• Title, Summary, Keyword: Reinforcing Filler

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A Comparison Study on Reinforcement Behaviors of Functional Fillers in Nitrile Rubber Composites

  • Seong, Yoonjae;Lee, Harim;Kim, Seonhong;Yun, Chang Hyun;Park, Changsin;Nah, Changwoon;Lee, Gi-Bbeum
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.55 no.4
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    • pp.306-313
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    • 2020
  • To investigate the reinforcing effects of functional fillers in nitrile rubber (NBR) materials, high-structure carbon black (HS45), coated calcium carbonate (C-CaCO3), silica (200MP), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used as functional filler, and carbon black (SRF) as a common filler were used for oil-resistant rubber. The curing and mechanical properties of HS45-, 200MP-, and MWCNT-filled NBR compounds were improved compared to those of the SRF-filled NBR compound. The reinforcing effect also increased with a decrease in the particle size of the fillers. The C-CaCO3-filled NBR compound exhibited no reinforcing effect with increasing filler concentration because of their large primary particle size (2 ㎛). The reinforcing behavior based on 100% modulus of the functional filler based NBR compounds was compared by using several predictive equation models. The reinforcing behavior of the C-CaCO3-filled NBR compound was in accordance with the Smallwood-Einstein equation whereas the 200MP- and MWCNT-filled NBR compounds fitted well with the modified Guth-Gold (m-Guth-Gold) equation. The SRF- and HS45-filled NBR compounds exhibited reinforcing behavior in accordance with the Guth-Gold and m-Guth-Gold equations, respectively, at a low filler content. However, the values of reinforcement parameter (100Mf/100Mu) of the SRF- and HS45-filled NBR compounds were higher than those determined by the predictive equation model at a high filler content. Because the chains of SRF composed of spherical filler particles are similarly changed to rod-like filler particles embedded in a rubber matrix and the reinforcement parameter rapidly increased with a high content of HS45, the higher-structured filler. The reinforcing effectiveness of the functional fillers was numerically evaluated on the basis of the effectiveness index (��SRF/��f) determined by the ratio of the volume fraction of the functional filler (��f) to that of the SRF filler (��SRF) at three unit of reinforcing parameter (100Mf/100Mu). On the basis of their effectiveness index, MWCNT-, 200MP-, and HS45-filled compounds showed higher reinforcing effectiveness of 420%, 70%, and 20% than that of SRF-filled compound, respectively whereas C-CaCO3-filled compound exhibited lower reinforcing effectiveness of -50% than that of SRF-filled compound.

A Study on the Reinforcing Effects of Inorganic Filler Contained NR Vulcanizates with Temperature and Loading Variation. (무기충전제(無機充塡劑)를 변량배합(變量配合)한 천연(天然)고무 가황체(加黃體)의 온도변화(溫度變化)에 따른 보강성효과(補强性效果)의 연구(硏究))

  • Choi, Jae-Woon;Hong, Chung-Sug;Chun, Kyung-Soo
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.293-304
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    • 1987
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of rubber-filler attachments on inorganic filler contained NR vulcanizatic. The results of this study showed as follows. The reinforcing properties and damping values of the vulcanizates in the elastic region showed strong relation with the filler characteristics and temperture. The vulcanizates filled with nature-activated inorganic filler like silica had higer elastic modulus and damping values than the vulcanizates of nature-nonactivated inorganic filter. The reinforcing effects of differential filler loadings on NR raised the effects with temperature rise, but the damping values varied with the filler characteristics and temperature variations.

