• Title, Summary, Keyword: Ramp Test

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Evaluation of Ramp Test Using Human Perception (인지적 평가기준을 이용한 Ramp Test의 특성평가)

  • Kim, Jung-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.9-14
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    • 2012
  • The objectives of this study were to compare the results of HSL (Health and Safety Laboratory) ramp test with perceived sense of slip onto the several different floor surfaces under contaminated conditions. There are a variety of approaches from biomechanical measurements to psychophysical test and human perception. However, controversies over these approaches still remain. Some widely accepted methods need to be improved. AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) was used to evaluate the perception of slipperiness of seven different floor surfaces under the contaminated condition with glycerol solution. Twelve subjects worn same footwear and walked with self-selected step and cadence along the test floors. The angle of inclination obtained for water wet condition using 5 l/min with HSL ramp test was compared to perception of slipperiness. The surface roughness ($R_z$) related very well both AHP (r=0.95) and ramp test (r=0.92). The high significant correlation (r=0.90) was found between AHP and HSL ramp test.The HSL ramp test values (Coefficient of Friction, COF) according to subjective evaluation were divided into two categories. There were high correlations between test results (subjective evaluation, HSL ramp test) and surface roughness in Rz. Perception rating obtained with AHP showed a high correlation with COF obtained with HSL ramp test.

Comparison analysis of physiological work capacity for different tasks (작업유형에 따른 생리학적 작업능력의 비교 분석)

  • 박지수;김홍기;최진영
    • Proceedings of the ESK Conference
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    • pp.33-40
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    • 1996
  • 본 연구의 목적은 작업생리학적 접근방법(physiological approach)을 이용하여 생리학적 작업 능력(PWC; physiological work capacity)을 추정할 경우 작업형태와 작업방법에 따른 차이점을 비교분석해 보고자 함이다. 작업유형으로는 자전거 에르고미터(cycle ergometer)와 트레드밀 (treadmill)을 사용하였고, 작업방법으로는 각각의 작업유형에 대하여 램프 테스트(ramp test 와 인크리멘탈 테스트(increemntal test)의 차이점을 비교하였다. 또한 외국인들의 생리학적 작업능력(PWC)과 한국인들의 생리학적 작업능력(PWC)을 비교,검토하여 NIOSH(National Institute of Safety and Healty)기준치를 사용하는데 문제점이 없는가를 검토해 보고자 하였다. 작업방법 에 따른 차이점은 자전거 에르고미터의 경우 램프 테스트(ramp test )253.63 ml/min로서 인크리 멘탈 테스트(increemental test) 2859.74ml/min 의 87.70 % 정도로 나타났으며, 트레드 밑의 경우 ramp test 2859.22ml/min로서 incremental test 289.46ml/min의 98.77%정도로 나타났다. 작업유형 에 따른 결과는 자전거 에르고미터의 ramp test 트레드밀의 ramp test 는 ramp test는 트레드밀의 ramp test의 88.72% 정도로 나타났으며, 자전거 에르고미터의 incremental tests는 트레이드밀 작 업의 98.% 정도로 나타났다.

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Comparison analysis of physiological work capacity for different tasks (작업유형에 따른 생리학적 작업능력의 비교 분석)

  • 박지수;김홍기;최진영
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.89-98
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    • 1996
  • The objective of this study was to make comparison of the physical work capacities with different types and methods of tasks. To produce standard work loads, a bicycle ergometer and a treadmill were used for the purpose of two different types of tasks. Maximal oxygen uptake measurement tests are usually performen (1) continuously - with no rest between work load increments, or (2) discontinuously - with the subjects resting several minutes between work periods. Continuous test protocol with two different methods of work load increments, (1) ramp test- with 3 to 5 minutes of work period for each work load, and (2) incremental test - where exercise intensity was increased progressively in 2 minutes interval, were used. Predicted physicala work capacities (PWCs) were compared with the one by Kim(1990), and Lee(1995), and the NIOSH physiological criteria. For ergometer test, the PWC based on the ramp test was 89.65% of the one based on the incremental test. The PWC values were 2553.88 ml/min for the ramp test and 2848.82 ml/min for the incremental test. For treadmill test, the PWC based on the ramp test was 97.54% of the one based on the incremental test. The PWC values were 2786.89 ml/min for the ramp test and 2857.24 ml/min for the incremental test. The PWC obtained with a bicycle ergometer was 91.64% of the one obtained with a treadmill for the ramp test, and 99.71% for the incremental test.

