• Title, Summary, Keyword: Rehmannia glutinosa

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Selection of disease resistant lines of Rehmannia glutinosa with mutant treatment

  • Yu, Chang-Yeon;Lee, Youn-Su
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.273-276
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    • 2002
  • Rehmannia glutinosa is one of the most important medicinal crops in Korea. However, various plant pathogens including Fusarium sp. cause great damages and cause enormous economic losses. Therefore, this study was conducted to select Fusarium resistant plants by using mutagen-treated Rehmannia glutinosa. The plant material used was a native accession of Rehmannia glutinosa. As a result, among the Rehmannia glutinosa treated with various concentrations of EMS, R. glutinosa treated with 0. 03M EMS showed higher resistance against infection of F. oxysporum in pot tests, and Rehmannia glutinosa plants treated with 0.12M EMS showed higher resistance against infection of F. oxysporum in field tests.

Protective Effects of Rehmannia Glutinosa Extract and Rehmannia Glutinosa Vinegar against b-amyloid-induced Neuronal Cell Death (베타아밀로이드로 유도된 신경세포사멸에 대한 지황(地黃) 및 지황식초(地黃食醋)의 보호효과)

  • Song, Hyo-In;Kim, Kwang-Joong
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.190-198
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    • 2007
  • Alzheimer's disease, a representative neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by the presence of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles accompanied by neuronal damages. b-Amyloid peptide is considered to be responsible for the formation of senile plagues that accumulate in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. There has been compelling evidence supporting that b-amyloid-induced cytotoxicity is mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we have investigated the possible protective effect of Rehmannia glutihosaagainst b-amyloid-induced oxidative ceil death in cultured human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. SH-SY5Y cells treated with b-amyloid underwent apoptotic death as determined by morphological features and positive in situterminal end-labeling (TUNEL staining). Rehmannia glutinosawater extract, wine, and vinegar pretreatments attenuated b-amyloid-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Rehmannia glutinosa vinegar exhibited maximum protective effect by increasing the expression of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. in addition to oxidative stress, b-amyloid-treatment caused nitrosative stress via marked increase in the levels of nitric oxide, which was effectively blocked by Rehmannia glutinosa. To further explore the possible molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effect of Rehmannia glutinosa, we assessed the mRNA expression of cellular antioxidant enzymes. Treatment of Rehmannia glutinosa vinegar led to up-regulation of heme oxygemase-1 and catalase. These results suggest that Rehmannia glutinosa could modulate oxidative neuronal cell death caused by b-amyloid and may have preventive or therapeutic potential in the management of Alzheimer's disease. Particularly, Rehmannia glutinosa vinegar can augment cellular antioxidant capacity, there by exhibiting higher neuroprotective potential.

Pharmacological Action and Toxicity of Rehmannia glutinosa (숙지황(Rehmannia glutinosa)의 약리작용과 독성)

  • Park, Yeong-Chul;Lee, Gi-Yong;Baek, Lag-Min;Son, Hye-Young;Kook, Yoon-Boom;Lee, Sun-Dong
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.145-160
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    • 2011
  • Objectives : Rehmannia glutinosa has been used extensively in Korean traditional medicine. Although thorough clinical trials are lacking, Various pharmacological actions for Rehmannia glutinosa has been identified newly using animal models. In addition, it was reported that reactive intermediates, potentially causing toxic effects, was isolated from one of components in Rehmannia glutinosa. In this article, it is purposed for explanation and introduction of new studies for Rehmannia glutinosa in terms of pharmacological action and toxicology. Methods : New studies for Rehmannia glutinosa were reviewed and summarized in terms of pharmacological action and toxicity. Results and Conclusions : Rhmannia glutinosa and its components including iridoids, saccharides, as well as amino acid, showed a variety of pharmacological actions on the blood system, immune system, endocrine system, cardiovascular system and the nervous system. In addition, it was identified that aucubin, one of major components of Rhmannia glutinosa was biotransformed to reactive intermediates by ${\beta}$-glycosidase and acid-hydrolysis, resulting in forming aucubigenin- albumin adduct. Even if a lot of new pharmacological actions has been identified, it should be considered for Rhmannia glutinosa to contain the material producing reactive intermediates which may induce the side effects.

