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Estimation of CN-based Infiltration and Baseflow for Effective Watershed Management (효과적인 유역관리를 위한 CN기법 기반의 침투량 산정 및 기저유출량 분석)

  • Kim, Heewon;Sin, Yeonju;Choi, Jungheon;Kang, Hyunwoo;Ryu, Jichul;Lim, Kyoungjae
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.405-412
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    • 2011
  • Increased Non-permeable areas which have resulted from civilization reduce the volume of groundwater infiltration that is one of the important factors causing water shortage during a dry season. Thus, seeking the efficient method to analyze the volume of groundwater in accurate should be needed to solve water shortage problems. In this study, two different watersheds were selected and precipitation, soil group, and land use were surveyed in a particular year in order to figure out the accuracy of estimated infiltration recharge ratio compared to Web-based Hydrograph Analysis Tool (WHAT). The volume of groundwater was estimated considering Antecedent soil Moisture Condition (AMC) and Curve Number (CN) using Long Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L-THIA) model. The results of this study showed that in the case of Kyoung-an watershed, the volume of both infiltration and baseflow seperated from WHAT was 46.99% in 2006 and 33.68% in 2007 each and in Do-am watershed the volume of both infiltration and baseflow was 33.48% in 2004 and 23.65% in 2005 respectively. L-THIA requires only simple data (i.e., land uses, soils, and precipitation) to simulate the accurate volume of groundwater. Therefore, with convenient way of L-THIA, researchers can manage watershed more effectively than doing it with other models. L-THIA has limitations that it neglects the contributions of snowfall to precipitation. So, to estimate more accurate assessment of the long term hydrological impacts including groundwater with L-THIA, further researches about snowfall data in winter should be considered.

Experimental Study of Runoff Induced by Infiltration Trench (침투 트렌치로 인한 유출 양상의 실험 연구)

  • Lee, Sangho;Cho, Heeho;Lee, Jungmin;Park, Jaehyun
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.107-117
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    • 2008
  • Infiltration facilities are effective instruments to mitigate flood and can increase base runoff in urban watersheds. In order to analyze effects of infiltration trenches physical model experiments were conducted. The physical model facility consists of two soil tanks, artificial rainfall generators, tensiometers, and piezometers. The experiment was conducted by nine times and each case differed in rainfall intensity, rainfall duration and the type of ground surface. Measured quantities in the experiments are as follows: surface runoff, subsurface runoff, trench pipe runoff, groundwater level, water content, etc. The following resulted from the model experiment: The volume of subsurface runoff at trench watershed was maximum 78.3% compared with rainfall. This value is bigger than that of ordinary rate of subsurface runoff, and shows a groundwater recharge effect of trench. The time of runoff passing through the trench became earlier and the volume of runoff became larger with the increase of inflow into the trench, while trench exfiltration into ground became relatively smaller. The results of this study presented above show that infiltration trenches are effective instruments to increase base runoff during dry periods.

Factors affecting the infiltration rate and removal of suspended solids in gravel-filled stormwater management structures

  • Guerra, Heidi B.;Yuan, Qingke;Kim, Youngchul
    • Membrane Water Treatment
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 2019
  • Apparent changes in the natural hydrologic cycle causing more frequent floods in urban areas and surface water quality impairment have led stormwater management solutions towards the use of green and sustainable practices that aims to replicate pre-urbanization hydrology. Among the widely documented applications are infiltration techniques that temporarily store rainfall runoff while promoting evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge through infiltration, and diffuse pollutant reduction. In this study, a laboratory-scale infiltration device was built to be able to observe and determine the factors affecting flow variations and corresponding solids removal through a series of experiments employing semi-synthetic stormwater runoff. Results reveal that runoff and solids reduction is greatly influenced by the infiltration capability of the underlying soil which is also affected by rainfall intensity and the available depth for water storage. For gravel-filled structures, a depth of at least 1 m and subsoil infiltration rates of not more than 200 mm/h are suggested for optimum volume reduction and pollutant removal. Moreover, it was found that the length of the structure is more critical than the depth for applications in low infiltration soils. These findings provide a contribution to existing guidelines and current understanding in design and applicability of infiltration systems.

