• Title, Summary, Keyword: Radiotherapy

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A Study on Developing Customized Bolus using 3D Printers (3D 프린터를 이용한 Customized Bolus 제작에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Sang Min;Yang, Jin Ho;Lee, Seung Hyun;Kim, Jin Uk;Yeom, Du Seok
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.61-71
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    • 2015
  • Purpose : 3D Printers are used to create three-dimensional models based on blueprints. Based on this characteristic, it is feasible to develop a bolus that can minimize the air gap between skin and bolus in radiotherapy. This study aims to compare and analyze air gap and target dose at the branded 1 cm bolus with the developed customized bolus using 3D printers. Materials and Methods : RANDO phantom with a protruded tumor was used to procure images using CT simulator. CT DICOM file was transferred into the STL file, equivalent to 3D printers. Using this, customized bolus molding box (maintaining the 1 cm width) was created by processing 3D printers, and paraffin was melted to develop the customized bolus. The air gap of customized bolus and the branded 1 cm bolus was checked, and the differences in air gap was used to compare $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$ and $V_{95%}$ in treatment plan through Eclipse. Results : Customized bolus production period took about 3 days. The total volume of air gap was average $3.9cm^3$ at the customized bolus. And it was average $29.6cm^3$ at the branded 1 cm bolus. The customized bolus developed by the 3D printer was more useful in minimizing the air gap than the branded 1 cm bolus. In the 6 MV photon, at the customized bolus, $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$ of GTV were 102.8%, 88.1%, 99.1%, 95.0%, 94.4% and the $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$ of branded 1cm bolus were 101.4%, 92.0%, 98.2%, 95.2%, 95.7%, respectively. In the proton, at the customized bolus, $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$ of GTV were 104.1%, 84.0%, 101.2%, 95.1%, 99.8% and the $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$ of branded 1cm bolus were 104.8%, 87.9%, 101.5%, 94.9%, 99.9%, respectively. Thus, in treatment plan, there was no significant difference between the customized bolus and 1 cm bolus. However, the normal tissue nearby the GTV showed relatively lower radiation dose. Conclusion : The customized bolus developed by 3D printers was effective in minimizing the air gap, especially when it is used against the treatment area with irregular surface. However, the air gap between branded bolus and skin was not enough to cause a change in target dose. On the other hand, in the chest wall could confirm that dose decrease for small the air gap. Customized bolus production period took about 3 days and the development cost was quite expensive. Therefore, the commercialization of customized bolus developed by 3D printers requires low-cost 3D printer materials, adequate for the use of bolus.

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A Study on the Treatment of Combine Electron Beam in the Treatment of Breast Cancer Tumor Bed (유방암 Tumor bed 치료 시 혼합 전자선 치료 방법에 대한 고찰)

  • Lee, Geon Ho;Kang, Hyo Seok;Choi, Byoung Joon;Park, Sang Jun;Jung, Da Ee;Lee, Du Sang;Ahn, Min Woo;Jeon, Myeong Soo
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.51-56
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: The usefulness of using single-electron radiation for secondary radiotherapy of breast cancer patients after surgery is assessed and the use of a combine of different energy. Methods and materials : In this study, 40 patients (group A) using energy 6 MeV and 9 MeV, and 19 patients (group B) using a combine of 9 MeV and 12 MeV were studied among 59 patients who performed secondary care using combine electronic radiation. Each patient in each group, 6 MeV, 9 MeV, Combine(6 MeV / 9 MeV) and 9 MeV, 12 MeV, Combine (9 MeV / 12 MeV) were developed in different ways, and the maximum doses delivered to the original hospital, D95, D5, and $V_3$, $V_5$, $V_{10}$ were compared. Result: The D95 mean value of Group A treatment plan was $785.33{\pm}225.37cGy$, $1121.79{\pm}87.02cGy$ at 9 MeV, and $1010.98{\pm}111.17cGy$ at 6 MeV / 9 MeV, and the mean value at 6 MeV / 9 MeV was most appropriate for the dose. The mean values of the low dose area $V_3$ and $V_5$ in the lung of the breast direction being treated were $3.24{\pm}3.49%$ and $0.72{\pm}1.55%$ at 6 MeV, the highest 9 MeV at $7.25{\pm}4.59%$, $3.07{\pm}2.64%$, the lowest at 6 MeV. Maximum and average lung dose was $727.78{\pm}137.27cGy$ at 6 MeV / 9 MeV, $49.16{\pm}24.44cGy$, highest 9 MeV at $998.97{\pm}114.35cGy$, $85.33{\pm}41.18cGy$, and lowest 6 MeV at $387.78{\pm}208.88cGy$, $9.27{\pm}6.60cGy$. The value of $V_{10}$ was all close to zero. Group B appeared in the pattern of Group A. Conclusion: Relative differences in low-dose areas of the lungs $V_3$ and $V_5$ were seen and were most effective in the dose transfer of tumor bed in the application of combined energy. It is thought that the method of using electronic energy in further radiation treatments for breast cancer is a more effective way to use the energy effect of limiting energy resources, and that if you think about it again, it could be a little more beneficial radiation treatment for patients.