The Effects of distilled Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture on the Heart Rate Variability(HRV) (생지황 약침이 정상인의 심박변이도(HRV)에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Jin-Cheol;Kim, Lak-Hyung;Song, Beom-Yong;Yook, Tae-Han
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.83-97
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : We investigated the effects of distilled Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture on autonomic nervous system with the Heart Rate Variability(HRV) in adult man. as well as we tried to observe how distilled Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture on the balance of the autonomic nervous system. Methods : We investigated on 58 healthy volunteers consisted of 28 subjects in experiment(distilled Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture) group and 30 subjects in control(Normal Saline) group. Study form was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. 28 subjects in experiment group were injected distilled Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture at $GB_{21}$(Kyonjong) and 30 subjects in control group were injected Normal Saline at $G_{21}$(Kyonjong). except of 2 subjects(in control group) who can't be measured and 6 subjects(2 in experiment group and 4 in control group) who move or make unforceable error during measuring. Finally 26 subject in experiment group and 24 subject in control group are studied. We measured HRV by PolyG-I on 7 times : before and after injection per 5 minutes during 30 minutes. The SPSS 10.0 for windows was used to analyze the data and the paired t-test(in group) and Student t-test(between two groups) were used to verify the result. Results : 1. After distilled Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture injection, Mean HRV is significantly low only for first 5 minute, SDNN is significantly high after 5 minute, Complexity is significantly low only from 20 minute to 25 minute. HRV index is significantly high for first 5minute and from 10 minute to after 10 minute. 2. HRV index of distilled Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture Group significantly increased from 25 minute to 30 minute, and pNN50 of Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture Group significantly decreased from 20 minute to 30 minute compared with those of Normal Saline group. 3. After distilled Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture injection, Ln(TP) and Ln(VLF) are significantly high after injection. Normalized LF is significantly high from 5 minute to 20 minute and from 25 minute and 30 minute. Normalized HF is significantly low from 5minute to 20 minute and from 25 minute and 30 minute. 4. Ln(TP) and Ln(VLF) of distilled Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture Group significantly increased from 20 minute to 25 minute compared with those of Normal Saline group. Conclusions : The results suggest that Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture in healthy adult man tend to activate the autonomic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system compared to Normal Saline within normal range.

The Effects of Distilled Astragali Radix Herbal Acupuncture, Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture and Rehmannia Glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture on Vital Sign;A Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Clinical Trial (수종의 약침제제 견정혈 자입이 활력징후 변화에 미치는 영향;황기 약침, 산삼 약침, 생지황 약침을 중심으로)

  • Lee, Hei-Yong;You, Jeong-Seok;Yook, Tae-Han;Hong, Kwon-Eui
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.207-217
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    • 2007
  • Objectives: We investigated the safty of distilled Astragali Radix Herbal Acupuncture, Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture and Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture on vital sign -BP, pulse, resperation-in adult man. Methods : We investigated on 106 healthy volunteers consisted of each 30 subjects in experiment (distilled Astragali Radix Herbal Acupuncture, Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture and Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture) group and 30 subjects in control(Normal Saline) group. Study form was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. 30 subjects in each experiment group were injected distilled Astragali Radix Herbal Acupuncture, Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture, Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture at $GB_{21}$(Kyonjong) and 30 subjects in control group were injected Normal Saline at $GB_{21}$ (Kyonjong). except of 2 subjects(in control group) who can't be measured and 10 subjects(6 in experiment group and 4 in control group) who move or make unforceable error during measuring. Finally each 25. subject, subject, subject in experiment group and 24 subject in control group are studied. We measured resperation by PolyG-I and BP & pulse by electric manometer on 5 times : before injection per 5 minutes during and after injection per 10 minutes during 35 minutes. The SPSS 13.0 for windows was used to analyze the data and the Student t test(between two groups) were used to verify the result. Results : 1. After distilled Astragali Radix Herbal Acupuncture injection, Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture and Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture , systolic BP is not significantly change in all experiment time. 2. After distilled Astragali Radix Herbal Acupuncture injection, Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture and Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture , diastolic BP is not significantly change in all experiment time. 3. After distilled Astragali Radix Herbal Acupuncture injection, Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture and Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture , pulse is not significantly change in all experiment time. 4. After distilled Astragali Radix Herbal Acupuncture injection, Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture and Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture , resperation is not significantly change in all experiment time. Conclusions : The results suggest that distilled Astragali Radix Herbal Acupuncture, Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture and Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture in healthy adult man don't influence vital sign within normal range. This result is derived from that distilled Astragali Radix Herbal Acupuncture, Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture and Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture in healthy adult man are safety.