LIDMOD Development for Evaluating Low Impact Development and Its Applicability to Total Maximum Daily Loads (지속가능한 도시개발을 위한 LID평가모델(LIDMOD)개발과 수질오염총량제에 대한 적용성 평가)

  • Jeon, Ji-Hong;Choi, Dong Hyuk;Kim, Tae Dong
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.58-68
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    • 2009
  • Low impact development (LID) technique is relatively new concept to reduce surface runoff and pollutant loading from land cover by attempting to match predevelopment condition with various integrated management practices (IMPs). In this study, computational model for designing and evaluating LID, named LIDMOD, was developed based on SCS-CN method and applied at Andong bus terminal to evaluate LID applicapability and design retention/detention area for volume or peak flow control. LIDMOD simulated with 21 years simulation period that yearly surface runoff by post-development without LID was significantly higher than that with LID showing about 2.8 times and LID could reduce efficiently yearly surface runoff with 75% reduction of increased runoff by conventional post development. LIDMOD designed detention area for volume/peak flow control with 20.2% of total area by hybrid design. LID can also efficiently reduce pollutant load from land cover. Pollutant loads from post-development without LID was much higher than those from pre-development with showing 37 times for BOD, 2 times for TN, and 9 times for TP. Pollutant loads from post-development with LID represented about 57% of those without LID. Increasing groundwater recharge reducing cooling and heating fee, creating green refuge at building area can be considered as additional benefits of LID. At the point of reducing runoff and pollutant load, LID might be important technique for Korean TMDL and LIDMOD can be useful tool to calculate unit load for the case of LID application.

Investigation on the Factors Affecting Urban Stormwater Management Performance of Bioretention Systems (식생체류지의 도시 강우유출수 처리효율 영향인자 조사 연구)

  • Geronimo, Franz Kevin F.;Maniquiz-Redillas, Marla C.;Hong, Jungsun;Kim, Lee-Hyung
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2017
  • Bioretention systems, an advance low impact development and green infrastructure approach were currently utilized in different parts of the world because it promotes biodiversity thereby mimicking and preserving the pre-developed state of an area. This study investigated and compared the capability of four bioretention systems to identify factors affecting the hydraulic capabilities and pollutant removal efficiencies of each system. The two bioretention type A referred as Type A-C and Type A-FC were planted with perennials such as Chrysanthemum and Fan columbine, respectively. On the other hand, the two type B bioretention systems referred as Type B-A and Type B-JM were planted with shrub plant species such as Azalea and Japanese Meadowsweet, respectively. Based on the results, TV, infiltration mechanism, filter media depth and plant species were identified as the factors affecting the difference in flow attenuation, retained volume and pollutant removal efficiency of Type A-C, Type A-FC, Type B-A and Type B-JM bioretention systems. The design of bioretention Type B-A and Type B-JM were advantageous considering greater volume retention, groundwater recharge, longer HRT and peak flow attenuation and greater pollutant removal efficiency. On the other hand, the design of bioretention Type A-C and Type A-FC was more appropriate for design considering reduced groundwater contamination.

Development of small constructed wetland for urban and roadside areas (도시 및 도로 조경공간을 활용한 소규모 인공습지 조성 기술)

