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The Impact of Changes in Market Shares among Retailing Types on the Price Index (소매업태간 시장점유율 변화가 물가에 미친 영향)

  • Moon, Youn-Hee;Choi, Sung-Ho;Choi, Ji-Ho
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.93-115
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    • 2012
  • This study empirically examines the impact of changes in market shares among retailing types on the price index. The retailing type is classified into 6 groups: department store, big mart, super market, convenient store, specialty merchant, and on-line store. The market shares of retailing types are calculated by the ratio of each retailing type monthly sales to total monthly retailing sales in which total retailing sales is the sum of each retailing type sales. We employed several price indices: consumer price index (CPI), CPI for living necessaries, and fresh food price index. In addition, this study used fundamental price indices based on 25 product families as well as 42 representative products. The empirical model also included several variables in order to control for the macroeconomic effects and those variables are the exchange rate, M1, an oil price, and the industrial production index. The data is monthly time-series data spanning over the period from January 2000 to December 2010. In order to test for the stability of data series, we conducted ADF test and PP test in which the model and length of lag were determined by the relevant previous literature and based on the AIC. The empirical results indicate that changes in market shares among retailing types have impacts on the price index. Table A shows that impacts differ as to which price index to use and which product families and products to use. For department store, it lowers the price of food and non-alcoholic beverages, home appliances, fresh food, fresh and vegetables, but it keeps the price high for fresh fruit. The big mart retailing type has a positive impact on the price of food, nut has a negative effect on clothing and foot wear, non-food, and fresh fruit. For super market, it has a positive impact on food and non-alcoholic beverages, fresh food, fresh shellfishes, but increases the price of CPI for living necessaries and non-food. The specialty merchant retailing type increases the price level of CPI for living necessaries and fresh fruit. For on-line store type, it keeps the price high for CPI for living necessaries and non-food as well as fresh fruit. For the analysis based on 25 product families shows that changes in market shares among retailing types also have different effects on the price index. Table B summarizes the different results. The 42 representative product level analysis is summerized in Table C and it indicates that changes in market shares among retailing types have different effects on the price index. The study offers the theoretical and practical implication to these findings and also suggests the direction for the further analysis.

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Relative Contribution rate on Soil Physico-chemical Properties Related to Fruit Quality of 'Hongro' Apple (사과 '홍로' 품종의 과실 품질에 미치는 토양이화학성의 상대적 기여도)

  • Kim, Seung-Heui;Park, Seo-Jun;Han, Jeom-Wha;Cho, Jung-Gun;Choi, Hyeong-Suk;Lim, Tae-Jun;Yun, Hea-Keun
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.102-107
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to investigate the optimum soil environmental conditions of ten contents on production of high quality fruit in 'Hongro' apple. The soil and fruit characteristics were analyzed at total 60 orchards in major apple producing areas such as Chungju, Moonkyeung, Yeongju, Andong, Yeosan and Yeongcheon (10 orchards an area). The soil environmental factors affected fruit weight were the highest relative contribution in saturated hydraulic conductivity of 33.3%. The cation was 24.6%, the bulk density, soil texture and solid phase were also high as relative contribution. The fruit weight was influenced by soil physical properties more than soil chemical properties. The soil environmental factors affected sugar content were highest soil texture of 21.9%, and the CEC and bulk density were low as relative contribution. The fruit coloring was the highest relative contribution in phosphate of 55.9%. While saturated hydraulic conductivity and organic matter content were low. The coloring was influenced by soil chemical properties more than soil physical properties. Fruit coloring was high influenced over 70% by soil physical properties. Finally, relative contribution on fruit quality related with sugar content, fruit weight, and coloring were high influenced by cultivation layer depth of 25.8%, soil texture 22.2%, and soil pH of 21.0% but bulk density and solid phase were low relative contribution. The fruit growth and soil chemical properties in 'Hongro' apple were very closely related. Therefore, orchard soil management to produce high quality fruit was very importance drainage management and organic matter application. We concluded that scientific soil management is possible by quanlifiable of soil management factors.

