• Title, Summary, Keyword: Recyclable

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Development and Commercialization of Artificial Reefs from Waste Mulch Plastic Films (농업용(農業用) 멀칭 폐(廢)비닐로부터 인공어초(人工魚礁) 개발(開發) 및 상용화(商用化))

  • Kim, Hea-Tae;Shon, Sang-Jin;Kim, Myoung-Ho;Choi, Mi-Ran;Baek, Wook-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.19-24
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    • 2007
  • Reefs are the marine structure that can give resting, inhabiting, feeding and nursing spaces for a variety of fishes. Usually artificial reefs are made of cement and steels respectively in Japan as well as in Korea. However since resources deficiency has been getting serious, other materials are taken into consideration for the basic bodies of artificial reefs. About 300 thousand tons of waste agricultural plastic films are generated every yew in Korea, but no effective recycling techniques have been developed. In this sense, artificial reefs made of waste agricultural plastic films are the most representative symbol of the recycled products in the Resource Recycling Era. In particular, since these reefs could be made of the semi-cleaned waste agricultural plastic films that still contain high portion of soil, it is very environmentally friendly not only in manufacturing process but also in using under water. Furthermore they have some evident advantages as follows; 1) high fish swarming effect 2) good initial attachment of the marine growths 3) extremely low corrosion to brine 4) easy adjustment of the gravity 5) economical manufacture, transportation and jettison 6) excellent safety to ecosystem caused by lower elution of toxic substances 7) good recyclable property after application and so on.

Triboelectrostatic Recovery of High Zinc-Containing Particulate contents from Steel-Making Process Dust (전기로 제강분진 중 고아연함량입자 성분의 마찰대전분리 회수)

  • Chang Hyun-Joo;Kim Dong-Su;Kim Hang-Goo;Cho Min-Yaung;Namkung Won
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 2004
  • The amount of electric furnace dust has been steadily increasing due to the increase of iron scraps which are usually recycled by electric furnace melting process. To date, this electric furnace dust has usually been treated by landfilling, however, because of shortage of landfill sites and heavy metal leaching more desirable treatment schemes are urgently needed. Among several possible schemes for the proper treatment of electric furnace dust, its recycling can be said to be most desirable. In present study, the triboelectrostatic separation of zinc and zinc-containing components from electric furnace dust was attempted based on its physicochemical properties such as particle shape, size distribution, and chemical assay. The dust was found to be mixed with spherical and non-spherical shaped particles and its major component materials were $ZnFe_2$$O_4$, ZnO, Fe, Zn, and FeO. The content of zinc-containing components in the entire dust was observed to be in the range of 15~30 wt%, which reasonably justified that zinc is recyclable. The triboelectrostatic characteristic of each component material was found to be different each other since their work functions were different, and based on this characteristic zinc and zinc-containing component could be flirty separated from the dust. After selecting a proper tribo-elec-trification material, the separation features of zinc and zinc-containing component were examined by taking the distance of electrodes, electric field strength, and scavenging as the experimental variables. The highest zinc-content obtained under the optimal separating condition was found to be up to 50wt%.

A Study on Green Library Construction Status and Awareness (녹색도서관 구축 현황 및 인식조사 연구)

  • Hong, Suji;Noh, Younghee
    • Journal of the Korean BIBLIA Society for library and Information Science
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.79-108
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to research instances of green library construction and recognition in order to increase awareness of green libraries. To this end, we investigated the green library's outline and green building, evaluated cases of G-SEED certified libraries, and surveyed the employees at the 16 different G-SEED certified libraries. Results showed that the employees' knowledge of green libraries and the green certification system was low, whereas their interest and needs regarding the green library concept were very high. Second, the respondents were able to recognize as a whole the factors of green library construction based on the evaluation items for G-SEED and place particular emphasis on 'recyclable resources & recycling bins.' However, only a few recognized 'water reclamation/reuse system establishment' as a green library factor. Third, the respondents largely agreed upon an evaluation of items on the suitability of G-SEED, and their ranked reasons for build a green library were preventing environmental pollution, energy-saving, environment, ecology, and indoor environmental factors. Fourth, a lack of 'awareness about the concept of the green library' was thought to most affect the awareness of difficulties in green library construction, and the respondents agreed with the need for 'library image enhancement' to better manage expectations of the green library.

