• Title, Summary, Keyword: Radiotherapy

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An 87-year-old patient with repeated oligorecurrences over six years whose disease were treated with radiotherapy alone

  • Yun, Hyong Geun
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.266-271
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    • 2014
  • In the clinical state of oligometastases or oligorecurrence, a transitional state between localized and widespread systemic disease, local control of the disease may yield improved systemic control. Radiotherapy may be a good means for controlling oligometastatic tumors, particularly in very old patients for whom surgery may be infeasible. A combination of systemic therapy and local therapy is necessary to prevent systemic progression. Some kinds of cancers found in the elderly are known to be somewhat indolent for systemic progression. So, for very old patients who refuse or cannot tolerate chemotherapy, the use of radical radiotherapy alone to treat oligorecurrences may be very helpful. We successfully treated an 87-year-old patient who had been diagnosed with oligorecurrences three times over six years with radiotherapy alone. The patient is now, about four years after his first radiotherapy for liver metastasis, alive without any evidence of cancer and with fully active performance status.

30 Years of Radiotherapy Service in Southern Thailand: Workload vs Resources

  • Phungrassami, Temsak;Funsian, Amporn;Sriplung, Hutcha
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.7743-7748
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    • 2013
  • Background: To study the pattern of patient load, personnel and equipment resources from 30-years experience in Southern Thailand. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study collected secondary data from the Division of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and the Songklanagarind Hospital Tumor Registry database, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, during the period of 1982-2012. Results: The number of new patients who had radiation treatment gradually increased from 121 in 1982 to 2,178 in 2011. Shortages of all kinds of personnel were demonstrated as compared to the recommendations, especially in radiotherapy technicians. In 2011, Southern Thailand, with two radiotherapy centers, had 0.44 megavoltage radiotherapy machines (cobalt or linear accelerator) per million of population. This number is suboptimal, but could be managed cost-effectively by prolonging machine operating times during personnel shortages. Conclusions: This study identified a discrepancy between workload and resources in one medical school radiotherapy center in Southern Thailand. This information is crucial for future strategic planning both regionally and nationally.

Impact of radiotherapy on mandibular bone: A retrospective study of digital panoramic radiographs

  • Palma, Luiz Felipe;Tateno, Ricardo Yudi;Remondes, Cintia Maria;Marcucci, Marcelo;Cortes, Arthur Rodriguez Gonzalez
    • Imaging Science in Dentistry
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of radiotherapy on mandibular bone tissue in head and neck cancer patients through an analysis of pixel intensity and fractal dimension values on digital panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with radiographic records from before and after 3-dimensional (3D) conformational radiotherapy were selected. A single examiner carried out digital analyses of pixel intensity values and fractal dimensions, with the areas of interest unilaterally located in the right angle medullary region of the mandible below the mandibular canal and posterior to the molar region. Results: Statistically significant decreases were observed in the mean pixel intensity (P=0.0368) and fractal dimension (P=0.0495) values after radiotherapy. Conclusion: The results suggest that 3D conformational radiotherapy for head and neck cancer negatively affected the trabecular microarchitecture and mandibular bone mass.

Radiotherapy for locally recurrent rectal cancer treated with surgery alone as the initial treatment

  • Tanaka, Hidekazu;Yamaguchi, Takahiro;Hachiya, Kae;Okada, Sunaho;Kitahara, Masashi;Matsuyama, Katsuya;Matsuo, Masayuki
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Although the technical developments of radiotherapy have been remarkable, there are currently few reports on the treatment results of radiotherapy for local recurrence of rectal cancer treated with surgery alone as initial treatment in this three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy era. Thus, we retrospectively evaluated the treatment results of radiotherapy for local recurrence of rectal cancer treated with surgery alone as the initial treatment. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients who underwent radiotherapy were enrolled in this study. The dose per fraction was 2.0-3.5 Gy. Because the treatment schedule was variable, the biological effective dose (BED) was calculated. Results: Local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) rates from the completion of radiotherapy were calculated. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year LC rates were 51.5%, 24.5%, 19.6%, 19.6%, and 13.1%, respectively. LC rates were significantly higher for the high BED group (${\geq}75Gy_{10}$) than for the lower BED group (<$75Gy_{10}$). All patients who reported pain achieved pain relief. The duration of pain relief was significantly higher for the high BED group than for the lower BED group. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year OS rates were 82.6%, 56.5%, 45.2%, 38.7%, and 23.2%, respectively. There was a trend toward higher OS rates in with higher BED group compared to lower BED group. Conclusion: For patients with unresectable locally recurrent rectal cancer treated with surgery alone, radiotherapy is effective treatment. The prescribed BED should be more than $75Gy_{10}$, if the dose to the organ at risk is within acceptable levels.

