• Title, Summary, Keyword: Recyclable

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Magnetic Nanoparticle Immobilized N-Propylsulfamic Acid as a Recyclable and Efficient Nanocatalyst for the Synthesis of 2H-indazolo[2,1-b]phthalazine-triones in Solvent-Free Conditions: Comparison with Sulfamic Acid

  • Rostami, Amin;Tahmasbi, Bahman;Yari, Ako
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.1521-1524
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    • 2013
  • N-Propylsulfamic acid supported onto magnetic $Fe_3O_4$ nanoparticles (MNPs-PSA) was used as an efficient and magnetically recoverable catalyst for synthesis of 2H-Indazolo[2,1-b]phthalazine-1,6,11(13H)-trione derivatives from the three-component, one-pot condensation reaction of phthalhydrazide, aromatic aldehydes and cyclic 1,3-diones, in good to excellent yields at $100^{\circ}C$ under solvent-free conditions. The catalyst was easily separated with the assistance of an external magnetic field from the reaction mixture and reused for several consecutive runs without significant loss of its catalytic efficiency. In order to compare, the synthesis of 2H-Indazolo[ 2,1-b]phthalazine-1,6,11(13H)-trione derivatives in the presence of catalytic amount of sulfamic acid (SA) under same reaction condition was also reported.

A Fast, Highly Efficient and Green Protocol for One-Pot Synthesis of 2,4,5-Trisubstituted Imidazoles Catalyzed by [TBA]2[W6O19] as a Reusable Heterogeneous Catalyst

  • Ashrafi, Mozhgan;Davoodnia, Abolghasem;Tavakoli-Hoseini, Niloofar
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.1508-1512
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    • 2013
  • A simple and efficient synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles was achieved via a one-pot three-component cyclocondensation of benzil, aromatic aldehydes, and ammonium acetate in the presence of a catalytic amount of tetrabutylammonium hexatungstate $[TBA]_2[W_6O_{19}]$ as a heterogeneous catalyst under thermal solvent-free conditions. The key features of this methodology are operational simplicity, high yields, short reaction times, and a recyclable catalyst with a very easy work up.

The Role of Geocrete and Soluble Sodium Silicate as a Substitute to Control Leachate Leaking from Landfill Side Wall (Geocrete와 규산소다액을 이용한 매립지 사면 침출수 누출제어)

  • 조재범;현재혁;나진성;김자영
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.47-51
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    • 2001
  • There are two strategies to cope with the troubles in landfill site after closure. The first method is active in a way that the wastes are dug up and the recyclable materials are reutilized, meanwhile the materials not recyclable are incinerated in order to minimize the volume of residues to be disposed of. The second method is rather passive and defensive in a way that the source of contamination, that is, buried wastes are not treated. Instead, the transport of leaking leachate and gases generated from the wastes are intercepted and controlled. In this study, as a passive way of the efficient leachate blocking process, applicabilities of geocrete and soluble sodium silicate as a substitute to control leachate leaking from landfill sidewall were investigated. In case of compression test, the strength of mixture I (Geocrete:Sodium silicate=1:3.9 v/v) and mixture II (Geocrete:Sodium silicate=1:2.5 v/v), even after 7 days' curing was higher than the minimum allowance to tolerate the loading(5 kg/$\textrm{cm}^2$). Soaking in the acid fur 4 days and 7 days respectively, the compressive strength of the specimens reduced seriously. The toxicity of geocrete is not detected through the bioassay test, once it was mixed with sodium silicate and the complex was formed. The hydraulic conductivity of the mixtures even after 7 days' curing was lower than the threshold limit $(1.0\times10_{-7}cm/s)$.

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Characterization of inorganic materials in industrial waste and RDF using SEM-EDS (SEM-EDS를 이용한 산업단지폐기물과 고형연료의 무기 성분 규명)

  • Jeong, Moon-Heon;Lee, Ju-Ho;Yoo, Jeong-Kun;Lee, Gang-Woo;Shon, Byung-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.10 no.10
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    • pp.2786-2793
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    • 2009
  • Recently, the development and spread of the new recyclable energy becomes urgent because of the depletion of fossil fuel and strengthening the environmental regulation. To recovery from the waste out of the many new recyclable energies has been proved as the most favorable when the potential value of energy source is compared. The RDF from the waste has been approved as the most economical method out of the other methods. However, the toxic gases (HCl, Dioxin etc) and heavy metals generated during the burning of the industrial wastes have been pointed out as problems. The PVC, alkali metal chloride, and alkaline earth metal chloride are major materials for emitting the chlorine and chlorine compounds have the problem such as the erosion on the heat collection device. This research has analyzed the heavy metal components containing in the industrial waste, and the concentration of Cl and S in the industrial waste generated in B industrial complex are slightly high than that of the A industrial complex. The results can be used to discuss the origin of inorganic components in industrial waste and utilized as a base data to improve the performance of the RDF as fuel.