The Expression of Adhesion Molecules on BAL Cells and Serum Soluble ICAM-1 Level after the Radiotherapy for the Lung Cancer and Its Relationship to the Development of of Radiation Pneumonitis and Fibrosis (방사선 치료후 기관지-폐포세척액내 폐포대식세포 및 임파구의 접착분자발현 변화와 방사선에 의한 폐렴 및 폐섬유증발생의 예측인자로서의 의의)

  • Kim, Dong-Soon;Paik, Sang-Hoon;Choi, Eun-Kyung;Chang, Hye-Sook;Choi, Jung-Eun;Lim, Chae-Man;Koh, Yun-Suck;Lee, Sang-Do;Kim, Woo-Sung;Kim, Won-Dong
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.75-87
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    • 1996
  • Background: Lung cancer is the second most frequent malignancy in man in Korea. Surgery is the best treatment modality for non-small cell lung cancer, but most patients were presented in far advanced stage. So radiation therapy(RT) with or without chemotherapy is the next choice and radiation-induced pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis is the major limiting factor for the curative RT. Radiation pneumonitis is manifested with fever, cough and dyspnea, 2~3 months after the termination of radiotherpy. Chest X ray shows infiltration, typically limited to the radiation field, but occasionally bilateral infiltration was reported. Also Gibson et al reported that BAL lymphocytosis was found in both lungs, even though the radiation was confined to one lung. The aim of this study is to investigate the change of adhesion molecules expression on BAL cells and serum soluble ICAM-1(sICAM-1) level after the RT and its relationship to the development of radiation pneumonitis. The second aim is to confirm the bilaterality of change of BAL cell pattern and adhesion molecule expression. Subjects: BAL and the measurement of sICAM level in serum and BALF were done on 29 patients with lung cancer who received RT with curative intention. The BAL was done before the RT in 16 patients and 1~2 month after RT in 18 patients. 5 patients performed BAL before and after RT. Result: Clinically significant radiation pneumonitis developed in 7 patients. After RT, total cell count in BAL was significantly increased from $(20.2{\pm}10.2){\times}10^6\;cells/ml$ to $(35.3{\pm}21.6){\times}10^6\;cells/ml$ (p=0.0344) and %lymphocyte was also increased from $5.3{\pm}4.2%$ to $39.6{\pm}23.4%$ (p=0.0001) in all patient group. There was no difference between ipsilateral and contraleteral side to RT, and between the patients with and without radiation-pneumonitis. In whole patient group, the level of sICAM-1 showed no significant change after RT(in serum: $378{\pm}148$, $411{\pm}150\;ng/ml$, BALF: $20.2{\pm}12.2$, $45.1{\pm}34.8\;ng/ml$, respectively), but there was a significant difference between the patients with pneumonitis and without pneumonitis (serum: $505{\pm}164$ vs $345{\pm}102\;ng/ml$, p=0.0253, BALF: $67.9{\pm}36.3$ vs $25.2{\pm}17.9\;ng/ml$, p=0.0112). The expression of ICAM-1 on alveolar macrophages (AM) tends to increase after RT (RMFI: from $1.28{\pm}0.479$ to $1.63{\pm}0.539$, p=0.0605), but it was significantly high in patients with pneumonitis ($2.10{\pm}0.390$) compared to the patients without pneumonitis ($1.28{\pm}0.31$, p=0.0002). ICAM-1 expression on lymphocytes and CD 18 (${\beta}2$-integrin) expression tended to be high in the patients with pneumonitis but the difference was statiastically not significant. Conclusion: Subclinical alveolitis on the basis of BAL finding developed bilaterally in all patients after RT. But clinically significant pneumonitis occurred in much smaller fraction and the ICAM-1 expression on AM and the sICAM-1 level in serum were good indicator of it.