Photosynthetic Characteristics and Chlorophyll Content of Rhododendron micranthum by the Natural Habitat (자생지에 따른 꼬리진달래의 광합성 특성 및 엽록소 함량)

  • Kim, Nam-Young;Lee, Kyeong-Cheol;Han, Sang-Sub;Lee, Hee-Bong;Park, Wan-Geun
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.147-152
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to investigate the photosynthetic R. micranthum by natural habitats. In the results, natural habitats didn't affect values of light saturated point, light compensation point and photosynthetic capacity of R. micranthum. We investigated light response curve and chlorophyll content at each habitat. Light compensation points were 11.8 ${\mu}mol\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$, 11.5 ${\mu}mol\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$ and 10.4 ${\mu}mol\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$ in Seokpo-ri, Yeonha-ri, and Mt. Worak. Light saturation points showed that R. micranthum is shade tolerant specie which has the light saturation point approximately 500~600 ${\mu}mol\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$. Photosynthetic rates of R. micranthum leaves were 5.5 ${\mu}mol\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$, 5.4 ${\mu}mol\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$ and 5.6 ${\mu}mol\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$ in Seokpo-ri, Yeonha-ri and Mt. Worak. On the other hand, since between $20^{\circ}C$ and $30^{\circ}C$, it appeared that the values of net photosynthetic rates of R. micranthum leaves in all sites were high. Especially, the rates were highest at $25^{\circ}C$. Because of low stomatal transpiration rate in saturation radiance, the moisture utilization efficiency in Yeonha-ri was lower than other habitats. Rates of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll content in Mt. Worak were no significant difference. Therefore R. micranthum has characteristic of shade tolerant species. The moderate temperature for R. micranthum is between $20^{\circ}C$ and $30^{\circ}C$.

Effects of Chungkookjang Extract on Growth Hormone Secretion from GH3 Mouse Pituitary Cell and Growth Hormone Receptor Signaling Pathway (GH3 뇌하수체 세포주로부터 성장호르몬의 분비와 성장호르몬 수용체 신호전달에 미치는 청국장 추출물의 효능)

  • Choi, Sun-Il;Kim, Ji-Eun;Hwang, In-Sik;Lee, Hye-Ryun;Lee, Young-Ju;Son, Hong-Joo;Kim, Dong-Seob;Park, Kyu-Min;Hwang, Dae-Youn
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.9
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    • pp.1243-1253
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    • 2012
  • The production and secretion of growth hormone (GH) in the anterior pituitary gland can be induced by several natural products to control cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. To investigate whether Chungkookjang (CKJ) produced by the fermentation process affects GH-related metabolism, the secretion and the response of GH were observed in pituitary cells and GH target cells. Among six CKJs manufactured by different strains of glycine max, only three CKJs, including Daewon (DW), Daepung (DP), and Taegwang (TG), induced GH secretion from GH3 cells at 5.0 mg/ml concentration. There were no significant changes detected in the viability of any of the cells treated with these CKJs. In addition, the increase in GH secretion from the GH3 cells was dependent on the concentration of the three types of CKJs. The proliferation of cell lines, including MG63 and HepG2 cells, that originated from those derived from the GH target organs was significantly activated by treatment with the GH-containing conditional medium (GCM) harvested from the three CKJ-treated GH3 cells, although their induction rate was different from each other. In these cells, p-STAT5 was maximally translocated into the nucleus of MG63 cells 30 min after DW treatment, while it was translocated in HepG2 cells at 60 min. These results suggest that these three types of CKJ could enhance the secretion of GH, as well as the GCM-derived response, in the two target organs.

Suitability Assessment of Domestic Natural Waters as a Culture Medium for Daphnia magna (Daphnia magna의 배양배지로서 국내 자연수의 적절성 평가)

  • Yeom, Dong-Hyuk;Jeon, Chan-Sig
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.271-277
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    • 2012
  • The present study was conducted to assess the suitability of domestic natural waters as a Daphnia magna culture medium. In order to assess survival rate and reproductive output, young female daphnids (parent animals), aged less than 24 hours at the start of the test and produced in the Elendt M4 medium, were exposed to Elendt M4 medium, de-chlorinated tap water, and natural mineral water for 21 days. D. magna cultured in Elendt M4 medium (reference medium) and natural mineral water met the criteria of OECD No. 211, Daphnia magna Reproduction Test Guidelines in terms of percent adult survival, first day of reproduction, and average young production. However, the mortalities of adult daphnids observed in de-chlorinated tap water were more than 20% in two reproduction tests for 21 days. Mortality was observed on exposure days 13, 15, and 18 in de-chlorinated water. The use of D. magna is recommended in water of hardness >80 mg $CaCO_3\;L^{-1}$. However, the hardness of de-chlorinated tap water used in the present study was 50~53 mg $CaCO_3\;L^{-1}$. Therefore, it is judged that the delayed mortalities observed in de-chlorinated tap water were caused by a rapid decreased in hardness when the medium was changed from Elendt M4 to de-chlorinated tap water. When D. magna is cultured using domestic natural waters (underground water, surface water, and de-chlorinated water), the quality-control (QC) data should be maintained through a standardization for health assessment method, toxicity test method using reference chemical, test intervals of reference toxicant toxicity test, and data treatment and interpretation. In the long term, national research programs are needed for the development of test species which are representative of domestic aquatic environmental conditions among indigenous daphnids.