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Threshold Determination of The GPS Carrier Acceleration, Ramp, and Step on the Normal Condition

  • Son, Eunseong;Kim, Koon-Tack;Im, Sung-Hyuck;Heo, Moon Beom
    • Journal of Positioning, Navigation, and Timing
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.195-203
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    • 2015
  • In this study, the carrier acceleration-ramp-step test was applied to GPS carrier phase measurements, and the results were compared and analyzed. In the carrier acceleration-ramp-step test, the acceleration, ramp, and measurements are estimated using 10 consecutive carrier phase measurements for satellites observed at the same time based on the least square method. As for the characteristic of this test, if failure occurs in the measurement, the value jumps significantly compared to the previous result; but it judges that failure has occurred in all the satellites although failure has occurred in one satellite. Therefore, in this study, a method that eliminates a satellite with failure was suggested, and thresholds of the carrier acceleration, ramp, and step were suggested. The evaluation of the failure detection performance of carrier phase measurement using the suggested thresholds showed that failure could be detected when the carrier phase measurement changed abruptly by more than about 0.1 cycles.

1D AND 3D ANALYSES OF THE ZY2 SCIP BWR RAMP TESTS WITH THE FUEL CODES METEOR AND ALCYONE

  • Sercombe, J.;Agard, M.;Struzik, C.;Michel, B.;Thouvenin, G.;Poussard, C.;Kallstrom, K.R.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.187-198
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    • 2009
  • In this paper, three power ramp tests performed on high burn-up Re-crystallized Zircaloy2 - UO2 BWR fuel rods (56 to 63 MWd/kgU) within the SCIP project are simulated with METEOR and ALCYONE 3D. Two of the ramp tests are of staircase type up to Linear Heat Rates of 420 and 520 W/cm and with long holding periods. Failure of the 420 W/cm fuel rod was observed after 40 minutes. The third ramp test consisted of a more standard ramp test with a constant power rate of 80 W/cm/min up to 410 W/cm with a short holding time. The tests were first simulated with the METEOR 1D fuel rod code, which gave accurate results in terms of profilometry and fission gas releases. The behaviour of a fuel pellet fragment and of the cladding piece on top of it was then investigated with ALCYONE 3D. The size and the main characteristics of the ridges after base irradiation and power ramp testing were recovered. Finally, the failure criteria validated for PWR conditions and fuel rods with low-to-medium burn-ups were used to analyze the failure probability of the KKL rodlets during ramp testing.

Bilevel-programming based failure-censored ramp-stress ALTSP for the log-logistic distribution with warranty cost

  • Srivastava, P.W.;Sharma, D.
    • International Journal of Reliability and Applications
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.85-105
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    • 2016
  • In this paper accelerated life testing is incorporated in quality control technique of acceptance sampling plan to induce early failures in high reliability products.Stress under accelerated condition can be applied in constant-stress, step-stress and progressive-stress or combination of such loadings. A ramp-stress results when stress is increased linearly (from zero) with time. In this paper optimum failure-censored ramp-stress accelerated life test sampling plan for log-logistic distribution has been formulated with cost considerations. The log-logistic distribution has been found appropriate for insulating materials. The optimal plans consist in finding optimum sample size, sample proportion allocated to each stress, and stress rate factor such that producer's and consumer's interests are safeguarded. Variance optimality criterion is used when expected cost per lot is not taken into consideration, and bilevel programming approach is used in cost optimization problems. The methods developed have been illustrated using some numerical examples, and sensitivity analyses carried out in the context of ramp-stress ALTSP based on variable SSP for proportion nonconforming.