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Results of Definitive Chemoradiotherapy for Unresectable Esophageal Cancer (절제 불가능한 식도암의 근치적 항암화학방사선치료의 성적)

  • Noh, O-Kyu;Je, Hyoung-Uk;Kim, Sung-Bae;Lee, Gin-Hyug;Park, Seung-Il;Lee, Sang-Wook;Song, Si-Yeol;Ahn, Seung-Do;Choi, Eun-Kyung;Kim, Jong-Hoon
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.195-203
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: To investigate the treatment outcome and failure patterns after definitive chemoradiation therapy in locally advanced, unresectable esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods: From February 1994 to December 2002, 168 patients with locally advanced unresectable or medically inoperable esophageal cancer were treated by definitive chemoradiation therapy. External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) ($42{\sim}46\;Gy$) was delivered to the region encompassing the primary tumor and involved lymph nodes, while the supraclavicular fossa and celiac area were included in the treatment area as a function of disease location. The administered cone-down radiation dose to the gross tumor went up to $54{\sim}66\;Gy$, while the fraction size of the EBRT was 1.8-2.0 Gy/fraction qd or 1.2 Gy/fraction bid. An optional high dose rate (HDR) intraluminal brachytherapy (BT) boost was also administered (Ir-192, $9{\sim}12\;Gy/3{\sim}4\;fx$). Two cycles of concurrent FP chemotherapy (5-FU $1,000\;mg/m^2$/day, days $2{\sim}6$, $30{\sim}34$, cisplatin $60\;mg/m^2$/day, days 1, 29) were delivered during radiotherapy with the addition of two more cycles. Results: One hundred sixty patients were analyzable for this review [median follow-up time: 10 months (range $1{\sim}149$ months)). The number of patients within AJCC stages I, II, III, and IV was 5 (3.1%), 38 (23.8%), 68 (42.5%), and 49 (30.6%), respectively. A HDR intraluminal BT was performed in 26 patients. The 160 patients had a median EBRT radiation dose of 59.4 Gy (range $44.4{\sim}66$) and a total radiation dose, including BT, of 60 Gy (range $44.4{\sim}72$), while 144 patients received a dose higher than 40 Gy. Despite the treatment, the disease recurrence rate was 101/160 (63.1%). Of these, the patterns of recurrence were local in 20 patients (12.5%), persistent disease and local progression in 61 (38.1%), distant metastasis in 15 (9.4%), and concomitant local and distant failure in 5 (3.1%). The overall survival rate was 31.8% at 2 years and 14.2% at 5 years (median 11.1 months). Disease-free survival was 29.0% at 2 years and 22.7% at 5 years (median 10.4 months). The response to treatment and N-stage were significant factors affecting overall survival. In addition, total radiation dose (${\geq}50\;Gy$ vs. < 50 Gy), BT and fractionation scheme (qd. vs. bid.) were not significant factors for overall survival and disease-free survival. Conclusion: Survival outcome after definitive chemoradiation therapy in unresectable esophageal cancer was comparable to those of other series. The main failure pattern was local recurrence. Survival rate did not improve with increased radiation dose over 50 Gy or the use of brachytherapy or hyperfractionation.

Comparison of CT based-CTV plan and CT based-ICRU38 plan in Brachytherapy Planning of Uterine Cervix Cancer (자궁경부암 강내조사 시 CT를 이용한 CTV에 근거한 치료계획과 ICRU 38에 근거한 치료계획의 비교)

  • Cho, Jung-Ken;Han, Tae-Jong
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.105-110
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    • 2007
  • Purpose : In spite of recent remarkable improvement of diagnostic imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, and PET and radiation therapy planing systems, ICR plan of uterine cervix cancer, based on recommendation of ICRU38(2D film-based) such as Point A, is still used widely. A 3-dimensional ICR plan based on CT image provides dose-volume histogram(DVH) information of the tumor and normal tissue. In this study, we compared tumor-dose, rectal-dose and bladder-dose through an analysis of DVH between CTV plan and ICRU38 plan based on CT image. Method and Material : We analyzed 11 patients with a cervix cancer who received the ICR of Ir-192 HDR. After 40Gy of external beam radiation therapy, ICR plan was established using PLATO(Nucletron) v.14.2 planing system. CT scan was done to all the patients using CT-simulator(Ultra Z, Philips). We contoured CTV, rectum and bladder on the CT image and established CTV plan which delivers the 100% dose to CTV and ICRU plan which delivers the 100% dose to the point A. Result : The volume$(average{\pm}SD)$ of CTV, rectum and bladder in all of 11 patients is $21.8{\pm}6.6cm^3,\;60.9{\pm}25.0cm^3,\;111.6{\pm}40.1cm^3$ respectively. The volume covered by 100% isodose curve is $126.7{\pm}18.9cm^3$ in ICRU plan and $98.2{\pm}74.5cm^3$ in CTV plan(p=0.0001), respectively. In (On) ICRU planning, $22.0cm^3$ of CTV volume was not covered by 100% isodose curve in one patient whose residual tumor size is greater than 4cm, while more than 100% dose was irradiated unnecessarily to the normal organ of $62.2{\pm}4.8cm^3$ other than the tumor in the remaining 10 patients with a residual tumor less than 4cm in size. Bladder dose recommended by ICRU 38 was $90.1{\pm}21.3%$ and $68.7{\pm}26.6%$ in ICRU plan and in CTV plan respectively(p=0.001) while rectal dose recommended by ICRU 38 was $86.4{\pm}18.3%$ and $76.9{\pm}15.6%$ in ICRU plan and in CTV plan, respectively(p=0.08). Bladder and rectum maximum dose was $137.2{\pm}50.1%,\;101.1{\pm}41.8%$ in ICRU plan and $107.6{\pm}47.9%,\;86.9{\pm}30.8%$ in CTV plan, respectively. Therefore, the radiation dose to normal organ was lower in CTV plan than in ICRU plan. But the normal tissue dose was remarkably higher than a recommended dose in CTV plan in one patient whose residual tumor size was greater than 4cm. The volume of rectum receiving more than 80% isodose (V80rec) was $1.8{\pm}2.4cm^3$ in ICRU plan and $0.7{\pm}1.0cm^3$ in CTV plan(p=0.02). The volume of bladder receiving more than 80% isodose(V80bla) was $12.2{\pm}8.9cm^3$ in ICRU plan and $3.5{\pm}4.1cm^3$ in CTV plan(p=0.005). According to these parameters, CTV plan could also save more normal tissue compared to ICRU38 plan. Conclusion : An unnecessary excessive radiation dose is irradiated to normal tissues within 100% isodose area in the traditional ICRU plan in case of a small size of cervix cancer, but if we use CTV plan based on CT image, the normal tissue dose could be reduced remarkably without a compromise of tumor dose. However, in a large tumor case, we need more research on an effective 3D-planing to reduce the normal tissue dose.

