• Title/Summary/Keyword: Recyclable

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Synthesis of quinazolinones and benzazoles utilizing recyclable sulfated metal-organic framework-808 catalyst in glycerol as green solvent

  • Vo, Yen H.;Le, Thanh V.;Nguyen, Hieu D.;To, Tuong A.;Ha, Hiep Q.;Nguyen, Anh T.;Phan, Anh N.Q.;Phan, Nam T.S.
    • Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
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    • v.64
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    • pp.107-115
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    • 2018
  • Zirconium-based metal-organic framework MOF-808 was synthesized, and sulfated with aqueous sulfuric acid. Sulfated MOF-808 was utilized as a recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of quinazolinones from ${\beta}-ketoesters$ and benzamides, and for the synthesis of benzimidazoles from ${\beta}-ketoesters$ and o-phenylenediamines in glycerol as a green solvent. The sulfated MOF-808 catalyst was more active than many heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts. The combination of the sulfated MOF-808 and glycerol was also effective for the reaction of o-aminothiophenols with ${\beta}-diketones$ or cyclic ${\beta}-diketones$ to produce benzothiazoles. To our best knowledge, MOF-based catalysts were not previously utilized as heterogeneous catalyst in glycerol as green solvent.

A behavioral approach to increase recycling behavior: An examinination of effect of environmental alteration and prompts (환경문제에서의 재활용 행동 증진을 위한 행동분석적 실험 연구 - 환경적 변화와 프롬트의 효과를 중심으로-)

  • 오세진;양병화;현보성;황혜연
    • Hwankyungkyoyuk
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.19-31
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    • 2001
  • This study examined the effect of environmental alteration and prompts on recycling behavior. An A-B-BC with a control condition design was employed. Subjects in this study were college students, professors, and employees at a university building. After a baseline phase, environmental alteration was I effect in the next phase and both environmental alteration and prompts were in effect in the final phase for the control condition. The environmental alteration consisted of providing four separation containers for the paper cups, cans recyclable paper, and the disposable on each floor in the building. The prompts consisted of providing the information about the importance of environmental preservation and how to separate the materials in the appropriate containers using an information board and pamphlets. The dependent variables were (1) the number of cans collected in can container, (2) the number of paper cups collected in cup container, (3) the rate of correct separation of cans, (4) the rate of correct separation of paper cups, and (5) the weight of disposable. The rates of correct separations of cans and paper cups were obtained by calculating the percentage of thenumber of recyclable cans and paper cups in the corresponding containers. The results indicated that environmental alteration had positive effects on all the dependent variables. Also, when the prompts were added to the environmental alteration, the incremental effect of the prompts was demonstrated. The implications and limitations of theses findings were discussed and the direction of future studies was also proposed.

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Effect of temperature and blank holder force on non-isothermal stamp forming of a self-reinforced composite

  • Kalyanasundaram, Shankar;Venkatesan, Sudharshan
    • Advances in aircraft and spacecraft science
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.29-43
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    • 2016
  • Composite materials are rapidly gaining popularity as an alternative to metals for structural and load bearing applications in the aerospace, automotive, alternate energy and consumer industries. With the advent of thermoplastic composites and advances in recycling technologies, fully recyclable composites are gaining ground over traditional thermoset composites. Stamp forming as an alternative processing technique for sheet products has proven to be effective in allowing the fast manufacturing rates required for mass production of components. This study investigates the feasibility of using the stamp forming technique for the processing of thermoplastic, recyclable composite materials. The material system used in this study is a self-reinforced polypropylene composite material (Curv$^{(R)}$). The investigation includes a detailed experimental study based on strain measurements using a non-contact optical measurement system in conjunction with stamping equipment to record and measure the formability of the thermoplastic composites in real time. A Design of Experiments (DOE) methodology was adopted to elucidate the effect of process parameters that included blank holder force, pre heat temperature and feed rate on stamp forming. DOE analyses indicate that feed rate had negligible influence on the strain evolution during stamp forming and blank holder force and preheat temperature had significant effect on strain evolution during forming.