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Effects of Inorganic Fillers on Mechanical Properties of Silicone Rubber

  • Kim, Gyu Tae;Lee, Young Seok;Ha, KiRyong
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.142-148
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    • 2019
  • In this study, the effects of filler particle size and shape on the physical properties of silicone rubber composites were investigated using inorganic fillers (Minusil 5, Celite 219, and Nyad 400) except silica, which was already present as a reinforcing filler of silicone rubber. Fillers with small particle sizes are known to facilitate the formation of the bound rubber by increasing the contact area with the polymer. However, in this experiment, the bound rubber content of Celite 219-added silicone composite was higher than that of Minusil 5-added silicone composite. This was attributed to the porous structure of Celite 219, which led to an increase in the internal surface area of the filler. When the inorganic fillers were added, both thermal decomposition temperature and thermal stability were improved. The bound rubber formed between the silicone rubber and inorganic filler affected the degree of crosslinking of the silicone composite. It is well-known that as the size of the reinforcing filler decreases, the reinforcing effect increases. However, in this experiment, the hardness of the composite material filled with Celite 219 was the highest compared to the other three composites. Furthermore, the highest value of 2.19 MPa was observed for 100% modulus, and the fracture elongation was the lowest at 469%. This was a result of excellent interaction between Celite 219 filler and silicone rubber.

Nanofiller as Crosslinker for Halogen-Containing Elastomers

  • Sahoo, N.G.;Kumar, E.Shiva;Das, C.K.;Panda, A.B.;Pramanik, P.
    • Macromolecular Research
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.506-510
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    • 2003
  • A Zn ion-coated nanosilica filler has been developed and tested, in chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE) and polychloroprene (CR), as a vulcanizing activator, cum was reinforcing filler. In this study, ZnO was replaced by the Zn ion-coated nanosilica filler with an aim of studying the dual role of this nanofiller in CSPE and CR. In the case of CSPE vulcanizates, the presence of MgO deteriorated the state and rate of cure when the Zn ion-coated nanosilica filler was used, but in the case of CR it improved the state of cure and enhanced the modulus and tensile strength. The Zn ion-coated filler proved to be a better reinforcing-cum-curing agent than was externally added ZnO and NA-22 also proved to be a better curative in the presence of the Zn ion-coated nanosilica filler for both CSPE and CR.

Interfacial Characterization of Mineralized Carbon Nanotubes (광물화된 탄소나노튜브 첨가재의 계면 특성화)

  • Park, Chanwook;Jung, Jiwon;Yun, Gunjin
    • Composites Research
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.282-287
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    • 2018
  • In this paper, we explore interfacial properties of the mineralized CNTs when they are employed as reinforcing fillers in a polymer nanocomposite using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Recently, several studies on mineralizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with an aid of nitrogen doping to CNTs have been reported. However, there is a lack of studies on the reinforcing effects of the mineralized CNTs when it is employed as a filler of nanocomposites. Silica ($SiO_2$) is used as a mineral material and poly (methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) is used as a polymer matrix. Pull-out simulations are conducted to obtain the interfacial energy and the interfacial shear stress. It was found that the silica mineralized CNTs have higher interfacial interaction with the polymer matrix. In the future, by examining various thermomechanical properties of the mineralized-CNT-filler/polymer nanocomposites, we will search for potential applications of the novel reinforcing filler.

Cure Characteristics, Mechanical Properties and Abrasion Resistance of Silica Filled Natural Rubber Vulcanizate

  • Lee, Hae Gil;Park, Chan Young
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.159-166
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    • 2015
  • Silica which is used for reinforcing filler in tire industry is widely known as eco-friendly material exerting $CO_2$ reduction effect through decrease of rolling resistance and improvement of wet grip. Generally silica is classified as a highly polar filler because it contains a large number of silanol (Si-OH) group on its surface. And also silica gives a lower reinforcing effect than carbon black due to its poorer rubber-filler interaction. Therefore silica is treated with silane coupling agent or activator, then following the conventional rubber blend method, vulcanized sheets were prepared using a hot press, and cure characteristics, mechanical properties and abrasion resistance of the test specimens were investigated. It was found that with an increase in the silane coupling agent content the tensile strength, 300% modulus and abrasion resistance increased while Mooney viscosity decreased and crosslink density slightly increased with an increase of activator.

