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Histological Characteristics of Normal and Inferior Parts in Korean Red Ginseng (정상홍삼과 불량홍삼의 조직학적 특성)

  • 이종원;김천석;채순용;양재원;도재호
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.82-88
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to investigate a point of difference between normal and inferior Korean red ginseng (Naeback red ginseng = red ginseng with white part of clear boundary in phloem and/or xylem of ginseng body, saengnaeback red ginseng red ginseng with white part of indistinct boundary). White part with clear or indistinct boundary in center of ginseng body was observed in inferior red ginseng (naeback and saengnaeback red ginseng), and the differences in the internal color intensity was also found with naked eye. In hunter color values of normal and inferior parts of red ginseng in accordance with particle size, L value was increased with a diminishment in particle size, while a and b value were decreased. Absorbance at visible spectrum did not differ from water and 70% ethanol extract from normal and inferior parts of red ginseng, but absorbance in UV spectrum of extract from naeback part showed higher than those of normal and saengnaeback part. In comparison of intrastructure by electron microscope, the horizontal and vertical section of cortex and pith layer from normal part showed the very dense state, but small holes were found in naeback part of red ginseng by naked eye and electron microscope. The specific surface area of normal, naeback and saengnaeback part appeared 3.02, 3.33 and 6.55 ㎡/g, respectively. From above results, we consider saengnaeback red ginseng is red ginseng in the intermediate process which normal red ginseng changes to naeback red ginseng.

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Studies on Ginseng Vinegar (인삼식초에 관한연구)

  • 김승겸
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.447-454
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    • 1999
  • Ginseng-vinegars were produced by the fermentation of 5% ethanol solution contained ginseng, red ginseng, ginseng marc and red ginseng marc using Acetobacter aceti 3281 for 26 days at 35$^{\circ}C$. The ginseng and red ginseng vinegar contained 0.236mg/ml of total sugar 0.236mg/ml of reducing sugar and 0.05% of ethanol and 1.005 of specific gravity 8,58CFU of viable cell count 3,24 of pH and 5.11% of acidity. Whereas the vinegars produced using the water-extracted red ginseng marc and the ethanol-extracted red ginseng marc were consisted of total sugar was 1.27mg/ml and 1.60mg/ml reducing sugar was 0.077mg/ml and 0.725mg/ml specific gravity was 1.001 and 1.004 the number of viable cells was 8.51CFU/ml and 8.1CFU/ml pH was 2.81 and 2.89 acidity was 5.18% and 5.32% respectvely ethanol concentration was 0.05% in both cases. In five-grade scoring test of sensory evaluation, it was estimated favorable that each vinegar made by were-extracted red ginseng marc, ethanol-extracted red ginseng marc ginseng and red ginseng ginseng from 0.5 to 32% of water-and ethanol-extract red ginseng was extracted with 10% white vinegar for 30 days. The best sensory vinegars were obtained that ginseng of 0.4~1.6% above red glnsend of 0.8% water-extracted red ginseng marc of 0.8~1.6% and ethanol-extracted red ginseng marc of 0.4~1.6% added in 10% white vinegar respectively.

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Preparation of Red Ginseng Extract Rich in Acidic Polysaccharide from Red Tail Ginseng Marc Produced After Extraction with 70% Ethyl Alcohol (홍미삼 알콜 추출박을 이용한 산성다당체 다량 함유 홍삼 엑기스 제조)

  • 도재호;이종원
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.60-64
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    • 1996
  • In this study, we investigated the appropriate conditions to extract acidic polysaccharide and to prepare red ginseng extract being rich in acidic polysaccharide from red tail ginseng marc produced after manufacturing alcoholic extract from red tail ginseng. Amount of acidic polysaccharide in red tail ginseng marc was about 11%. The best condition for the extraction of acidic polysaccharide from the marc was using of 3~5 mg of $\alpha$-amylase/g residue/15 ml of distilled water, and the amount of acidic polysaccharide in water extract of the residue treated with $\alpha$-amylase was about 27%. So, it is possible to manufacture red ginseng extract being rich in acidic polysaccharide using water extract of red tail ginseng alcoholic residue as extraction solvent. From the above results, we suggest that red tail ginseng residue produced by manufacturing alcoholic extract of red tail ginseng has high potencies in the utilization of waste material.