  • Kang, Chang-Guk;Maniquiz, Marla C.;Son, Young-Gyu;Cho, Hye-Jin;Kim, Lee-Hyung
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.231-242
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    • 2011
  • Recently, the green spaces in the urban areas were greatly reduced due to urbanization and industrialization. As urban structures such as roads and buildings are built, the amount of impervious area within a watershed increases. High impervious surfaces are the common causes of high runoff volumes as the soil infiltration capacity decreases and the volume and rate of runoff increase thereby decreasing the groundwater recharge. These effects are causing many environmental problems, such as floods and droughts, climate change, heat island phenomenon, drying streams, etc. Most cities attempted to reduce sewer overflows by separating combined sewers, expanding treatment capacity or storage within the sewer system, or by replacing broken or decaying pipes. However, these practices can be enormously expensive than combined sewer overflows. Therefore, in order to improve these practices, alternative methods should be undertaken. A new approach termed as "Low Impact Development (LID)" technology is currently applied in developed countries around the world. The purpose of this study was to effectively manage runoff by adopting the LID techniques. Small Constructed Wetland(Horizontal Subsurface Flow, HSSF) Pilot-scale reactors were made in which monitoring and experiments were performed to investigate the efficiency of the system in removing pollutants from runoff. Based on the results of the Pilot-plant experiments, TSS, $COD_{Cr}$, TN, TP, Total Pb removal efficiency were 95, 82, 35, 91 and 57%, respectively. Most of the pollutants were reduced after passing the settling tank and the vertical filter media. The results of this study can contribute to the conservation of aquatic ecosystems and restoration of natural water cycle in the urban areas.

A Method of Estimating the Volume of Exploitable Groundwater Considering Minimum Desirable Streamflow (최소하천유출량을 고려한 지하수 개발가능량 산정방안)

  • Chung, Il-Moon;Lee, Jeongwoo
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.375-380
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    • 2013
  • The concept of safe yield places an emphasis on balancing groundwater withdrawal with groundwater recharge but ignores naturally occurring groundwater discharge. Because streams and their alluvial aquifers are closely linked in terms of water supply and water quality, to be properly understood and managed they must be considered together. Therefore, some districts in Kansas have reevaluated their safe-yield policies to account for natural groundwater discharge and stream-aquifer interactions by amending their safe-yield regulations to include a portion of baseflow as the minimum desirable streamflow (MDS). This study proposes a modified safe-yield policy in which the drought flow is chosen as the MDS. Baseflow separation was conducted from streamflow hydrograph and the results are presented as a flow-duration curve. The exploitable groundwater can be determined by subtracting MDS from the cumulative baseflow. This method was tested in the Musimcheon watershed, which was validated for streamflow using the SWAT-K model. The annually averaged exploitable groundwater in the whole watershed was estimated to be 86 mm. The exploitable groundwater amounts were also estimated for each subwatershed in the Musimcheon watershed.

Analysing the effect of impervious cover management techniques on the reduction of runoff and pollutant loads (불투수면 저감기법의 유출량 및 오염부하량 저감 효과 분석)

  • Park, Hyung Seok;Choi, Hwan Gyu;Chung, Se Woong
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.16-34
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    • 2015
  • Impervious covers(IC) are artificial structures, such as driveways, sidewalks, building's roofs, and parking lots, through which water cannot infiltrate into the soil. IC is an environmental concern because the pavement materials seal the soil surface, decreasing rainwater infiltration and natural groundwater recharge, and consequently disturb the hydrological cycle in a watershed. Increase of IC in a watershed can cause more frequent flooding, higher flood peaks, groundwater drawdown, dry river, and decline of water quality and ecosystem health. There has been an increased public interest in the institutional adoption of LID(Low Impact Development) and GI(Green Infrastructure) techniques to address the adverse impact of IC. The objectives of this study were to construct the modeling site for a samll urban watershed with the Storm Water Management Model(SWMM), and to evaluate the effect of various LID techniques on the control of rainfall runoff processes and non-point pollutant load. The model was calibrated and validated using the field data collected during two flood events on July 17 and August 11, 2009, respectively, and applied to a complex area, where is consist of apartments, school, roads, park, etc. The LID techniques applied to the impervious area were decentralized rainwater management measures such as pervious cover and green roof. The results showed that the increase of perviousness land cover through LID applications decreases the runoff volume and pollutants loading during flood events. In particular, applications of pervious pavement for parking lots and sidewalk, green roof, and their combinations reduced the total volume of runoff by 15~61 % and non-point pollutant loads by TSS 22~72 %, BOD 23~71 %, COD 22~71 %, TN 15~79 %, TP 9~64 % in the study site.