on the differences between mainfunctions (name, cell phone, group name) and sub-functions (birthday, Photo, E-mail). Itis the hypothesis that the relationship-oriented group has more interaction than the task-oriented group which was identified through the analyzed usage of the address list. Results show that the contingency theory was not appropriately related with the research. Interaction usage by the following task based on Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership isn't related much. However, by discovering the interesting patterns by the test, this research is able to guide human-centered address design directions.
While the population conducting the production-oriented leisure activity is spread, the expertly franchised types of woodworking workshop based on good organization and economic power are also undergoing rapid growth with the related industries. Such tendency needs the systemized marketing strategy for woodworking workshop industry, but most of the woodworking workshops are regarding the deal with customers as simple exchange business in the market. The factors of the relationship marketing hereupon should be constituted as basic material for the study of the relationship marketing of DIY woodworking workshop. This study was intended to select the appropriate factors for relationship marketing and to apply the related theoretical backgrounds on the basis of the preceding studies regarding the factors of relationship marketing. As the factors it was selected that service and expertise of staff under the category of the characteristics of staff, reasonable price, diversity of products and convenience of facility in woodworking workshop under the category of the customer-oriented service, and communication and favorite program under that of the relation-oriented service.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between organizational culture and workplace bullying of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses. Methods: A secondary analysis was conducted using three different data sets on workplace bullying of hospital nurses. This analysis focused on the relationship between organizational culture and workplace bullying of 240 ICU nurses. The original data were collected using self-reporting questionnaires and were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression. Results: ICU nurses were aware of their organizational culture as being rank-oriented, relationship-oriented, innovation-oriented, and task-oriented in that order. The results showed that 15.0% of the ICU nurses reported being victims of workplace bullying, mostly work-related bullying. The perception of a relationshiporiented culture explained a variance of 29% in the workplace bullying of ICU nurses. Conclusion: The findings suggest that ICU nurses who are strongly aware of a relationship-oriented culture would experience less workplace bullying. Further research is needed to develop interventions that can foster a relationship-oriented culture in ICUs.
We conducted this research for the purpose of examining the effects of organizational culture on service quality and customer satisfaction in the military hospital organizations in Korea. The research samples were collected from employees in 12 military hospitals belonged to the Armed Forces Command. For the analysis we used SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 20.0 program for conducting reliability tests, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation model analysis in order to find the relationship between the variables analyzed. The result of this study shows that the military hospitals in Korea have strong relationship-oriented culture, but weak hierarchy-oriented culture. Among the three groups of military hospitals, innovation-oriented culture and relationship-oriented culture were the strongest in the executive agency hospital group, task-oriented culture was the strongest in the group of the he frontline hospitals and hierarchy-oriented culture was the strongest in the group of the rear area hospitals. It was found that the executive agency hospitals have the strongest service quality and customer satisfaction among the hospital groups analyzed. This research also found that relationship-oriented culture and innovation-oriented culture have a direct positive(+) effect on service quality; hierarchy oriented culture has a direct negative(-) effect on service quality; task oriented culture has a direct positive(+) effect on customer satisfaction, and service quality mediated between organizational culture and customer satisfaction. The findings from this study suggests that implementing the dynamic strategies for organizational culture with focus on service qualities is needed given that customer satisfaction in the military hospitals is highly affected by service quality.
The study was originated from recognition that project participants' satisfaction should be Improved to raise project performance and to make progress of a successful project since the above dissatisfaction was operated as a danger factor of the project. The study selected one large-scale sample project and attempted measuring characteristics of the project, participants' satisfaction and project performance with the whole project participants. The study analyzed correlations between individual level (team members) and group level (development team), and examined what effect a sub project manager under complicated hierarchical organization of the large-scale project, namely PL (project leader)'s leadership style had on each individual project participant's satisfaction and what effect project uncertainty in organization/technology environment had on project participants' satisfaction and project performance. The study verified that development team (group) had an effect on team member (individual)-level project participants' satisfaction by disclosing that there was a significant dispersion among groups within project participants' satisfaction by each individual. It is analyzed that it is necessary to make improvement through approach by each pertinent team to raise individual-level project participants' satisfaction. The study also verified PL's ideal leadership under strict methodology and hierarchical control of the large-scale project. Based on the verification of the hypotheses, the results of the analysis were produced as follows. First, the development team affects the satisfaction level that an individual has when he/she participates in a project. This suggests that the satisfaction with project participation should be improved at the team level. In addition, the project management style and leadership orientation of the manager of a sub project who is mostly affected by the team proved to have a direct influence on the satisfaction with project participation and project performances. Second, both the performance-oriented leadership and the relationship-oriented leadership of the PL of the development team were verified to have a significant effect on the satisfaction of the team members associated with project participation. In other words, when the team members recognize that the PL of the development team shows both the performance-oriented leadership and the relationship-oriented leadership, their satisfaction with project participation increases accordingly. Third, it was verified that the uncertainty of the organizational environment significantly affects the satisfaction level when the