• Title, Summary, Keyword: Recyclable

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A behavioral approach to increase recycling behavior: An examinination of effect of environmental alteration and prompts (환경문제에서의 재활용 행동 증진을 위한 행동분석적 실험 연구 - 환경적 변화와 프롬트의 효과를 중심으로-)

  • 오세진;양병화;현보성;황혜연
    • Hwankyungkyoyuk
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.19-31
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    • 2001
  • This study examined the effect of environmental alteration and prompts on recycling behavior. An A-B-BC with a control condition design was employed. Subjects in this study were college students, professors, and employees at a university building. After a baseline phase, environmental alteration was I effect in the next phase and both environmental alteration and prompts were in effect in the final phase for the control condition. The environmental alteration consisted of providing four separation containers for the paper cups, cans recyclable paper, and the disposable on each floor in the building. The prompts consisted of providing the information about the importance of environmental preservation and how to separate the materials in the appropriate containers using an information board and pamphlets. The dependent variables were (1) the number of cans collected in can container, (2) the number of paper cups collected in cup container, (3) the rate of correct separation of cans, (4) the rate of correct separation of paper cups, and (5) the weight of disposable. The rates of correct separations of cans and paper cups were obtained by calculating the percentage of thenumber of recyclable cans and paper cups in the corresponding containers. The results indicated that environmental alteration had positive effects on all the dependent variables. Also, when the prompts were added to the environmental alteration, the incremental effect of the prompts was demonstrated. The implications and limitations of theses findings were discussed and the direction of future studies was also proposed.

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One Pot Four-Component Synthesis of Novel Substituted 2-Phenyl-4(3H) Quinazolinones Using Recyclable Nanocrystalline CuMnO3 Catalyst

  • Borhade, A.V.;Tope, D.R.;Gare, G D.;Dabhade, G.B.
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.61 no.4
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    • pp.157-162
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    • 2017
  • In the present study, nanocrystalline mixed metal oxide, $CuMnO_3$ catalyst have been synthesized by mechanochemical method with green chemistry approach. The synthesized catalyst was characterized by analytical techniques including FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM and BET surface area. The synthesized catalyst shows high surface area is $121.06m^2/g$ with particle size 18 nm. The one pot four component synthesis of substituted 2-phenyl-4(3H) quinazolinone from the reaction of anthranilic acid, benzoyl chloride, hydrazine hydrate and substituted benzaldehyde in presence of $CuMnO_3$ nanocatalyst has been carried out. It affords the corresponding products with high yield (76-95%) in very short reaction time. All the obtained products were characterized with $^1HNMR$, $^{13}CNMR$, FTIR and EIMS.

Mean-Variance Analysis for Optimal Operation and Supply Chain Coordination in a Green Supply Chain

  • Yamaguchi, Shin;Goto, Hirofumi;Kusukawa, Etsuko
    • Industrial Engineering and Management Systems
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.22-43
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    • 2017
  • It is urgently-needed to construct a green supply chain (GSC) from collection of used products through recycling of them to sales of products using the recycled parts. Besides, it is necessary to consider the uncertainty in product demand as a risk in a GSC. This study proposes the optimal operations for a GSC with a retailer and a manufacturer. A retailer pays an incentive for collection of used products from customers and sells a single type of products in a market. A manufacturer produces the products ordered by the retailer, using recyclable parts with acceptable quality and compensates the collection cost of used products as to the recycled parts. This paper discusses the following risk attitudes: risk-neutral attitude, risk-averse attitude, and risk-prone attitude. Using mean-variance analysis, the optimal decisions for product order quantity, collection incentive, and lower limit of quality level, in the decentralized GSC (DGSC) and the integrated GSC (IGSC) are made. DGSC optimizes the utility function of each member. IGSC does that of the whole system. The analysis numerically investigates how (i) risk attitude and (ii) quality of recyclable parts affect the optimal operations. Supply chain coordination between GSC members to shift IGSC from DGSC is discussed.