A Study on the Origination of Backcountry Litter in Moaksan Provincial Park (모악산도립공원의 산쓰레기 발생특성)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Huh, Joon
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.64-72
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    • 2007
  • This study investigated the types, forms, and origination of litter found along one hiking course in Moaksan Provincial Park, 'Jungin-ri Course'(entrance-ridge-valley-peak). In addition, a survey was conducted to understand hikers' litter control awareness in order to determine possible backcountry litter control measures. The following are the results of this study: 1. For the litter Sequency investigation, 199 recyclable pieces of litter were found on the mid-slope(61.6%), 89 by the entrance(27.6%), 19 in the valley(5.9%) and 16 on the peak(4.9%). A total of 323 pieces of litter were found. Paper materials were the most common, followed by plastic containers such as PET bottles and yogurt containers. Of particular interest, 288 papers and cans were found on the mid-slope(46.9%). By the entrance, more plastics and bottles were found. 2. There were 614 pieces of flammable litter collected and only 19 pieces of non-flammable. Most of the flammable litter, including snack pacts, plastic bags, processed lumber, cigarette butts, tissues, cigarette boxes, and fabric was found on the mid-slope. 3. Very little food waste was found throughout the whole site proving that the policy prohibiting hikers from cooking and eating at the designated sites has been effective. However, food waste is difficult to find because it naturally decays with time. 4. $X^2$-test was used to find different types of litter and their verified origination frequency. It was found that recyclable litter, and food waste took about 1%. In addition, recyclable litter, especially bottles, was found relatively frequently by the entrance. Flammable litter was found most often at the peak. 5. The questionnaire results showed that 48.2% of the respondents "shorten their hiking journey and purchase food outside the entrance" and 29.6% said that they "bring a packed meal from home". Only 8.2% said that they "cook something when an appropriate location is found". At the Jungin-ri course, a few hikers brought their own food to eat or cook, but most hikers purchased something to eat onsite. 6. The results of the question about having experience littering while hiking showed that 19.3% litter and 79.2% do not. Those that responded "yes" gave various reasons for littering. 63.6% claimed, "there are no designated trash containers". 15.9% said they litter subconsciously. Finally, 3.2% insist that they litter "because food naturally decomposes". 7. As a result of the overall satisfaction according to the Likert scale and the analysis with an average of 14 variables, it was found that the average "toxic litter control convenience" was 2.41 with very low satisfaction. Thus, the results indicate the importance of providing appropriate back country litter control facilities.

Montmorillonite K-10 Clay as an Efficient Reusable Heterogeneous Catalyst for the Solvent-Free Microwave Mediated Synthesis of 5-Substituted 1H-Tetrazoles

  • Marvi, Omid;Alizadeh, Abdolhamid;Zarrabi, Saeid
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.32 no.11
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    • pp.4001-4004
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    • 2011
  • Various 5-substituted 1H-tetrazole derivatives were synthesized in a simple and environmentally benign method from the reaction of aryl and benzyl nitriles with sodium azide in solvent-free media using montmorillonite K-10 clay as solid recyclable heterogeneous acidic catalyst and microwave irradiation in good yields and short reaction times.

Novel Tri- and Tetra-substituted Pyrimido[4,5-d]pyridazines: Regiospecific Synthesis Catalyzed by Silica Supported Yttrium Trinitrate

  • Karami, Bahador;Akrami, Sedigheh;Khodabakhshi, Saeed
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.34 no.12
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    • pp.3677-3680
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    • 2013
  • Novel tri- and tetra-substituted pyrimido[4,5-d]pyridazines-2(1H,3H,7H)-ones have been synthesized via the regiospecific condensation reaction of hydrazine derivatives with 5-acetyl-4-aryloyl-6-methyl-3,4-dihydropyrimidinones in the presence of $SiO_2-Y(NO_3)_3$ as a green and recyclable catalyst under solvent-free conditions. All products were obtained in high yields and short reaction time. Employing this method is in accord with green chemistry principles.

Osmylated Macroporous Cinchona Alkaloid Resins: Highly Efficient and Recyclable Catalysts for Asymmetric Dihydroxylation of Olefins

  • Park, Yil-Sung;Jo, Cheon-Hee;Choi, Han-Young;Kwon, Eun-Kyung;Song, Choong-Eui
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.25 no.11
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    • pp.1671-1675
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    • 2004
  • A simple method for simultaneous recovery and reuse of $OsO_4$ and alkaloid ligand in the asymmetric dihydroxylation of olefins has been developed by using macroporous alkaloid resins bearing residual vinyl groups.