• Title, Summary, Keyword: Rapamycin

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Rapamycin Inhibits Rabbit Corneal Neovascularization Induced by Angiogenin (Rapamycin의 angiogenin 유도성 가토 각막의 혈관신생 억제)

  • 권영삼;김재찬;장광호
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.309-313
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether immunosuppresant, rapamycin could inhibit corneal angiogenesis induced by angiogenin and to evalutate the its role by micropocket assay. The rabbit's eye was implanted intrastromally into the superior cornea with pellet for the control group, pellet containing of angiogenin for the angiogenin group, and pellet containing of angiogenin and rapamycin for the rapamycin group. We could observed that the angiogen induced corneal angiogenesis was inhibited by rapamycin. The score of neovascularization was significantly decreased in the rapamycin group than in the angiogenin group at 7 and 10 days after pellet implantation (p < 0.05). Histologically, the cornea treated with rapamycin group also showed much less new vessels than the cornea treated with angiogenin. In conclusion, rapamycin appears to inhibit angiogenin induced angiogenesis in a rabbit corneal micropocket assay and may have therapeutic potential as an antiangiogenic agent.

Metabolomic Response of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to the Inhibition of Target of Rapamycin (TOR) by Rapamycin

  • Lee, Do Yup;Fiehn, Oliver
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.923-931
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    • 2013
  • Rapamycin, known as an inhibitor of Target of Rapamycin (TOR), is an immunosuppressant drug used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation. Despite the close association of the TOR signaling cascade with various scopes of metabolism, it has not yet been thoroughly investigated at the metabolome level. In our current study, we applied mass spectrometric analysis for profiling primary metabolism in order to capture the responsive dynamics of the Chlamydomonas metabolome to the inhibition of TOR by rapamycin. Accordingly, we identified the impact of the rapamycin treatment at the level of metabolomic phenotypes that were clearly distinguished by multivariate statistical analysis. Pathway analysis pinpointed that inactivation of the TCA cycle was accompanied by the inhibition of cellular growth. Relative to the constant suppression of the TCA cycle, most amino acids were significantly increased in a time-dependent manner by longer exposure to rapamycin treatment, after an initial down-regulation at the early stage of exposure. Finally, we explored the isolation of the responsive metabolic factors into the rapamycin treatment and the culture duration, respectively.

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF RAPAMYCIN'S ROLE IN BINDING FKBP12 AND FRAP

  • Park, Jungwon;Jie Chen;Stuart Schreiber;Jon Clardy
    • Proceedings of the Korean Biophysical Society Conference
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    • pp.9-9
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    • 1996
  • The immunosuppressive and cell cycle arrest agent rapamycin works by binding together two proteins: the FK506 binding protein (FKBP12) and the FKBP-rapamycin associated protein (FRAP). A 2.7 $\AA$ resolution crystal structure of the triple complex of human FK506 binding protein (FKBP12), rapamycin, and FKBP12-rapamycin binding domain (FRB) of FRAP, reveals two proteins bound together through rapamycin' s ability to simultaneously occupy two different hydrophobic binding pockets. (omitted)

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Genomewide Profiling of Rapamycin Sensitivity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae on Synthetic Medium

  • Chang, Yeon-Ji;Shin, Chun-Shik;Han, Dong-Hun;Kim, Ji-Yun;Kim, Kang-In;Kwon, Yong-Min;Huh, Won-Ki
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.177-184
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    • 2010
  • The target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway is a conserved pathway that regulates eukaryotic cell growth in response to environmental cues. Chemical genomic approaches that profile rapamycin sensitivity of yeast deletion strains have given insights into the function of TOR signaling pathway. In the present study, we analyzed the rapamycin sensitivity of yeast deletion library strains on synthetic medium. As a result, we identified 130 strains that are hypersensitive or resistant to rapamycin compared with wild-type cells. Among them, 36 genes are newly identified to be related to rapamycin sensitivity. Moreover, we found 16 strains that show alteration in rapamycin sensitivity between complex and synthetic media. We suggest that these genes may be involved in part of TOR signaling activities that is differentially regulated by media composition.