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Characterization of Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer): History, preparation method, and chemical composition

  • Lee, Sang Myung;Bae, Bong-Seok;Park, Hee-Weon;Ahn, Nam-Geun;Cho, Byung-Gu;Cho, Yong-Lae;Kwak, Yi-Seong
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.384-391
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    • 2015
  • It has been reported that Korean Red Ginseng has been manufactured for 1,123 y as described in the GoRyeoDoGyeong record. The Korean Red Ginseng manufactured by the traditional preparation method has its own chemical component characteristics. The ginsenoside content of the red ginseng is shown as Rg1: 3.3 mg/g, Re: 2.0 mg/g, Rb1: 5.8 mg/g, Rc:1.7 mg/g, Rb2: 2.3 mg/g, and Rd: 0.4 mg/g, respectively. It is known that Korean ginseng generally consists of the main root and the lateral or fine roots at a ratio of about 75:25. Therefore, the red ginseng extract is prepared by using this same ratio of the main root and lateral or fine roots and processed by the historical traditional medicine prescription. The red ginseng extract is prepared through a water extraction ($90^{\circ}C$ for 14-16 h) and concentration process (until its final concentration is 70-73 Brix at $50-60^{\circ}C$). The ginsenoside contents of the red ginseng extract are shown as Rg1: 1.3 mg/g, Re: 1.3 mg/g, Rb1: 6.4 mg/g, Rc:2.5 mg/g, Rb2: 2.3 mg/g, and Rd: 0.9 mg/g, respectively. Arginine-fructose-glucose (AFG) is a specific amino-sugar that can be produced by chemical reaction of the process when the fresh ginseng is converted to red ginseng. The content of AFG is 1.0-1.5% in red ginseng. Acidic polysaccharide, which has been known as an immune activator, is at levels of 4.5-7.5% in red ginseng. Therefore, we recommended that the chemical profiles of Korean Red Ginseng made through the defined traditional method should be well preserved and it has had its own chemical characteristics since its traditional development.

Sensory and Mechanical Characteristics of the Lemon Red Ginseng-pyun prepared by different ratio of red ginseng (레몬홍삼과편의 홍삼 배합비에 따른 관능적.텍스쳐 특성)

  • Kim Eun-Mi
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.105-110
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    • 2006
  • This study was performed to determine the sensory evaluation and mechanical characteristics of lemon red ginseng-pyun. Lemon red ginseng-pyun was made with lemon juice(21.4%), sweet potato starch(6.7%), water(53.3%), sugar(13.3%), honey(5.3%) and various concentrations of red ginseng powder(0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10%). The quality characteristics of the sample were estimated in terms of pH, color difference, texture profile analysis and sensory evaluation. The pH of lemon red ginseng-pyun showed no significant difference among the different ratios of red ginseng. With increasing red ginseng powder addition, the lightness was significantly(p<0.05) lower, and a value and b values were significantly(p<0.05) higher. In sensory evaluation, with increasing red ginseng powder addition, the color and bitter taste of lemon red ginseng-pyun were stronger, while clarity of the 10% added red ginseng was significantly(p<0.05) lower than that of the 0% added red ginseng. Elasticity, hardness, chewiness, softness. sweet taste and overall acceptability were not significantly different in any group. In texture profile analysis, chewiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and hardness were significantly(p<0.05) increased in the 10% added red ginseng but springiness was not significantly different in any group. Overall acceptability was related to texture, appearance, overall taste and sweet taste of lemon red ginseng-pyun. Therefore, development of lemon red ginseng-pyun with no sugar or artificial sweeteners is encouraged as a healthy diet for diabetes and hypertension patients, because red ginseng is defined as a functional foods.

Biochemical and Histological Charaeteristics of Inferior Red Ginseng (불량홍삼(내백삼)의 생화학적 및 조직학적 특성)

  • Do, Jae-Ho;Kim, Sang-Dal;Seong, Hyeon-Sun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.256-263
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    • 1985
  • In order to investigate the inferior factor of red ginseng quality, the contents of various chemical components, physico-chemical properties and arrangement state of ginseng cells were observed. Contents of total reducing sugar, reducing sugar, crude protein, crude fibre and specific gravity of inside white part of red ginseng were less than those of normal part. But differences in content of crude saponin, HPLC pattern of ginsenosides and reducing ability for DP P H(1,1-dipheny 1-2-picrylhydrazyl) between normal and inside white part of red ginseng were not found. The optical density of 1 water extract of normal part of red ginseng did not differ from that of inside white 1 part of red ginseng, but the visible and UV absorbance of acid hydrolyzate of normal red ginseng showed higher than those of inside white part of red ginseng. The differences in the internal color and tissue of normal and inside white part of red ginseng were easily found with naked eye, and by the microscopic fractography, the orangement state of ginseng cell in the inside white part of red ginseng was less dense than that in normal red ginseng.

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Ginsenoside Changes in Red Ginseng Manufactured by Acid Impregnation Treatment

  • Kim, Mi-Hyun;Hong, Hee-Do;Kim, Young-Chan;Rhee, Young-Kyoung;Kim, Kyung-Tack;Rho, Jeong-Hae
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.93-97
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    • 2010
  • To enhance the functionalities of ginseng, an acid impregnation pre-treatment was applied during red ginseng processing. Acetic, ascorbic, citric, malic, lactic, and oxalic acid were used for the acid impregnation treatment, and total and crude saponin concentrations and ginsenoside patterns were evaluated. Total and crude saponin contents of red ginseng pre-treated by acetic, ascorbic, and citric acid were similar to those of red ginseng without pre-treatment, whereas lactic, malic, and oxalic acid pre-treatment caused a reduction of total and crude saponin in red ginseng. From the high performance liquid chromatography analysis of ginsenosides, increased $Rg_3$ density was shown in red ginseng pre-treated by acetic, ascorbic, and citric acid impregnation. In the case of lactic, malic, and oxalic acid pre-treatment, increased $Rg_1$ density was observed in red ginseng. Increased $Rg_1$ and $Rg_3$ contents due to acid impregnation during red ginseng processing may contribute to improving bioactive functionalities of red ginseng.