Effect of Germanium Foliar Spray Application on Growth Characteristics and Germanium Absorption in Rice (게르마늄 엽면살포가 벼의 생육과 게르마늄 흡수에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jong-Hwan;Seo, Dong-Cheol;Kim, Seong-Heon;Lee, Choong-Heon;Lee, Seong-Tea;Choi, Jeong-Ho;Kim, Hong-Chul;Ha, Yeong-Rae;Cho, Ju-Sik;Heo, Jong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.649-656
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    • 2012
  • To obtain the basic information for agricultural utilization of germanium (Ge), the growth characteristics and Ge absorption in rice plant were investigated under different Ge concentrations by foliar spray application. The Ge concentrations were treated with 0 (control), 10, 20, 40 and $80mg\;L^{-1}$ in pot (1 5000$^{-1}$ a), respectively. The Ge absorption rate in rice by foliar spray application with $80mg\;L^{-1}$ in pot was higher in the order of leaf (5.75%) > stem (4.52%) > root (<0.01%). By foliar spray application, the Ge content in rice was higher in the order of $80mg\;L^{-1}$ > $40mg\;L^{-1}$ > $20mg\;L^{-1}$ > $10mg\;L^{-1}$. When rice was treated with $80mg\;L^{-1}$ of Ge, the Ge content in rice grain was higher in the order of rice bran ($0.21mg\;pot^{-1}$) $\gg$ brown rice ($0.04mg\;pot^{-1}$) ${\geq}$ polished rice ($0.03mg\;pot^{-1}$). By foliar spray application, the Ge uptake in rice bran was higher than that in other parts. Therefore, optimum Ge concentration by foliar spray application was $80mg\;L^{-1}$ in pot based on the results from the Ge treatments.

Effect of Phenolic Mediators and Humic Acid on the Removal of 1-Indanone Using Manganese Oxide (망간산화물(Birnessite)을 이용한 1- Indanone 제거 시 페놀계 반응매개체와 휴믹산(HA) 영향 평가)

  • Choi, Chan-Kyu;Eom, Won-Suk;Shin, Hyun-Sang
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.34 no.7
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    • pp.445-453
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    • 2012
  • An investigation for removal of 1-indanone (1-ID), which were commonly produced from the biological and/or chemical treatment and natural weathering of the PAHs-contaminated soils, via oxidative transformation mediated by birnessite in the presence of various phenolic mediators is described. This study also examines the potential effect of the natural occurring substance humic acid (HA) on the oxidative transformation. The experiment was carried out in aqueous phase as a batch test (10 mg/L 1-ID, 0.3 mM phenolic mediators, $1.0g/L\;{\delta}-MnO_2$, at pH 5). All of the 11 tested phenoilic mediators belong to the group of natural occurring phenols and are widely used as model constituents of humic substances. From the results of HPLC analysis, it is demonstrated that 1-ID was not reactive to birnessite itself, but it can be effectively removed in birnessite-mediated cross coupling reactions in the presence of the phenolic mediators. The percent removals of 1-ID after 2 day incubation were ranged from 9.2 to 71.2% depending on the phenolic mediators applied. The initial rate constant ($K_{int}$, $hr^{-1}$) values for the 1-ID removals obtained from the pseudo-first-order kinetic plots also widely ranged from 0.18 to 15.0. Results of the correlative analysis between the removal efficiencies and structural characteristics of phenolic mediators indicate that the transformation of the 1-ID was considerably enhanced by the addition of electron-donating substituents (e.g., -OH, $-OCH_3$) at the benzne ring, and much less enhanced by the addition of electron-withdrawing substituents (e.g., -COOH, -CHO). The presence of HA showed that removal efficiencies of 1-ID in the birnessite-phenolic mediator systems decreased with increasing HA concentrations. However at low concentration of HA (< 2 mg/L), it caused some enhancement in the removals of 1-ID as compared to the control.

Runoff of Fluazinam Applied in Pepper Field-lysimeter (고추재배 포장 라이시메타를 이용한 fluazinam의 유출 평가)