Rapamycin Rescues the Poor Developmental Capacity of Aged Porcine Oocytes

  • Lee, Seung Eun;Kim, Eun Young;Choi, Hyun Yong;Moon, Jeremiah Jiman;Park, Min Jee;Lee, Jun Beom;Jeong, Chang Jin;Park, Se Pill
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.635-647
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    • 2014
  • Unfertilized oocytes age inevitably after ovulation, which limits their fertilizable life span and embryonic development. Rapamycin affects mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression and cytoskeleton reorganization during oocyte meiotic maturation. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of rapamycin treatment on aged porcine oocytes and their in vitro development. Rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes for 24 h (68 h in vitro maturation [IVM]; $44h+10{\mu}M$ rapamycin/24 h, $47.52{\pm}5.68$) or control oocytes (44 h IVM; $42.14{\pm}4.40$) significantly increased the development rate and total cell number compared with untreated aged oocytes (68 h IVM, $22.04{\pm}5.68$) (p<0.05). Rapamycin treatment of aged IVM oocytes for 24 h also rescued aberrant spindle organization and chromosomal misalignment, blocked the decrease in the level of phosphorylated-p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and increased the mRNA expression of cytoplasmic maturation factor genes (MOS, BMP15, GDF9, and CCNB1) compared with untreated, 24 h-aged IVM oocytes (p<0.05). Furthermore, rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity and DNA fragmentation (p<0.05), and downregulated the mRNA expression of mTOR compared with control or untreated aged oocytes. By contrast, rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes increased mitochondrial localization (p<0.05) and upregulated the mRNA expression of autophagy (BECN1, ATG7, MAP1LC3B, ATG12, GABARAP, and GABARAPL1), anti-apoptosis (BCL2L1 and BIRC5; p<0.05), and development (NANOG and SOX2; p<0.05) genes, but it did not affect the mRNA expression of pro-apoptosis genes (FAS and CASP3) compared with the control. This study demonstrates that rapamycin treatment can rescue the poor developmental capacity of aged porcine oocytes.

Rapamycin and PF4 Induce Apoptosis by Upregulating Bax and Down-Regulating Survivin in MNU-Induced Breast Cancer

  • Al-Astani Tengku Din, Tengku Ahmad Damitri;Shamsuddin, Shazana Hilda;Idris, Fauziah Mohamad;Wan Mansor, Wan Nor Ariffin;Abdul Jalal, Muhammad Irfan;Jaafar, Hasnan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.3939-3944
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    • 2014
  • Background: To elucidate the role of rapamycin and PF4 on apoptosis regulation via Bax (pro-apoptosis), Bcl-2 (anti-apoptosis) and survivin activation on the growth in the 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea-induced invasive breast carcinoma model. Materials and Methods: Thirty five female Sprague Dawley rats at age 21-day old were divided into 4 groups; Group 1 (control, n=10), Group 2 (PF4, n=5), Group 3 (rapamycin, n=10) and Group 4 (rapamycin+PF4, n=10). MNU was administered intraperitionally, dosed at 70mg/kg body weight. The rats were treated when the tumors reached the size of $14.5{\pm}0.5mm$ and subsequently sacrificed after 5 days. Rapamycin and PF4 were administered as focal intralesional injections at the dose of $20{\mu}g$/lesion. The tumor tissue was then subjected to histopathological examinations for morphological appraisal and immunohistochemical assessment of the pro-apoptotic marker, Bax and anti-apoptotic markers, Bcl-2 and survivin. Results: The histopathological pattern of the untreated control cohort showed that the severity of the malignancy augments with mammary tumor growth. Tumors developing in untreated groups were more aggressive whilst those in treated groups demonstrated a transformation to a less aggressive subtype. Combined treatment resulted in a significant reduction of tumor size without phenotypic changes. Bax, the pro-apoptotic marker, was significantly expressed at higher levels in the rapamycin-treated and rapamycin+PF4-treated groups compared to controls (p<0.05). Consequently, survivin was also significantly downregulated in the rapamycin-treated and rapamycin+PF4-treated group and this was significantly different when compared to controls (p). Conclusions: In our rat model, it could be clearly shown that rapamycin specifically affects Bax and survivin signaling pathways in activation of apoptosis. We conclude that rapamycin plays a critical role in the induction of apoptosis in MNU-induced mammary carcinoma.

Induced Autophagy Regulates Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Infection in Murine Macrophage (쥐의 큰포식세포주에서 자가포식현상에 의한 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium의 감염 조절)

  • Lee, Sunhye;Kim, Ju-Young;Lee, Hyo-Ji;Jung, Yu-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.27-32
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    • 2014
  • Autophagy is one of the lysosomal degradation pathways to maintain cellular homeostasis. The damaged proteins or organelles are uptaken through extra- and intra-cellular stress, starvation and infected pathogens, subsequently, autophagosomes are fused with lysosomes to break down the molecules. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), intracellular bacteria, cause acute gastroenteritis and food poisoning. Given that autophagy induced by S. Typhimurium plays an important role in the cells to control the infection, we identify whether the induction of autophagy with rapamycin, chemical inducer of autophagy, before infection regulates S. Typhimurium infection. After treatment of rapamycin or 3-methyladenine (3-MA), autophagy inhibitor, RAW264.7 cells were infected with S. Typhimurium. Pretretment of rapamycin decreased the growth rate of S. Typhimurium in the cells; otherwise, pretreatment of 3-MA increased the growth rate of S. Typhimurium. The expression of autophagy-related genes was significantly increased in the S. Typhimurium-infected cells pretreated with rapamycin. To examine whether induced autophagy by rapamycin control the infection with increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), antibacterial radical substrates were measured in infected cells followed by the treatment with either rapamycin or 3-MA. NO production increased in RAW264.7 cells; otherwise, ROS production remained unchanged during the infection. These findings suggest that inducing autophagy with rapamycin reveals antimicrobial activity as producing NO against S. Typhimurium infection in mouse macrophages.