Analysis of Unload Characteristics by Ramp Tilt (램프 틸트에 의한 언로드 특성 분석)

  • Lee, Yong-Hyun;Kim, Ki-Hoon;Kim, Seok-Hwan;Lee, Sang-Jik;Park, No-Cheol;Park, Young-Pil;Park, Kyoung-Su;Kim, Cheol-Soon;Yoo, Jin-Gyu
    • Transactions of the Society of Information Storage Systems
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.70-75
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    • 2009
  • Most hard disk drives uses load/unload technology because of benefits as like an increased areal density, a reduced power consumption and an improved shock resistance. However, ramp tilt induced by ramp manufacture and assembly causes mechanical problems such as unload fail in case of exceeding ramp tolerance. In this paper, we focus on experimental analysis for unloading characteristics affected by ramp tilt. We repeatedly perform load/unload test as 500,000 cycles for original model and ramp tilt model. This paper shows that it is possible to analyze unload characteristics through measuring scratch and wear of suspension lift-tab, ramp, suspension dimple-flexure and disk. We also identify structural relation between suspension lift-tab and ramp through scratch and wear of suspension lift-tab and ramp. As the result of measurement and analysis, we can investigate decrease of unloading performance in ramp tilt model.

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Nonparametric Estimation for Ramp Stress Tests with Stress Bound under Intermittent Inspection (단속적 검사에서 스트레스한계를 가지는 램프스트레스시험을 위한 비모수적 추정)

  • Lee Nak-Young;Ahn Ung-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Quality Management
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.208-219
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    • 2004
  • This paper considers a nonparametric estimation of lifetime distribution for ramp stress tests with stress bound under intermittent inspection. The test items are inspected only at specified time points an⊂1 so the collected observations are grouped data. Under the cumulative exposure model, two nonparametric estimation methods of estimating the lifetime distribution at use condition stress are proposed for the situation which the time transformation function relating stress to lifetime is a type of the inverse power law. Each of items is initially put on test under ramp stress and then survivors are put on test under constant stress, where all failures in the Inspection interval are assumed to occur at the midi)oint or the endpoint of that interval. Two proposed estimators of quantile from grouped data consisting of the number of items failed in each inspection interval are numerically compared with the maximum likelihood estimator(MLE) based on Weibull distribution.

Optimum time-censored ramp soak-stress ALT plan for the Burr type XII distribution

  • Srivastava, P.W.;Gupta, T.
    • International Journal of Reliability and Applications
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.125-150
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    • 2014
  • Accelerated life tests (ALTs) are extensively used to determine the reliability of a product in a short period of time. Test units are subject to elevated stresses which yield quick failures. ALT can be carried out using constant-stress, step-stress, progressive-stress, cyclic-stress or random-stress loading and their various combinations. An ALT with linearly increasing stress is ramp-stress test. Much of the previous work on planning ALTs has focused on constant-stress, step-stress, ramp-stress schemes and their various combinations where the stress is generally increased. This paper presents an optimal design of ramp soak-stress ALT model which is based on the principle of Thermal cycling. Thermal cycling involves applying high and low temperatures repeatedly over time. The optimal plan consists in finding out relevant experimental variables, namely, stress rates and stress rate change points, by minimizing variance of reliability function with pre-specified mission time under normal operating conditions. The Burr type XII life distribution and time-censored data have been used for the purpose. Burr type XII life distribution has been found appropriate for accelerated life testing experiments. The method developed has been explained using a numerical example and sensitivity analysis carried out.

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Recommendations on dynamic pressure sensor placement for transonic wind tunnel tests

  • Yang, Michael Y.;Palodichuk, Michael T.
    • Advances in aircraft and spacecraft science
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    • v.6 no.6
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    • pp.497-513
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    • 2019
  • A wind tunnel test was conducted that measured surface fluctuating pressures aft of a ramp at transonic speeds. Dynamic pressure test data was used to perform a study to determine best locations for streamwise sensor pairs for shocked and unshocked runs based on minimizing the error in root-mean-square acceleration response of the panel. For unshocked conditions, the upstream sensor is best placed at least 6.5 ramp heights downstream of the ramp, and the downstream sensor should be within 2 ramp heights from the upstream sensor. For shocked conditions, the upstream sensor should be between 1 and 7 ramp heights downstream of the shock, with the downstream sensor 2 to 3 ramp heights of the upstream sensor. The shock was found to prevent the passage coherent flow structures; therefore, it may be desired to use the shock to define the boundary of subzones for the purpose of loads definition. These recommendations should be generally applicable to a range of expansion corner geometries in transonic flow provided similar flow structures exist. The recommendations for shocked runs is more limited, relying on data from a single dataset with the shock located near the forward end of the region of interest.