Recyclable single-stranded DNA template for synthesis of siRNAs

  • Ali, Mussa M.;Obregon, Demian;Agrawal, Krishna C.;Mansour, Mahmoud;Abdel-Mageed, Asim B.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.43 no.11
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    • pp.732-737
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    • 2010
  • RNA interference is a post-transcriptional silencing mechanism triggered by the bioavailability and/or exogenous introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into cells. Here we describe a novel method for the synthesis of siRNA in a single vessel. The method employs in vitro transcription and a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) template and design, which incorporates upon self-annealing, two promoters, two templates, and three loop regions. Using this method of synthesis we generated efficacious siRNAs designed to silence both exogenous and endogenous genes in mammalian cells. Due to its unique design the single-stranded template is easily amenable to adaptation for attachment to surface platforms for synthesis of siRNAs. A siRNA synthesis platform was generated using a 3' end-biotinylated ssDNA template tethered to a streptavidin coated surface that generates stable siRNAs under multiple cycles of production. Together these data demonstrate a unique and robust method for scalable siRNA synthesis with potential application in RNAi-based array systems.

Peroxopolyoxotungsten-based Ionic Hybrid as a Highly Efficient Recyclable Catalyst for Epoxidation of Vegetable oil with H2O2

  • Wu, Jianghao;Jiang, Pingping;Qin, Xiaojie;Ye, Yuanyuan;Leng, Yan
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.1675-1680
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    • 2014
  • A peroxopolyoxotungsten-based ionic hybrid was synthesized by anion-change of peroxopolyoxometalate (POM) $PW_4O{_{24}}^{3-}$ with dicationic long-chain alkyl imidazolium ionic liquids. The characterization was conducted by FT-IR, TGA, $^1H$-NMR and CHN Elemental analyses. Its catalytic performance was evaluated by the epoxidation of soybean oil with $H_2O_2$ under solvent-free condition, including testing of organic cations influence, catalytic reusability and reaction conditions. The catalyst was proved to be a highly efficient recyclable catalyst for epoxidation of various vegetable oils with $H_2O_2$, showing high $H_2O_2$ utilization efficiency, high catalytic activity, convenient recovery and good reuse ability.

Practical Process Development of AMCA from Recyclable Source MFB (재사용이 가능한 MFB로부터 AMCA의 합성 공정 개발)

  • Kim, Jong Cheon;Ryu, Young;Kim, Seok Chan
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.508-511
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    • 2016
  • A facile synthesis of 4-(aminomethyl)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (AMCA) from recyclable methyl 4-formylbenzoate (MFB) was described. In particular, we investigated the best process variables such as catalyst, hydrogen pressure, reaction temperature, and reaction time for AMCA conversion from AMBA through hydrogenation reaction. The best conditions were found to be as follows: the catalyst as [5% Pd/C, 5% Pt/C, 5% Rh/C (1 : 1 : 1)] which is a composite catalyst, the pressure as 30 bar, the reaction time as 8 hours and the reaction temperature at $130^{\circ}C$. Under the condition, a 90% yield (purity 99.9%) for the mass production of AMCA was achieved.

Effect of temperature and blank holder force on non-isothermal stamp forming of a self-reinforced composite

  • Kalyanasundaram, Shankar;Venkatesan, Sudharshan
    • Advances in aircraft and spacecraft science
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.29-43
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    • 2016
  • Composite materials are rapidly gaining popularity as an alternative to metals for structural and load bearing applications in the aerospace, automotive, alternate energy and consumer industries. With the advent of thermoplastic composites and advances in recycling technologies, fully recyclable composites are gaining ground over traditional thermoset composites. Stamp forming as an alternative processing technique for sheet products has proven to be effective in allowing the fast manufacturing rates required for mass production of components. This study investigates the feasibility of using the stamp forming technique for the processing of thermoplastic, recyclable composite materials. The material system used in this study is a self-reinforced polypropylene composite material (Curv$^{(R)}$). The investigation includes a detailed experimental study based on strain measurements using a non-contact optical measurement system in conjunction with stamping equipment to record and measure the formability of the thermoplastic composites in real time. A Design of Experiments (DOE) methodology was adopted to elucidate the effect of process parameters that included blank holder force, pre heat temperature and feed rate on stamp forming. DOE analyses indicate that feed rate had negligible influence on the strain evolution during stamp forming and blank holder force and preheat temperature had significant effect on strain evolution during forming.