Evaluation of Quality of Life in Turkish Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

  • Akkas, Ebru Atasever;Yucel, Birsen;Kilickap, Saadettin;Altuntas, Emine Elif
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.4805-4809
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    • 2013
  • Background: In this study, our aim was to investigate the effect of factors, such as radiotherapy, the dose of radiotherapy, the region of radiotherapy, the age of the patient, performance, co-morbidity, the stage of the disease and the therapy modalities on the quality of life of patients with head and neck cancer. Materials and Methods: Eighty-two patients who were treated by either chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy, at the Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, between February 2007 and September 2010, for head and neck cancer were included. The quality of life European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Questionnaire module to be used in Quality of Life assessments in Head and Neck Cancer (EORTC QLQ-H&N35) questionnaire was conducted in all patients before starting the radiotherapy, in the middle, at the end, at 1 month and at 6 months after the treatment. Results: According to the questionnaires at the end and at the $6^{th}$ month after the radiotherapy, it was found that the age of the patient, co-morbidity, ECOG performance state, localization, type of treatment, the stage of the disease, the dose and the region of radiotherapy affect some of the symptom scales for quality of life. Conclusions: Quality of life was affected negatively during and after the radiotherapy. However, in the $6^{th}$ month after the therapy, a significant improvement was observed in most symptoms.

Whole-liver Radiotherapy Concurrent with Chemotherapy as a Palliative Treatment for Colorectal Patients with Massive and Multiple Liver Metastases: a Retrospective Study

  • Yin, Hang;Lu, Kai;Qiao, Wen-Bo;Zhang, Hai-Yang;Sun, Di;You, Qing-Shan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.1597-1602
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate whether whole-liver radiotherapy plus a tumor-boost dose with concurrent chemotherapy is beneficial for colorectal cancer patients with massive and multiple liver metastases. From January 2007 to December 2012, 19 patients who exhibited massive (with a longest diameter > 5 cm) and invasive liver metastases and multiple metastases were treated with radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy. The total radiation dose was 53.4 Gy (range 38.8 Gy-66.3 Gy). All of the patients received a continuous intravenous dose of 5 fluorouracil (5-FU) 225 mg/m2 concurrently with radiation. The median survival time was 19 months. The 1- and 2- year overall survival rates were 78.3% and 14.3%, respectively. Of all of the patients who presented with abdominal pain, 100% experienced a decrease in pain. Decreases in the rates of ascites and jaundice were confirmed by ultrasound and bilirubin levels. No cases of Grade 4 or 5 acute or late toxicity were recorded. There were only two cases of Grade 3 toxicity (elevated bilirubin). These data provide evidence that whole-liver radiotherapy plus a tumor-boost dose with concurrent chemotherapy is beneficial for colorectal cancer patients with massive and multiple liver metastases.