Electrical properties of polyethylene composite films filled with nickel powder and short carbon fiber hybrid filler

  • Mironov, V.S.;Kim, Seong Yun;Park, Min
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.105-109
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    • 2013
  • Effects of the amount of nickel powder (Ni) in Ni-carbon fiber (CF) hybrid filler systems on the conductivity(or resistivity) and thermal coefficient of resistance (TCR) of filled high density polyethylene were studied. Increases of the resistivity and TCR with increasing Ni concentration at a given hybrid filler content were observed. Using the fiber contact model, we showed that the main role of Ni in the hybrid filler system is to decrease the interfiber contact resistance when Ni concentration is less than the threshold point. The formation of structural defects leading to reduced reinforcing effect resulted in both a reduction of strength and an increase of the coefficient of thermal expansion in the composite film; these changes are responsible for the increases of both resistivity and TCR with increasing Ni concentration in the hybrid filler system.

Infrared Studies of the Rubber-Filler System (가황(加黃)고무에 함유(含有)된 충전제(充塡劑)에 대(對)한 적외선분광분석(赤外線分光分析) 연구(硏究))

  • Su, Won-Dong;Paik, Nam-Chul
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.99-107
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    • 1978
  • The measurement of the infrared absorption spectrum of supporting reinforcing filler which is oltained from the domestic area of Korea, Japan and U.S.A., is used by the method of KBr pellet. As a result of experiment, each absorption fond of the filler had appeared differently, because of each filler is consisted of different chemical composition, different crystalline form, different method of preparation, and the different ways of use etc. According to the above phenomena, each filler seems to have a different characteristic infrared absorption band, We can find what filler is used for sample rubber.

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Nanofiller as Vulcanizing Aid for Styrene-Butadiene Elastomer

  • Sahoo, N.G.;Das, C.K.;Panda, A.B.;Pramanik, P.
    • Macromolecular Research
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.369-372
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    • 2002
  • The use of ZnO and stearic acid is very well known in sulfenamide accelerated sulfur vulcanization of diene elastomers. Zn-ion coated nano filler has been developed and tested, in styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) as sulfur vulcanizing activator cum reinforcing filler. In this study Zinc oxide has been replaced by the Zn-ion coated nano silica filler with an aim to study the dual role of this nanofiller in SBR. The presence of Zn-ion on the nano silica filler surface activates the sulfur vulcanization by involving Zn++ in to the sulfurating complex formed with thiazole from sulfenamide. The increase of Zn-ion, on the nanofiller, decrease the scorch safety of the elastomer compound but increase the tensile strength, state of cure and tear strength and attain maximum at its 10% level. The presence of stearic acid increases the rate of vulcanization. Replacement of stearic acid with mono-stearate, however, increases the vulcanization rate but decrease the ultimate state of cure. A mechanistic scheme involving dual function of this nanofiller has been suggested.

Acoustically-enhanced particle dispersion in polystyrene/alumina nanocomposites

  • Philip, Mercy A.;Natarajan, Upendra;Nagarajan, Ramamurthy
    • Advances in nano research
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.121-133
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    • 2014
  • Polymer nanocomposites are advanced nanomaterials which exhibit dramatic improvements in various mechanical, thermal and barrier properties as compared with the neat polymer. Polystyrene/ alumina nanocomposites were prepared by an ultrasound-assisted solution casting method at filler loadings ranging from 0.2 to 2% and also at different ultrasonic frequencies, viz. 58 kHz, 192/58 kHz, 430 kHz, 470 kHz and 1 MHz. The composites were subjected to mechanical property tests (tensile and impact tests) and cavitation erosion tests to study the enhancement in functional properties. Filler dispersion in the polymer matrix was observed by SEM analysis. The effect of frequency on filler dispersion in the matrix was studied by SEM analysis and functional property enhancement of the composite material. The composites prepared at dual (high/ low) frequency (192/58 kHz) were found to show better property enhancement at low filler loadings as compared with neat polymer and also with composites prepared without ultrasound, thus reinforcing the finding that ultrasound-assisted synthesis is a promising method for the synthesis of nanocomposites.