A Study on the Optimal Management Option of the Disposal of Resources Found in Standard Plastic Garbage Bags (종량제봉투 내 폐자원에 대한 최적 처리방안 연구)

  • Park, Sang Jun;Kim, Eui Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.44-54
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    • 2014
  • A standard plastic garbage bag which was discarded from Incheon Metropolitan City was composed of 4.5% recyclable resources (aluminum cans 0.2%, steel cans 2.5%, glass 1.8%), 92.5% resources with recoverable energy (papers 23.0%, plastics 15.5%, combustible etc. 54.0%) and 3.0% non-combustible etc. Recycling is more effective than landfilling for aluminum cans, steel cans, and glass. The energy recovery process using solid refuse fuel (SRF) is more effective than incineration for papers and plastics. Incineration is more effective than recycling for combustible etc. 2,068,948 Million Btu of total energy savings and 21,008 $MTCO_2E$ of total GHG reductions were obtained by the application of the proposed scheme. The total energy savings were equivalent to an economic benefit of 422 billion won per year. The total GHG reductions were equivalent to a GHG benefit of 4,119 passenger cars not running per year. The lower calorific value of the combustible materials was obtained to be 1,936 kcal/kg of papers, 5,079 kcal/kg of plastics and 2,462 kcal/kg of combustible other resources, respectively. If papers and plastics are properly mixed, the mixture can be used as SRF. The lower calorific value of combustible other resources does not meet the quality criteria for refuse derived fuel, therefore its components are inappropriate to used as solid refuse fuel.

Economic Analysis and CO2 Emissions Analysis by Circulating the Industrial Waste Resource between Companies (국내 기업들의 폐기물자원 순환에 따른 탄소배출량 및 경제성 분석)

  • Kim, Young-Woon;Kim, Jun-Beum;Hwang, Yong-Woo;Park, Ji-Hyoung
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.111-119
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    • 2012
  • These days many companies are trying to reduce, recycle and reuse their wastes. Even though many wastes can be recycled, those are incinerated or landfilled. To solve these problems, there are many projects to make efforts to recycle wastes in especially the industrial complexes. But, due to the absence of information about waste recycling, recyclable wastes are still incinerated or landfilled. Based on these research background, this study aims to suggest the evaluation methodology of the $CO_2$ emissions and cost reduced by circulating the industrial waste to resource. We evaluated the environmental and economic effect between companies which emit the plastic waste and organic solvent waste and use them as raw-materials in the off-line recycling information exchange network. The environmental and economic aspects were analyzed comparing waste recycling with waste incineration. By recycling the plastic waste as raw-materials, $CO_2$ emission were reduced 1,070 ton in 2009 and 1,234 ton in 2010 and 657.4 million won in 2009 and 755.0 million won in 2010 were reduced. In recycling the organic solvent waste, 7.3 ton-$CO_2$ in 2010 and 5.6 ton-$CO_2$ in 2011 were reduced and 15.9 million won in 2010 and 12.2 million won in 2011 were reduced.

Preparation and characterization of high density polyethylene/silane treated pulverized-phenol resin composites (고밀도 폴리에틸렌과 실란 처리된 분쇄페놀수지 복합재의 제조 및 특성)

  • Park, Jun-Seo;Han, Chang-Gue;Nam, Byeong-Uk
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.27-33
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    • 2016
  • Phenolic resin has excellent heat resistance and good mechanical properties as a thermosetting resin. However, its thermosetting characteristics cause it to produce a non-recyclable waste in the form of sprue and runner which is discarded and represents up to 15~20% of the overall products. Forty thousand tons of phenolic resin sprue and runner are disposed of (annually). The (annual) cost of such domestic waste disposal is calculated to be 20 billion won. In this study, discarded phenol resin scraps were pulverized and treated by silanes to improve their interfacial adhesion with HDPE. The sizes of the pulverized pulverulent bodies and fine particles were (100um~1000um) and (1~100um), respectively. The pulverized phenol resin was treated with 3-(methacryloyloxy) propyltrimethoxysilane and vinyltrimethoxy silane and the changes in its characteristics were evaluated. The thermal properties were evaluated by DSC and HDT. The mechanical properties were assessed by a notched Izod impact strength tester. When the silane treated phenol resin was added, the heat distortion temperature of HDPE increased from $77^{\circ}C$ to $96^{\circ}C$ and its crystallinity and crystallization temperature also increased. Finally, its impact strength and tensile strength increased by 20% and 50%, respectively, in comparison with the non-treated phenol resin.