Rapamycin Influences the Efficiency of In vitro Fertilization and Development in the Mouse: A Role for Autophagic Activation

  • Lee, Geun-Kyung;Shin, Hyejin;Lim, Hyunjung Jade
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.1102-1110
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    • 2016
  • The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates cellular processes such as cell growth, metabolism, transcription, translation, and autophagy. Rapamycin is a selective inhibitor of mTOR, and induces autophagy in various systems. Autophagy contributes to clearance and recycling of macromolecules and organelles in response to stress. We previously reported that vitrified-warmed mouse oocytes show acute increases in autophagy during warming, and suggested that it is a natural response to cold stress. In this follow-up study, we examined whether the modulation of autophagy influences survival, fertilization, and developmental rates of vitrified-warmed mouse oocytes. We used rapamycin to enhance autophagy in metaphase II (MII) oocytes before and after vitrification. The oocytes were then subjected to in vitro fertilization (IVF). The fertilization and developmental rates of vitrified-warmed oocytes after rapamycin treatment were significantly lower than those for control groups. Modulation of autophagy with rapamycin treatment shows that rapamycin-induced autophagy exerts a negative influence on fertilization and development of vitrified-warmed oocytes.

Identification of Downstream Genes of the mTOR Pathway that Predict Recurrence and Progression in Non-Muscle Invasive High-Grade Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder

  • Jin, Subin;Chang, In Ho;Kim, Jin Wook;Whang, Young Mi;Kim, Ha Jeong;Hong, Soon Auck;Lee, Tae-Jin
    • Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    • v.32 no.8
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    • pp.1327-1336
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    • 2017
  • Microarray analysis was used to investigate the lack of identified mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway downstream genes to overcome cross-talk at non-muscle invasive high-grade (HG)-urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder, gene expression patterns, gene ontology, and gene clustering by triple (p70S6K, S6K, and eIF4E) small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or rapamycin in 5637 and T24 cell lines. We selected mTOR pathway downstream genes that were suppressed by siRNAs more than 2-fold, or were up-regulated or down-regulated by rapamycin more than 2-fold. We validated mTOR downstream genes with immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray (TMA) of 125 non-muscle invasive HG-UC patients and knockout study to evaluate the synergistic effect with rapamycin. The microarray analysis selected mTOR pathway downstream genes consisting of 4 rapamycin up-regulated genes (FABP4, H19, ANXA10, and UPK3A) and 4 rapamycin down-regulated genes (FOXD3, ATP7A, plexin D1, and ADAMTS5). In the TMA, FABP4, and ATP7A were more expressed at T1 and FOXD3 was at Ta. ANXA10 and ADAMTS5 were more expressed in tumors ${\leq}3cm$ in diameter. In a multivariate Cox regression model, ANXA10 was a significant predictor of recurrence and ATP7A was a significant predictor of progression in non-muscle invasive HG-UC of the bladder. In an ATP7A knock-out model, rapamycin treatment synergistically inhibited cell viability, wound healing, and invasion ability compared to rapamycin only. Activity of the ANXA10 and ATP7A mTOR pathway downstream genes might predict recurrence and progression in non-muscle invasive HG-UC of the bladder. ATP7A knockout overcomes rapamycin cross-talk.

Changes of Sexual Behaviors in Rapamycin-injected Cichlid Fish Astatotilapia burtoni Males

  • Kim, Tae Ha;Sohn, Young Chang
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.267-274
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    • 2016
  • Cichlid fish species exhibit characteristic sexual behaviors according to not only reproductive stages but also social status. In a reproductive season, Astatotilapia burtoni males compete for females and a small number of dominant winners finally obtain the chance of spermiation. In addition to the characteristic behaviors, the dominant males have relatively bigger gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1) neurons in the preoptic area (POA) of brain compared to those of subordinate males. Although the stimulatory effect of GnRH1 in vertebrate reproduction is well established, little is known about the triggering signal pathway to control GnRH1 neurons and GnRH1-mediated sexual behavior. In the present study, we evaluated the potential effect of TOR inhibitor rapamycin in relation to the cichlid male behaviors and GnRH1 neuron. After 14 h and 26 h of intraventricular injection of rapamycin, behavior patterns of chasing and courtship display did not show significant changes between rapamycin- and DMSO-injected males. Behaviors of spawning site entry increased in rapamycin-injected fish at 26 h post-injection than at 14 h post-injection significantly (P<0.05). Meanwhile, there was a tendency that GnRH1 neurons' soma size in the POA shrank by rapamycin injection, whereas the testes did not show notable changes. Taken together, these results suggest the possible role of TOR signal on GnRH1-mediated sexual behavior in cichlid dominant males, although further biological characterization of the TOR signaling pathway will be required to clarify this matter.