• Title, Summary, Keyword: Recyclable

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Mechanical characterization of an epoxy panel reinforced by date palm petiole particle

  • Bendada, A.;Boutchicha, D.;Khatir, S.;Magagnini, E.;Capozucca, R.;Wahab, M. Abdel
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.627-634
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    • 2020
  • The past years were marked by an increase in the use of wood waste in civil and mechanical constructions. Date palm waste remains also one of the most solicited renewable and recyclable natural resources in the composition of composite materials. In Algeria, a great amount of this type of plant wastes accumulates every year. In order to make use of this waste, a new wood-epoxy composite material based on date palm petiole particleboard is developed. It makes use of date palm petiole particleboard as reinforcement and epoxy resin as matrix. The size of the particles reinforcement are between 1~3 mm and proportion of reinforcement used is 37%. In this work, experimental and numerical studies are conducted in order to characterize the wood fibre-epoxy plates. Firstly, experimental modal analysis test was carried out to determine Young's modulus of the elaborated material. Then, in order to validate the results, compression test was conducted. Furthermore, additional information about the shear modulus of this material is obtained by performing an experimental modal analysis to extract the first torsional mode. Moreover, a finite element model is developed using ANSYS software to simulate the vibration behaviour of the plates. The results show a good agreement with the experimental modal analysis, which confirms the values of Young's modulus and shear modulus.

A Study on the Recycling of Detoxified Waste Asbestos (무해화 처리 폐석면의 재활용에 관한 기초연구)

  • Kim, Tae-Hyoung;Song, Tae-Hyeb;Shin, Hyen-Gyoo;Jang, Kyung-Pil
    • Journal of the Korean Recycled Construction Resources Institute
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.161-166
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    • 2020
  • In accordance with the amendment of the Industrial Safety and Health Act of 2007, Korea completely prohibited the import, distribution and manufacture of asbestos like Europe and Japan. Accordingly, the current problem of asbestos is the safe maintenance and disposal of asbestos construction material, the disposal of asbestos, and the final disposal of asbestos building materials. If the asbestos building material is made harmless, it may be classified as general waste or as recyclable waste. Therefore, this study evaluated the physical and chemical characterization of detoxified asbestos powder and the applicability of secondary products. In this study, it was found that applying the appropriate temperature and pressure for catalysis during asbestos desalination through low temperature chemical treatment was the most important factor.

Calculation and Analysis of Actual Recycling Rate and Final Disposal Rate of Industrial Waste by Material Flow Analysis (물질흐름분석을 통한 사업장폐기물의 실제적인 재활용률과 최종처분율의 산정 및 분석)

  • Oh, Gil-Jong;Cho, Yoon-A;Kim, Ji-Yeon;Kim, Ki-Heon
    • Journal of Korea Society of Waste Management
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    • v.35 no.8
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    • pp.785-798
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    • 2018
  • Since the Framework Act on Resource Circulation was enacted in 2018, the government should establish a National Resource Circulation Master Plan every 10 years, which defines mid- to long-term policy goals and directions on the efficient use of resources, prevention of waste generation and recycling of waste. In addition, we must set mid- to long-term and stepwise targets for the final disposal rate, recycling rate (based on sorted recyclable materials and recycled products), and energy recovery rate of wastes, and relevant measures should be taken to achieve these targets. However, the current industrial waste (IW) statistics have limitations in setting these targets because the final disposal rate and recycling rate are calculated as the ratio of the recycling facility input to the IW generation. In this study, the material flow from the collection stage to the final disposal of industrial waste was analyzed based on the generation of 2016, and the actual recycling amount, actual incineration amount, final disposal amount and their rates were calculated. The effect on the recycling, incineration and final disposal rates was examined by changing the treatment method of nonhazardous wastes from the factory and construction and demolition wastes, which were put in landfills in 2016. In addition, the variation of the waste treatment charge was investigated according to the change of treatment methods. The results of this study are expected to be effectively used to establish the National Resource Circulation Master Plan and industrial waste management policy in the future in South Korea.