Study on the Waste Treatment Status and Characteristics in the Small Villages (농촌마을의 생활폐기물 처리실태 및 발생특성 연구)

  • Lee, Hyeong-Jin;Choi, Hun-Geun;Kim, Sung-Bum;Cho, Mun-Sik;Kim, Seong-Mi;Park, Soo-Jeong;Chung, Il-Rok;Oh, Gil-Jong
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.112-130
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    • 2006
  • In order to improve the waste management system for the unit of small villages, we visited 14 counties nationwide and investigated the present conditions of the farming and fishing villages on waste management. First, we selected one concentrated residential type village and one separated residential type village. Then we investigated the quantities and the characteristics of the domestic wastes generated from the 2 sample villages that we chose early on. The concentration of 7 heavy metals in open burned residuals was analyzed. The results are as follows: (1) We distributed the 799 questionnaires to public servants (83 Gun, 716 Myon) and 337 questionnaires to residents. In accordance with a result of questionnaire on the Volume-Based Waste Fee System, the rate of participated questionnaire was 70.3% from public servants and 31.8% from residents. (2) From the survey on two chosen villages, the generation of municipal waste was 48.6g/person/day in A Village, 54.3g/person/day in B Village. This amount was smaller than that of national average of 1.05kg because of excluding recyclable wastes and some of incinerated combustible waste. (3) The 14 counties entered the aged society. There were 2 aging societies, 8 aged societies and 4 super-aged societies. And the average ratios of Public financial independence and waste budget of financial independence were 16.1% and 17.9% respectively. These are lower than that of national average of 57.2% and 31.4%. This indicates that these factors seemed to be operated with the hindrance insettling Volume-Based Waste Fee System in the small villages.

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Analysis of the Characteristics of Bulking Agents Used in Livestock Manure Composting (축산분뇨 퇴비화에 이용되는 수분조절제의 특성 분석)

  • Kim, Hyeon-Tae;Lee, Min-HO;qasim, Waqas;Lee, Yong-Jin;Kim, Won-Joong;Yoon, Yong-Cheol
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 2018
  • This study analyzed the characteristics of 6 recyclable bulking agents which can replace sawdust and rice hulls that are commonly used in livestock manure composting. The content of all the hazardous chemicals found in the bulking agents used in this experiment was between 0.0 and 34.1 ppm, which was noticeably lesser than the maximum content levels of hazardous substances 5.0~900.0 ppm prescribed by the Rural Development Administration(RDA), which means that the bulking agents would be able to replace sawdusts and rice husks. The water content of the bulking agents ranged from a minimum of 12.4% to a maximum of 16.6% in the original state, which was much less than 60%, the optimal moisture content. These results indicate that they would be able to function fully as bulking agents. Their water absorption rate was in the range of minimum 31.9% ~ maximum 600.0%, which showed huge differences among the types of bulking agents. The most appropriate bulking agent in terms of water absorption rate was wood pellets. It was the highest in the wood briquette manufactured by A, which was followed by C and B in the order. The shear strength of the 5 types of bulking agents in the original state was 271.7 N on an average, the highest figure of all, except for the oak briquette whose shear strength could not be measured and the wood pellets in the absorption state. The shear strength in the dry and absorption states then followed, and were 78.0 N and 27.7 N on an average, respectively. The wood briquette of A recorded considerably lower shear strength than that of B and C. Overall, shear strength tended to increase according to lower water absorption rates. Since pine wood chips and oak cuts have relatively greater shear strength even in the absorbing state than the other materials, they will be able to endure some power in the case of stirring with pig droppings.