PL of the development team exerts a relationship-oriented and performance-oriented leadership. The higher the uncertainty of the organizational environment is, the more the satisfaction with project participation decreases whereas the relationship-oriented leadership has a more positive effect on the satisfaction than the performance-oriented leadership style. Fourth, when the PL of the development team exerts the relationship-related and performance-related leadership, the uncertainty of the technological environment has a significant influence on the satisfaction level. The higher the uncertainty of the technological environment is, the more the satisfaction with project participation decreases whereas the performance-oriented leadership has a more positive effect on the satisfaction than the relationship-oriented leadership style. The result of the research on the uncertainty of the project environment suggests that when the development team leader exerts a relationship-oriented and performance-oriented leadership style, the uncertainty of the organizational environment has a significant effect on the satisfaction with project participation; the higher the uncertainty of the organizational environment, the more the satisfaction level decreases, and the relationship-oriented leadership style affects the satisfaction level more positively than the performance-oriented leadership style. In addition, when the development team leader displays a relationship-oriented and performance-oriented leadership style, the uncertainty of the technological environment has a significant effect on the satisfaction with project participation; the higher the uncertainty of the technological environment. the more the satisfaction level decreases. The performance-oriented leadership style as well affects the satisfaction level more positively than the relationship-oriented leadership style. Based on the above results, the research provides the following implications when handling multiple concurrent projects. First, the satisfaction with the participation in the multiple concurrent projects needs to be enhanced at the team (group) level. Second. the manager of the project team, particularly the middle managers should have both a performance-oriented and relationship (task and human)-oriented attitude and exert a consolidated leadership in order to improve the satisfaction of team members with project participation and their performances. Third, as the uncertainty factor of the technological and organizational environment among the characteristics factors of the project has room for methodological improvement depending on one's effort even though there are some complications, we need to continuously prevent and control the risks resulting from the uncertainties of the technological and organizational environment of the project in order to enhance the satisfaction of project participation and project performances. Fourth, the performance (task)-oriented leadership is required when there is uncertainty in a technological environment while the relationship (human)-oriented leadership is required when there is uncertainty in an organizational environment. This research has the following limitations. First, this research intended to select one large-sized sample project and measure the project characteristics, the satisfaction of all the participants associated with project participation, and their performances. Therefore, it is inappropriate to generalize and apply the result of this result onto other numerous projects. Second, as this case study entailed a survey to measure the characteristics factors and performance of the project, since the result value was based on the perception of project team members, the data may have insufficient objectivity. Third, though this research targeted on all the project participants, some development teams did not provide sufficient data and questionnaires were collected from some specific development teams among the 23 development teams, causing a significant deviation in the response rate among the development teams. Therefore, we need to continuously conduct the follow-up researches making comparisons among the multiple projects, and centering on the characteristics factors of the project and its satisfaction level.
The purpose of this study is to test the typicality effects to aesthetic response according to product orientation (design-oriented vs function- oriented) and perceived purchase risk. This study overcame the limitations of existing researches which haven't had the consensus about the relationship between typicality and preference and consequently suggested the typicality effect to aesthetic response by analyzing this relationship with product orientation and perceived purchase risk. The results of this study showed the inverted U-shaped relationship in design-oriented products and no relationship in function-oriented products between typicality and preference.
This study examined the subjective health recognition, motivation, selection property, consumption realties, and generalities of elderly people eating out. The ratio of women eating out in those over 60 years of ages was high and people in that age group ate out most actively. The score of convenience-oriented, gourmet-oriented, and dignity-oriented of the selection property for eating out increased with increasing frequency and expenditure for eating out. With increasing age, a negative (-) relationship with a decrease in the safety-oriented score of the selection property for eating out was predicted. As the number of days eating out increased, a positive (+) relationship with an increase in the safety-oriented score of the selection property for eating out was observed. As the scores of physical and social health perception increased, a positive (+) relationship with an increase in the gourmet oriented score was observed. Based on the results, various research on the relationship between the health recognition and eating out behavior of those over 60 years of age are required.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
Purpose: In this study factors affecting job satisfaction and turnover intention of nurses were explored in the context of organizational culture, self- leadership, and empowerment. Methods: Participants were 286 nurses drawn from 3 general hospitals. Data were analyzed using t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and hierarchial multiple regression with the SPSS/WIN 18.0 program. Results: Significant differences in job satisfaction and turnover intention were found according to organizational culture types. Significant positive correlations were found between self-leadership, empowerment, task oriented organizational culture, relationship oriented organizational culture, innovation oriented organizational culture and job satisfaction. On the other hand, significant negative relationships were found between empowerment, relationship oriented organizational culture, innovation oriented organizational culture and turnover intention. The factors that enhance job satisfaction were found to be higher innovation-oriented organizational culture. Lower turnover intention was shown to be positively associated with relationship- or innovation oriented organization culture. Conclusion: Innovation oriented organizational culture is needed in order to raise job satisfaction and reduce turnover intention of nurses.
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