Experimental investigation of the photoneutron production out of the high-energy photon fields at linear accelerator (고에너지 방사선치료 시 치료변수에 따른 광중성자 선량 변화 연구)

  • Kim, Yeon Su;Yoon, In Ha;Bae, Sun Myeong;Kang, Tae Young;Baek, Geum Mun;Kim, Sung Hwan;Nam, Uk Won;Lee, Jae Jin;Park, Yeong Sik
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.257-264
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    • 2014
  • Purpose : Photoneutron dose in high-energy photon radiotherapy at linear accelerator increase the risk for secondary cancer. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the dose variation of photoneutron with different treatment method, flattening filter, dose rate and gantry angle in radiation therapy with high-energy photon beam ($E{\geq}8MeV$). Materials and Methods : TrueBeam $ST{\time}TM$(Ver1.5, Varian, USA) and Korea Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (KTEPC) were used to detect the photoneutron dose out of the high-energy photon field. Complex Patient plans using Eclipse planning system (Version 10.0, Varian, USA) was used to experiment with different treatment technique(IMRT, VMAT), condition of flattening filter and three different dose rate. Scattered photoneutron dose was measured at eight different gantry angles with open field (Field size : $5{\time}5cm$). Results : The mean values of the detected photoneutron dose from IMRT and VMAT were $449.7{\mu}Sv$, $2940.7{\mu}Sv$. The mean values of the detected photoneutron dose with Flattening Filter(FF) and Flattening Filter Free(FFF) were measured as $2940.7{\mu}Sv$, $232.0{\mu}Sv$. The mean values of the photoneutron dose for each test plan (case 1, case 2 and case 3) with FFF at the three different dose rate (400, 1200, 2400 MU/min) were $3242.5{\mu}Sv$, $3189.4{\mu}Sv$, $3191.2{\mu}Sv$ with case 1, $3493.2{\mu}Sv$, $3482.6{\mu}Sv$, $3477.2{\mu}Sv$ with case 2 and $4592.2{\mu}Sv$, $4580.0{\mu}Sv$, $4542.3{\mu}Sv$ with case 3, respectively. The mean values of the photoneutron dose at eight different gantry angles ($0^{\circ}$, $45^{\circ}$, $90^{\circ}$, $135^{\circ}$, $180^{\circ}$, $225^{\circ}$, $270^{\circ}$, $315^{\circ}$) were measured as $3.2{\mu}Sv$, $4.3{\mu}Sv$, $5.3{\mu}Sv$, $11.3{\mu}Sv$, $14.7{\mu}Sv$, $11.2{\mu}Sv$, $3.7{\mu}Sv$, $3.0{\mu}Sv$ at 10MV and as $373.7{\mu}Sv$, $369.6{\mu}Sv$, $384.4{\mu}Sv$, $423.6{\mu}Sv$, $447.1{\mu}Sv$, $448.0{\mu}Sv$, $384.5{\mu}Sv$, $377.3{\mu}Sv$ at 15MV. Conclusion : As a result, it is possible to reduce photoneutron dose using FFF mode and VMAT method with TrueBeam $ST{\time}TM$. The risk for secondary cancer of the patients will be decreased with continuous evaluation of the photoneutron dose.