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The Effects of Rehmannia glutinosa on the Protein Expression Related to the Angiogenesis, Cell Survival and Inflammation (생지황(生地黃)이 혈관신생, 세포생존 및 염증관련 단백질발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sung-Beom;Kim, Kyung-Jun
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.22-33
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    • 2006
  • Objective : Angiogenesis induced by hypoxia and inflammation are an essential process of solid tumors and psoriasis. We researched the HIF-1 ${\alpha}$ (hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha), VEGF(Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor), survival related PI3K-Akt, and inflammation related COX-2 protein expressions to get the information of the mechanism and effects of Rehmannia glutinosa in HepG2 and HaCaT cell lines. Method : To investigate the roles of the Rehmannia glutinosa extract, we performed MTS assay and western blots using HaCaT cells and HepG2 cells. HaCaT cells and HepG2 cells were treated with $50{\mu}g/ml$ and $100{\mu}g/ml$ Rehmannia glutinosa extracts. After 4hrs, HaCaT cells were treated with IGF-II protein for 24hrs and HepG2 cells were treated with $CoCl_2$. Results : 1. We could ohserve that the reduction of the protein level of HIT-1 ${\alpha}$ induced by IGF-II in HaCaT cells. 2. We Could ohserve that the decreased PI3K-Akt and COX-2 expression level by Rehmannia glutinosa extracts treated in HaCaT cells independently ith ERK1/2. 3. We could observe that the reduction of the protein level of HIF-1 ${\alpha}$ induced by $CoCl_2$ in HepG2 cells. Conclusion : These results suggest that Rehmannia glutinosa extracts contributes to the anti-survival pathway and anti-inflammatory activities. Also, we could assume that Rehmannia glutinosa act as anti-inflanmmatory or anti-hypoxia agents via reduction of COX-2 and HIF-1 ${\alpha}$.

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Proximate, Mineral and Sugar Composition of Rehmannia glutinosa by Cultivars (품종별 지황의 일반성분, 무기질 및 당 조성)

  • Oh, Hye-Lim;Kim, Na-Yeon;Lee, Kun-Jong;Yang, Kee-Heun;Doh, Eun-Soo;Song, Mi-Ran;Park, Jong-Yoon;Kim, Mee-Ree
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.365-370
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    • 2012
  • Proximate composition, reducing sugar, and mineral content of several cultivars of Rehmannia glutinosa were analyzed. the moisture and soluble solid content of fresh Rehmannia glutinosa ('Korea', 'Kokang', 'Sewon 10', 'Sewon 11' and 'Jihwang 1') were 74.6~78.4% and $19.6{\sim}22.4^{\circ}Brix$, respectively. Proximate composition of dried Rehmannia glutinosa ranged from 82.91~86.94% carbohydrate, 3.38~5.70% crude protein, 2.5~3.0% crude ash and 3.47~3.80% fiber. Sugar composition by HPLC/ELSD showed that sucrose (4.49~7.75 g/100 g), raffinose (2.96~4.78 g/100 g) and stachyose (42.36~45.87 g/100 g) were present, whereas monosaccharides were not detected in 5 cultivars of dried Rehmannia glutinosa. Mineral compositions of dried Rehmannia glutinosa by ICP-AES were Ca (639.9~782.0 ppm), Fe (128.5~634.9 ppm), Na (119~150 ppm), K (6,639.1~10,448.0 ppm), Mg (372.2~981.8 ppm) and Zn (8.8~474.2 ppm). However, Co and Mo were not detected. Among 5 cultivars of Rehmannia glutinosa, 'Kokang' and 'Sewon 10' contain higher amounts of Fe, Ca, K, Mg, Cu and Zn than the other cultivars.