  • Kim, Chan-Sub;Ihm, Yang-Bin;Kwon, Hye-Young;Im, Geon-Jae
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.256-263
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    • 2013
  • The field lysimeter study was undertaken to investigate influence of agricultural practice and topography on runoff and erosion loss of fluazinam from the sloped land grown pepper. The WP type formulation was applied on July in 2003~2005. The wash-off rates were from 1.4% to 8.4% of the applied fluazinam. The runoff losses of fluazinam from a series of pepper grown-lysimeter plots were 0.14~0.90% in the first year, 0.01~0.04% in the second year and 0.16~0.37% in the third year for the mulched contour ridge plots, 0.47~1.59% for the mulched up-down direction ridge plots and 0.07~1.05% for the no-mulched contour ridge plots as the control, and they increased with slope degree. Concentrations of fluazinam in runoff water ranged mostly to 10 ${\mu}gL^{-1}$ at the first runoff event. Erosion rates from plots except the mulched up-down direction ridge plots was 0.00~0.21% for 10% and 20% slope-plots and 0.15~1.05% for 30% slope-plots with different slope degrees. Erosion rates from the mulched up-down direction ridge plots were 0.47~1.59% for 10% slope-plots and 0.75~1.05% for 20% slope-plots. Residues of fluazinam in soil at ten days after the application ranged from 0.007 mg $kg^{-1}$ to 0.059 mg $kg^{-1}$ except the soil under the mulch. After then the fluazinam residue in soil was dissipated at the rate of 20 days of half-life to below 0.01 mg $kg^{-1}$ at 60 days after the application.

Water Balance and Pollutant Load Analyses according to LID Techniques for a Town Development (도시 개발 전·후 LID 기법 적용에 따른 물수지 및 오염부하 변동 특성)

  • Park, Ji-Young;Lim, Hyun-Man;Lee, Hae-In;Yoon, Young-Han;Oh, Hyun-Je;Kim, Weon-Jae
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.35 no.11
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    • pp.795-802
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    • 2013
  • According to the increase of impervious area due to the town development, the rate of infiltration generally lessens and that of runoff rises during wet weather events. And it is concerned that its impacts on water quality for the downstream water bodies due to the change of rainfall runoff patterns may also increase. To cope with these issues, LID (Low Impact Development) techniques which try to maintain the characteristics of rainfall runoff regardless of the town development have been introduced actively. However, the behaviors of each LID technique for rainfall runoff and pollutant loads is not understood sufficiently. In this study, considering the applications of some LID techniques, several sets of simulations using a distributed rainfall runoff model, SWMM-LID, have been conducted for D town whose development is progressing. As the results of the simulations, the rates of infiltration/storage have been decreased from 78% in the case before the town development to 15% after the development and increased again by 24% with LID techniques such as porous pavement, rain barrel and rain garden. The rates of runoff have been increased more than three times from 20% in the case before the development to 74% after the development, and they have also been decreased to 66% by the adoption of LID techniques. It has been simulated that porous pavement is more effective than others in the view point of the reduction of runoff and rain barrel is more attractive for the management of pollutant loads (TSS, BOD, COD, T-N and T-P). Therefore, if some LID techniques should be selected for the a new town, it could be concluded that some techniques with better infiltration functions are recommendable for the control of runoff, and ones with larger storage functions for the management of pollutant loads.

Development of Single-span Plastic Greenhouses for Hot Pepper Rainproof Cultivation (고추 비가림재배용 단동 비닐하우스 개발)

  • Yu, In Ho;Lee, Eung Ho;Cho, Myeong Whan;Ryu, Hee Ryong;Moon, Doo Gyung
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.371-377
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    • 2013
  • The government has been carrying out a project for supporting the rain shelter for hot pepper as part of measures stabilizing the demand and supply of hot pepper since 2012. However, the eaves height of single-span plastic greenhouses extensively used in farms is low, which are inappropriate for the rainproof cultivation of hot pepper. This study attempted to develop single-span plastic greenhouses which are structurally safe and have the dimensions suitable for the rainproof cultivation of hot pepper as well. The structure status of plastic greenhouses and restructuring wishes of 56 rainproof cultivation farms nationwide were investigated to set up the width and height of the plastic greenhouses. 53% of the plastic greenhouses currently in operation had a width of under 7 m and 64% of their eaves had a height of 1.5 m or less, which accounted for the highest rate. Mostly the width of 7.0 m was desired for the greenhouses and the height of 2.0 m for their eaves, so these values were chosen as the dimensions for the singlespan plastic greenhouses. After an analysis of their structural safety while changing the specifications of the rafter pipe in various ways, 5 kinds of models were suggested considering the frame ratio and installation costs. The 12-Pepper-1 model is a developed single-span plastic greenhouse for hot pepper in which a ${\emptyset}42.2{\times}2.1t$ rafter pipe is installed at an interval of 90cm and the models of 12-Pepper-2 through 5 are the other developed ones in which a ${\emptyset}31.8{\times}1.5t$ rafter pipe is installed at intervals of 60 cm, 70 cm, 80 cm and 90 cm, respectively. As a result of an analysis of economic feasibility of 12-Pepper-2 compared to 10-Single-3 in the notification of the Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, it turned out that there would be an increase in profits by about 1.2 million won based on one building of a greenhouse sized 672 $m^2$.