Heterogeneous amino acid-based tungstophosphoric acids as efficient and recyclable catalysts for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol

  • Han, Xiaoxiang;Kuang, Yingying;Xiong, Chunhua;Tang, Xiujuan;Chen, Qing;Hung, Chin-Te;Liu, Li-Li;Liu, Shang-Bin
    • The Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering
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    • v.34 no.7
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    • pp.1914-1923
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    • 2017
  • A series of organic-inorganic composite catalysts, prepared by modifying tungstophosphoric acid (TPA; $H_3PW_{12}O_{40}$) with different amino acids such as phenylalanine (Phe), alanine (Ala), and glycine (Gly) were synthesized. The physicochemical and acidic properties of these $(MH)_xH_{3-x}PW_{12}O_{40}$ (M=Phe, Ala, and Gly; x=1-3) composite materials were characterized by a variety of different analytical and spectroscopic techniques, namely TGA, XRD, FT-IR, XPS, and NMR, and exploited as heterogeneous catalysts for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol (BzOH) with hydrogen peroxide ($H_2O_2$). Among them, the $[PheH]H_2PW_{12}O_{40}$ catalyst exhibited the best oxidative activity with an excellent BzOH conversion of 99.0% and a desirable benzaldehyde (BzH) selectivity of 99.6%. Further kinetic studies and model analysis by response surface methodology (RSM) revealed that the oxidation of BzOH with $H_2O_2$ follows a second-order reaction with an activation energy of $56.7kJ{\cdot}mol^{-1}$ under optimized experimental variables: $BzOH/H_2O_2$ molar ratio=1 : 1.5 mol/mol, amount of catalyst=6.1 wt%, reaction time $(x_3)=3.8h$, and amount of water $(x_4)=30.2mL$.

Ultrafine palladium nanoparticle-bonded to polyetheylenimine grafted reduced graphene oxide nanosheets: Highly active and recyclable catalyst for degradation of dyes and pigments

  • Su, Ce;Zhao, Shaodan;Zhang, Hongbo;Chang, Kaishan
    • The Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.609-618
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    • 2017
  • Much attention has been increasingly focused on the applications of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) for the catalytic degradation of various dyes and pigments in industrial wastewater. We have demonstrated that Pd $NPs/Fe_3O_4-PEI-RGO$ nanohybrids exhibit high catalytic activity and excellent durability in reductive degradation of MO, R6G, RB. Specific surface area was successfully prepared by simultaneous reduction of $Pd(OAc)_2$ chelating to PEI grafted graphene oxide nanosheets modified with $Fe_3O_4$. The as-prepared Pd $NPs/Fe_3O_4-PEI-RGO$ nanohybrids were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution TEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and UV-lambda 800 spectrophotometer, respectively. The catalytic activity of Pd $NPs/Fe_3O_4-PEI-RGO$ nanohybrids to the degradation of MO, R6G, RB with $NaBH_4$ was tracked by UV-visible spectroscopy. It was clearly demonstrated that Pd $NPs/Fe_3O_4-PEI-RGO$ nanohybrids exhibited high catalytic activity toward the degradation of dyes and pigments, which could be relevant to the high surface areas of Pd NPs and synergistic effect on transfer of electrons between reduced graphene oxide (RGO), PEI and Pd NPs. Notably, Pd $NPs/Fe_3O_4-PEI-RGO$ nanohybrids were easily separated and recycled thirteen times without obvious decrease in system. Convincingly, Pd $NPs/Fe_3O_4-PEI-RGO$ nanohybrids would be a promising catalyst for treating industrial wastewater.

Separation Characteristic and Recycling of Excavated Materials Containing Waste (폐기물혼입굴착물의 선별특성과 재활용성 평가)

  • Lee, Suyoung;Kim, Kyuyeon;Jeon, Taewan;Shin, Sunkyoung
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.5-12
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    • 2019
  • The study is carried out to survey the proper management and to propose an eco - friendly separation system through efficient screening and resource recovery of excavated materials containing waste from various excavating fields such as reconstruction of landfill sites for reuse, reclamation of unsanitary landfill and residential land development of waste dumping sites. The current status and screening process and analytical characteristics of the excavated materials containing waste were reviewed. Through the analysis of the samples such as separated combustibles, recyclable soils and residues collected from the on-site visits we were able to understand the characteristics of separated materials and excavated materials containing waste such as calorific value, elementary composition, TOC, foreign material content and LOI. It has been found that elimination of the moisture of excavations, removal of attached soil from the surfaces of the excavated combustibles and the quantitative supply method of the input devices are the main operating factors as essential factors for the optimal separation of excavated materials containing waste. For efficient management and recycling of excavated materials containing, it is necessary to set criteria of ash content in separated combustibles and criteria organic matter content in separated soils.