Therapeutic Regimens and Prognostic Factors of Brain Metastatic Cancers

  • Song, Wen-Guang;Wang, Yi-Feng;Wang, Rui-Lin;Qu, Yin-E;Zhang, Zhi;Li, Guo-Zhong;Xiao, Ying;Fang, Fang;Chen, Hong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.923-927
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    • 2013
  • Objective: This work aims to investigate the therapeutic regimen of brain metastatic cancers and the relationship between clinical features and prognosis. Methods: Clinical data of 184 patients with brain metastatic cancers were collected and analysed for the relationship between survival time and age, gender, primary diseases, quantity of brain metastatic foci, their position, extra cranial lesions, and therapeutic regimens. Results: The average age of onset was 59.1 years old. The median survival time (MST) was 15.0 months, and the patients with breast cancer as the primary disease had the longest survival time. Females had a longer survival time than males. Patients with meningeal metastasis had extremely short survival time. Those with less than 3 brain metastatic foci survived longer than patients with more than 3. The MST of patients receiving radiotherapy only and the patients receiving chemotherapy only were all 10.0 months while the MST of patients receiving combination therapy was 16.0 months. Multiple COX regression analysis demonstrated that gender, primary diseases, and quantity of brain metastatic foci were independent prognostic factors for brain metastatic cancers. Conclusions: Chemotherapy is as important as radiotherapy in the treatment of brain metastatic cancer. Combination therapy is the best treatment mode. Male gender, brain metastatic cancers originating in the gastrointestinal tract, more than 3 metastatic foci, and involvement of meninges indicate a worse prognosis.

Postoperative radiotherapy in salivary ductal carcinoma: a single institution experience

  • Kim, Tae Hyung;Kim, Mi Sun;Choi, Seo Hee;Suh, Yang Gun;Koh, Yoon Woo;Kim, Se Hun;Choi, Eun Chang;Keum, Ki Chang
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.125-131
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: We reviewed treatment outcomes and prognostic factors for patients with salivary ductal carcinoma (SDC) treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy from 2005 to 2012. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 patients were identified and 15 eligible patients were included in analysis. Median age was 61 years (range, 40 to 71 years) and 12 patients (80%) were men. Twelve patients (80%) had a tumor in the parotid gland, 9 (60%) had T3 or T4 disease, and 9 (60%) had positive nodal disease. All patients underwent surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Postoperative radiotherapy was delivered using 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Locoregional failure-free survival (LRFFS), distant failure-free survival (DFFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Differences in survival based on risk factors were tested using a log-rank test. Results: Median total radiotherapy dose was 60 Gy (range, 52.5 to 63.6 Gy). Four patients received concurrent weekly chemotherapy with cisplatin. Among 10 patients who underwent surgery with neck dissection, 7 received modified radical neck dissection. With a median follow-up time of 38 months (range, 24 to 105 months), 4-year rates were 86% for LRFFS, 51% for DFFS, 46% for PFS, and 93% for OS. Local failure was observed in 2 patients (13%), and distant failure was observed in 7 (47%). The lung was the most common involved site of distant metastasis. Conclusion: Surgery and postoperative radiotherapy in SDC patients resulted in good local control, but high distant metastasis remained a major challenge.

Radiobiological mechanisms of stereotactic body radiation therapy and stereotactic radiation surgery

  • Kim, Mi-Sook;Kim, Wonwoo;Park, In Hwan;Kim, Hee Jong;Lee, Eunjin;Jung, Jae-Hoon;Cho, Lawrence Chinsoo;Song, Chang W.
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.265-275
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    • 2015
  • Despite the increasing use of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS) in recent years, the biological base of these high-dose hypo-fractionated radiotherapy modalities has been elusive. Given that most human tumors contain radioresistant hypoxic tumor cells, the radiobiological principles for the conventional multiple-fractionated radiotherapy cannot account for the high efficacy of SBRT and SRS. Recent emerging evidence strongly indicates that SBRT and SRS not only directly kill tumor cells, but also destroy the tumor vascular beds, thereby deteriorating intratumor microenvironment leading to indirect tumor cell death. Furthermore, indications are that the massive release of tumor antigens from the tumor cells directly and indirectly killed by SBRT and SRS stimulate anti-tumor immunity, thereby suppressing recurrence and metastatic tumor growth. The reoxygenation, repair, repopulation, and redistribution, which are important components in the response of tumors to conventional fractionated radiotherapy, play relatively little role in SBRT and SRS. The linear-quadratic model, which accounts for only direct cell death has been suggested to overestimate the cell death by high dose per fraction irradiation. However, the model may in some clinical cases incidentally do not overestimate total cell death because high-dose irradiation causes additional cell death through indirect mechanisms. For the improvement of the efficacy of SBRT and SRS, further investigation is warranted to gain detailed insights into the mechanisms underlying the SBRT and SRS.