A Study on the Development of Model on Environmental Education Program for Livestock Farmer -Focused on Hongsung-gun, Chungcheungnamdo- (축산업자 환경교육 프로그램 개발 연구 - 충청남도 홍성군을 중심으로 -)

  • Nam, Young-Sook;Yun, Sun-Deok
    • Hwankyungkyoyuk
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.93-107
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    • 2007
  • Livestock agriculture plays an essential role Hongsung's economy. Unfortunately, if manure is manage properly it can contaminate water and pollute the air. The purposes of this study were to provide awareness of environmental impact and to design educational programs with sustainable agriculture. I used the specific steps of processes. First, collecting informations through survey on environmental awareness of livestock farmers in Hongsung-gun and recognizing the tendencies. Second, analyzing on educational status of livestock farmers. Third, finding objectives of environmental educational programs. At the end of processes, establishing programs which concerning on environmental education. I used two research methods to gather and analyze the data for developing an environmental education program. The first one is a general survey among 50 livestock farmers from Hongseong-gun, Chungcheongnam-do. The second one is the in-depth interviews with specialists in environmental education and government officials from the central government - the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry - and the local government - Hongsung-gun who are in charge of livestock farming. I found the following results from this research. First, most livestock farmers replied with 'highly likely' to the five items on the recognition of the necessity of environment preservation, whereas only 38.7% answered with 'likely' to the item on the environmental pollution caused by livestock farming. This shows the tendency that they have less recognition of the reality than necessary. Second, most of the contents among 5 areas(knowledge, recognition, function, attitude, and participation) are the knowledge areas. That results are analyzed training materials for livestock farmers made by Hongsung-gun in 2004 and in 2005 by using goal categories suggested in the Tbilisi Resolution. Third, after analyzing the survey and in-depth interviews, I found that the need for education to recognize the environmental pollution, environmental protection and recycling of the livestock waste. We can summarize conclusions from this research. First, we need on educational program improve the livestock farmers' recognition of importance in environmental protection. Second, it is necessary to develop educational program with the viewpoint that livestock waste is not one of the culprits of the environmental pollution, but a recyclable resource. Third, contents of the environmental education program, should include all the educational elements, namely, knowledge, recognition, attitude, function and participation. The education for livestock farmers requires a research on the environmental education program that can be used with crop farmers who can use the resources recycled from the livestock waste from the viewpoint of recycling resources. This research is focused on the collection and analysis of the basic data for developing an environmental education program and the composition of the program. A further research on the implementation and assessment of this program is required.

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Current Status and Future Prospects for The Car Recycling System in Korea (자동차 리싸이클링의 현황과 과제)

  • 오재현
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.3-13
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    • 2001
  • The Korean Auto industry has developed remarkably over the past 30 years. In 2000 alone, Korea produced 3.11 million vehicles, and the number of vehicles registered surpassed the ten million mark. As the number of vehicles registered in Korea has increased, yew after you, a rising number of cars have been scrapped. In 2000, a total of 455,592 automobiles were scrapped, up dramatically from only 101,158 in 1989. The system for handling of ELV(End-of-Life Vehicles) in Korea is governed by the "Motor Vehicle Control Act". The Act places the responsibility for vehicle scrapping directly on the vehicle owners. h vehicle owner can only can eel a vehicle registration after he gets a certificate from an authorized vehicle dismantler showing that his vehicle was properly scrapped according to the law. The take-back rate of ELV reaches nearly 100% in Korea. The vehicle scrapping process in Korea is very similar to those in other countries. fluids such as fuels and oils are first removed, and recyclable parts are collected and separated. Engines and transmissions are dismantled and recycled for use as raw material. Plastics, which are not easily reused, are generally treated as industrial wastes. The "Motor Vehicle Control Act" prohibits reuse of certain parts in order to guarantee the safety of the used auto parts. However, some restrictions on the reuse of auto parts have recently been eased to promote recycling. In this paper, additionally, car recycling policy of the foreign countries such as Japan, Germany and EU were reviewed.