An Isolation of Crude Saponin from Red-Ginseng Efflux by Diaion HP-20 Resin Adsorption Method (홍삼유출액으로부터 Diaion HP-20 수지 흡착법에 의한 조사포닌의 분리)

  • 곽이성;경종수;김시관;위재준
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to isolate saponin compounds from red-ginseng efflux, which was produced during the industrial processing of red-ginseng from fresh ginseng. We isolated crude saponin from the efflux extract (moisture content 35.0%) by using Diaion HP-20 adsorption method. Non-saponin fraction, which was adsorbed on Diaion HP-20 resin, was removed by eluating with $H_{2}O$ and 25% spirit. Then crude saponin was eluated with 95% spirit, continuously. Saponin in the eluated fractions was confirmed by TLC analysis. Crude saponin isolated from red ginseng efflux extract contained 12.10% of saponin. whereas those of white ginseng and red-ginseng were 3.30 and 3.39%, respectively. Ginsenoside contents showed the highest contents kin crude saponin from red ginseng efflux extract. Expacilly, the ginsenoside-$Rb_{1}$ and Re showed the highest contents in red-ginseng efflux extract when compared with those of white ginseng and red ginseng crude saponins. And the other ginsenosides except ginsenoside-$Rb_{1}$ and -Re also showed the highest contents in red ginseng efflux extract. However, the ratio of PD saponin (Panaxadiol saponin: $Rb_{1}+Rb_{2}$+Rc+Rd) to PT saponin (panaxatriol: $Re+Rg_{1}$) showed almost the same level when compared with those of ginseng saponin fractions. Ratio of PD/PT from red ginseng efflux extract was 1.99. Ratios of PD/PT from white ginseng and red ginseng were 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Saponin purity, which was calculated by ratio percent of total ginsenoside to curde saponin content, was 45.90%. In case of white ginseng and red ginseng, the purities were 35.50 and 36.00%, respectively. However, by PHLC analysis, we confirmed that crude saponin isolated from red ginsengs. It suggested that crude saponin isolated from red ginseng ellux also would be useful component as ginseng saponins.

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Red ginseng monograph

  • So, Seung-Ho;Lee, Jong Won;Kim, Young-Sook;Hyun, Sun Hee;Han, Chang-Kyun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.549-561
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    • 2018
  • Ginseng has been traditionally used for several millennia in Asian countries, including Korea, China, and Japan, not only as a nourishing and tonifying agent but also as a therapeutic agent for a variety of diseases. In recent years, the various effects of red ginseng including immunity improvement, fatigue relief, memory improvement, blood circulation improvement, antioxidation, mitigation of menopausal women's symptoms, and anticancer an effect have been reported in clinical as well as basic research. Around the world, there is a trend of the rising consumption of health functional foods on the level of disease prevention along with increased interest in maintaining health because of population aging and the awareness of lifestyle diseases and chronic diseases. Red ginseng occupies an important position as a health functional food. But till now, international ginseng monographs including those of the World Health Organization have been based on data on white ginseng and have mentioned red ginseng only partly. Therefore, the red ginseng monograph is needed for component of red ginseng, functionality certified as a health functional food in the Korea Food and Drug Administration, major efficacy, action mechanism, and safety. The present red ginseng monograph will contribute to providing accurate information on red ginseng to agencies, businesses, and consumers both in South Korea and abroad.

An Experimental Study on the Effect of Immunopotential and the Anticancer Effect of Red Ginseng Extract (한국 홍삼의 면역활성 및 항암효과에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • 장성강;김주헌
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.151-159
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    • 1994
  • To evaluate the anticarcinogenic effect and its mechanism of red ginseng, the mice were treated with red ginseng and received subcutaneous Bl6 melanoma cell line injection on the back. Tumor incidence was same (100%) both in water and red ginseng-treated groups, but tumor production was delayed in red ginseng-treated group. Survival time was somewhat longer in red ginseng-treated group. The histopathological findings were similar in both groups, but lymphocytic infiltration around the tumor and melanin production in the tumor cells were prominent in the red ginseng-treated group. Flow cytometric analysis on T lymphocytes and natural killer cells revealed increased $T_H$/$T_S$ ratio and increased NK cells in red ginseng-treated group. These results suggest that the anticarcinogenic effect of red ginseng may be exerted by the increased cell-mediated immunity and natural killer cell activity.

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