Estimated Soft Information based Most Probable Classification Scheme for Sorting Metal Scraps with Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (레이저유도 플라즈마 분광법을 이용한 폐금속 분류를 위한 추정 연성정보 기반의 최빈 분류 기술)

  • Kim, Eden;Jang, Hyemin;Shin, Sungho;Jeong, Sungho;Hwang, Euiseok
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.84-91
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    • 2018
  • In this study, a novel soft information based most probable classification scheme is proposed for sorting recyclable metal alloys with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Regression analysis with LIBS captured spectrums for estimating concentrations of common elements can be efficient for classifying unknown arbitrary metal alloys, even when that particular alloy is not included for training. Therefore, partial least square regression (PLSR) is employed in the proposed scheme, where spectrums of the certified reference materials (CRMs) are used for training. With the PLSR model, the concentrations of the test spectrum are estimated independently and are compared to those of CRMs for finding out the most probable class. Then, joint soft information can be obtained by assuming multi-variate normal (MVN) distribution, which enables to account the probability measure or a prior information and improves classification performance. For evaluating the proposed schemes, MVN soft information is evaluated based on PLSR of LIBS captured spectrums of 9 metal CRMs, and tested for classifying unknown metal alloys. Furthermore, the likelihood is evaluated with the radar chart to effectively visualize and search the most probable class among the candidates. By the leave-one-out cross validation tests, the proposed scheme is not only showing improved classification accuracies but also helpful for adaptive post-processing to correct the mis-classifications.

Safety and Physicochemical Quality Evaluation of Processed Meat Products Using Deep Sea Water (해양심층수를 활용하여 제조한 식육가공품의 안전성 및 이화학적 품질평가)

  • Kim, Seong-Yeon;Park, Young-Sig;Park, Kun-Taek
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.460-465
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    • 2018
  • Deep sea water is deeper than 200 m in depth and maintains cool temperatures. It is clean seawater not contaminated by E. coli and other general bacteria. Because deep sea water is a recyclable resource with high industrial value, activities for commercial use are vigorously developing. We investigated safety, quality characteristics, and mineral contents of prototype products using deep sea water as a substitute for a curing agent and compared it with existing commercially processed products. This study examined the potential of deep sea water as an alternative to curing agent solution. As a result, safety and quality characteristics of processed meat products with deep sea water were not different from commercially processed meat products, but mineral contents were higher in processed meat products with deep sea water. Deep sea water could be widely used as purity salt and purity minerals that can replace chemical substances such as chemical salts. A new, active food market using deep sea water will emerge in the near future.

A Study of School Waste Disposal Status and Its Reforms (Public Primary and Secondary Schools in Seoul) (학교 쓰레기 처리현황과 개선에 관한 연구 - 서울시 공립 초.중등학교를 대상으로 -)