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The Performance and Evaluation for Recycling of Waste Glass

  • Chang, Tein-Chin;Huang, Jian-Er;Yen, Jia-Huei
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.80-83
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    • 2001
  • According to the EPA in Taiwan report, 9.05 million metric tons of solid wastes were generated in 1999, and the waste glass was accounted of 4.95 percent. However, with the increasing tonnage of disposal cost and existing disposal sites are reaching full capacity, recycling is currently accepted as a sustainable approach to waste management. Therefore, it's essential and urgent that the government in Taiwan establish the recycling and recovery framework for the minimization of the solid waste, reduction of materials and energy consumption, and the encouragement for the reuse, recycle and recovery development. To achieve this Boal, Taiwan has been strived for a long period of time in waste glass recovery and recycle. Waste glass, unlike other kinds of resource waste, is 100% recyclable. The EPA in Taiwan now center on a lot of different kinds of waste glass, such as glass container, flat glass, CRT glass, windshields glass, fluorescent lamps, and waste pesticide glass container. This article will focus on the framework of the recycling market access, and also try to provide some strategies to improve waste glass recycling efficiently.

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Environmentally Friendly Paper with Superior Moisture -Proof Properties(II) -Recyclable properties of moisture-proof paper- (방습 효과가 우수한 환경친화적인 방습지(2보) -방습 도공지의 재생 특성-)

  • 이명구;유재국
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.13-18
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    • 2003
  • This study was done in an effort to evaluate the possibility of recyclability of moisture-proof paper. Because it is difficult to recycle laminated moisture-proof paper, a mixture of styrene-butadiene latex(SB latex) and wax emulsion was used as moisture-proof paper chemicals. A bar coater was applied to make moisture-proof paper and the coated weight was 17 g/$m^2$. The mixing ratios of SB latex to wax emulsion were 85 : 15, 87 : 13, and 90 : 10, respectively. It was observed that the moisture-proof paper treated with SB latex and wax emulsion at the appropriate ratio could be recycled effectively. The moisture-proof paper was similar to base paper in degree of pulping, and there was no significant difference in dispersion between moisture-proof paper and base paper. Most of wax particle which caused the spots during drying process could be removed by flotation process. Tensile strength and tear strength of handsheets made of both moisture-proof paper and base paper after pulping was measured to examine the fiber bonding and no significant difference in mechanical properties was observed.

The Effect of the Recycling Industry in Public Sector (공공부문 자원재활용사업의 국민경제적 효과분석)

  • Kwak, Seung-Jun;Yoo, Seung-Hoon;Ryu, Mun-Hyun
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.465-491
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    • 2002
  • Korea is one of the countries which have a remarkable record of high and sustained economic growth. However, as the national economy has continued to grow and the industrial structure has become increasingly advanced, the amount of wastes being generated has been rapidly on the rise. recycling wastes to cope with the environmental problems caused by wastes has become an increasingly important policy issue in developing countries such as Korea, as well as in developed countries. This situation demands that researchers provide policy-makers with available and responsible information regarding the effect of the recycling industry in the public sector. This study employs input-output (I-O) analysis to examine the effect of public sector recycling industry in the national economy, using a specific application to Korea. The paper, therefore, has two major goals. The first is the development of a static I-O framework for looking into the effect of public sector recycling industry in the short run. The second goal is obtaining at least a preliminary indication of the effect of the recycling industry- in public sector. Moreover, we discuss the role of a public firm that established with an objective of promoting and facilitating the reutilization of recyclable wastes. The overall results indicate that the recycling utilities may have a significant influence on the standard of living and industrial production.

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The Improvement of Properties of Recycled aggregates using Concrete Waste by Pre-heating Method. (예비가열법에 의한 폐콘크리트 재생골재의 물성개선)

  • 최현수;김효열;최봉철;강병희
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Building Construction Conference
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    • pp.73.2-79
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study is to provide the basic data on the optimum method for interfacial separation for an effective recycle of concrete waste by using the thermal properties of concrete. Therefore, this study is proceeded by dividing the interface of concrete into cement paste and fine aggregates or mortar and coarse aggregate, considering the aspect of recycled cement and aggregate as the recycling use of concrete waste. As results of the experiment, in case of recycle cement, the interfacial separation is easily appeared, but it is shown that the mixed amount of powder included in fine aggregate doesn't greatly decrease. But, in case of recycle coarse aggregate, the effect of interfacial separation by preliminary heating is predominant. Especially, the bonding rate of mortar is the lowest when it is heated 5 times for 120 minutes at $300^{\circ}C$. Hence, it is considered that it will be an excellent effect of quality control when the results of this study is applied to a manufacturing system of recycle coarse aggregate which is about to put into practical use.

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