Antioxidant Activities of Rehmannia glutinosa by Traditional Methods (생지황을 이용하여 전통방법으로 제조한 숙지황의 항산화 활성)

  • Kim, Hyo-Jin;Lee, Ji-Yeon;You, Bo-Ram;Doh, Eun-Soo;Kim, Mee-Ree
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.341-346
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate antioxidant activities of Rehmannia glutinosa (Raw Jihwang) by traditional method. The total phenol content of Rehmannia radix Preparata (the final cycle of Jihwang) was increased to 205%, compared with Rehmannia glutinosa. Antioxidant activities, determined by ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis(3 ethybenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, increased remarkably as the number of steaming-drying cycles increased. Especially, FRAP value increased 285%. Also, $IC_{50}$ values for DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of the final 9th-cycling product, decreased 48.4% and 76%, respectively, compared with those of Rehmannia glutinosa. Our result was suggested that antioxidant activities of Rehmannia radix Preparata improve according to the increasing number of steaming-drying cycles.

Effect of Rehmannia glutinosa on Phosphorylation of ERK and CREB in Acute Cocaine-treated Rats (건지황의 급성코카인 투여에 의한 ERK, CREB 인산화에 미치는 효과)

  • Kwon, Ki-Won;Jang, Eun-Young;Im, Chae-Kwang;Yang, Chae-Ha;Kim, Kwang-Joong
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.281-286
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    • 2012
  • The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Rehmannia glutinosa on phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase(ERK) and cAMP response element-binding protein(CREB) in the acute cocaine-treated rats. Rats orally received vehicle or extract of Rehmannia glutinosa 1 h prior to saline (1 ml/kg, i.p.) or cocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment. Rats were sacrificed 15 min after a single intraperitoneal injection of saline or cocaine. Rehmannia glutinosa at dose of 50 mg/kg significantly decreased phosphorylation of ERK, CREB and Elk-1 in the nucleus accumbens and striatum of the cocaine-treated rat brain by immunocytochemistry. These results suggest that Rehmannia glutinosa may contribute to the effects of cocaine on gene expression and on behaviors.

Antioxidant Activities and Quality Characteristics of Rehmannia glutinosa JungKwa during Preparation (지황정과 제조 과정 중 졸임 횟수에 따른 품질 특성 및 항산화성)

  • Kim, Hyun Jeong;Min, Sae Rom;Kim, Mee Ree
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.62-69
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    • 2014
  • Jungkwa is a traditional Korean dessert preserved in honey or sucrose. This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant activities and quality characteristics of Rehmannia glutinosa Jungkwa (RJ). RJ was prepared after six repeated cycles of boiling-cooling. After blanching fresh Rehmannia glutinosa (600 g) for 5 min at $100^{\circ}C$, Rehmannia glutinosa was boiled in sucrose syrup (sucrose 720 g in water 600 g) for 60 min and then cooled for 24 hr. Moisture, pH and color values of lightness, redness and yellowness in the Hunter color system of Jungkwa decreased as the number of boiling-cooling cycles increased, whereas acidity, $^{\circ}Brix$ and reducing sugar contents of syrup increased. Total phenol content increased in by the 6th boiling-cooling cycle. Antioxidant activities, including DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, increased in RJ by the 6th boiling-cooling cycle. Based on these results, the antioxidant activities of Rehmannia radix Jungkwa was improved according to an increasing number of boiling-cooling cycles due to increased total phenol contents.