  • 노성빈
    • Hwankyungkyoyuk
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.130-140
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    • 1992
  • The purpose of this study was to survey the trends of waste products in schools, its gathering and disposal, identification of problems and to analyze its disposal. Moreover, this study was aimed at basic suggestions about the establishment and plans of waste environmental education. 98 public primary and secondary schools were surveyed in Seoul during the month of March and April, 1991. Information was collected from each educational association by random sampling. Questionaries were used for this survey. To understand the disposal status of school waste and its reforms, this study surveyed the amount of waste by products, their origin and analyzed the disposal by type, one number of schools and teachers involved. The dump sited and disposal methods of school waste, its problems, and the status of school waste educations were researched, and ideal disposal methods and plans for waste education were suggested. The results were as follows. 1. The School's trash was produced by followings: paper, vinyle plastics, food, woods, metals, ceramics, glass, bottles, and ash from the heating system. The biggest cause of the school's waste as shown by the survey was a lack of environmental awareness(39.8%). The second biggest was the use of a one time use of disposable paper products(27.6%). 2. Waste collection by different grade levels were proven to be important but as you move from elementary to high school, the waste collecting operation decreased, in this connection between the students and waste collection itself it was significant on the other hand the teachers were not working as significant variables. 3. Of the school that collected waste 69.5 percent of the schools separately grouped common waste and recyclable waste. 25 schools(42.4%) received improvement on their environmental awareness of trash collection through this method. 4. From the number of disposal sites in surveyed schools, it was determined that the education of the necessity for separation of waste was performed in vain and accordingly the should require a real education in the future. 5. Regarding the method of disposal of waste the survey indicated that the #1 method of disposal was partial burning and the remains carried to a dump site by others(35,7%). In elementary schools the entire waste was taken by individuals to a dump site (33.3%). In high schools partial burning and then transported by individuals #1 in our survey(50%). 6. Relative to the problem of the treatment to waste, the emission of smoke from the burning was considered to be the #1 priority in our survey (62.3%) the problem of trash collection being delayed was 52.1%(1in our survey). 7. The present situation of environmental education of waste us lacking. Under present circumstances, the practice of public announcements for improvement and waste-paper collection has been going on vigorously but lacking in education as to the preparation of compositions for students the themes of public exhibitions, the organizing of voluntary associations should be part of the education system to reinforce student's awareness of proper waste disposal. 8. The most economical alternative for disposal was recycling usable waste or combustible material through a variety of education we can therefore educate students bring this education to their homes public servants will also be able to benefit in the waste disposal process with proper education. In conclusion we should intensify the systemical organization and the education of our waste disposal for a better environment.

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A Study on the Integrated Management System of Municipal Solid Waste from Seoul Metropolitan City (서울시 일반폐기물의 통합적 관리체계에 관한 연구)

  • 우세홍;홍상균
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.51-58
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    • 1993
  • The integrated solid waste management for Seoul Metropolitan city can be established on the basis of the following hierarchy of priorities: 1. Efforts for source reduction should be propelled by both government and citizens to achieve the effects of resource conservation. The adequate production and consumption which are environmentally amenable and sustainable can be induced by the reasonable imposition of deposit money for waste treatment to one-time use products. To accomplish source reduction effectively, the induction of legal and institutional regulation of producer and consumer participation is requisite. 2. For resource recovery, wastes generated should be recycled as far as practicable. Community residents are responsible to separate discharge, the authorities concerned have responsibility of separate collection, and recycling industry should be assissted through tax reduction and financing. Resource separation facilities can be constructed at Kimpo Metropolitan landfill site for wastes not separately collected due to some unavoidable circumstances. 3. Garbage should be composted. Garbage is uneconomical for incineration, because it has high moisture content and low calorie, thus there is no reason for the incineration of garbage even though garbage is classified into combustibles. Composting facilities can be located at sites which are not densely populated and easily accessible to transportation, for example, Kimpo Metropolitan landfill site. Compost produced can be managed by the authorities for the use of fertilizer to a green tract of suburban land and farms. 4. Nonhazardous combustible wastes not recyclable can be utilized for thermal recovery at the incinerators which are completely equipped with pollution control devices. According to the trend of local autonomy and the equity principle of local autonomous entities, incineration facilities of minimal capacity required can be constructed at each districts of Seoul Metropolitan city which have organized local assembly. In case of Yangcheon district, the economically combustible waste quantity is about 260 tons/day which exceeds 150 tons/day, the incineration capacity of existing facility. But, from now on, waste quantity can be reduced substantially by the intensive efforts of citizens for source reduction and recycling and the institutional support of administrative organizations. Especially, it is indispensable for the government to constitute institutional and technological bases that can recycle paper and plastics form 43% of waste generated. A good time for constructing of incineration facilities for municipal solid waste can be postponed to the time that pollution control technologies of domestic enterprises are fully developed to satisfy the standards of air pollution prevention, because the life expectancy of Kimpo Metropolitan landfill site is about 25 years. Within this period, institutional improvements and technological advancements can be attained, while the air qual. ity of Seoul Metropolitan city can be ameliorated to the level to afford incineration facilities. 5. For final disposal, incombustibles and ash are landfilled sanitarily at Kimpo Metropolitan landfill site.

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