• Title, Summary, Keyword: Radiotherapy

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Shielding for Critical Organs and Radiation Exposure Dose Distribution in Patients with High Energy Radiotherapy (고 에너지 방사선치료에서 환자의 피폭선량 분포와 생식선의 차폐)

  • Chu, Sung-Sil;Suh, Chang-Ok;Kim, Gwi-Eon
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2002
  • High energy photon beams from medical linear accelerators produce large scattered radiation by various components of the treatment head, collimator and walls or objects in the treatment room including the patient. These scattered radiation do not provide therapeutic dose and are considered a hazard from the radiation safety perspective. Scattered dose of therapeutic high energy radiation beams are contributed significant unwanted dose to the patient. ICRP take the position that a dose of 500mGy may cause abortion at any stage of pregnancy and that radiation detriment to the fetus includes risk of mental retardation with a possible threshold in the dose response relationship around 100 mGy for the gestational period. The ICRP principle of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) was recommended for protection of occupation upon the linear no-threshold dose response hypothesis for cancer induction. We suggest this ALARA principle be applied to the fetus and testicle in therapeutic treatment. Radiation dose outside a photon treatment filed is mostly due to scattered photons. This scattered dose is a function of the distance from the beam edge, treatment geometry, primary photon energy, and depth in the patient. The need for effective shielding of the fetus and testicle is reinforced when young patients ate treated with external beam radiation therapy and then shielding designed to reduce the scattered photon dose to normal organs have to considered. Irradiation was performed in phantom using high energy photon beams produced by a Varian 2100C/D medical linear accelerator (Varian Oncology Systems, Palo Alto, CA) located at the Yonsei Cancer Center. The composite phantom used was comprised of a commercially available anthropomorphic Rando phantom (Phantom Laboratory Inc., Salem, YN) and a rectangular solid polystyrene phantom of dimensions $30cm{\times}30cm{\times}20cm$. the anthropomorphic Rando phantom represents an average man made from tissue equivalent materials that is transected into transverse 36 slices of 2.5cm thickness. Photon dose was measured using a Capintec PR-06C ionization chamber with Capintec 192 electrometer (Capintec Inc., Ramsey, NJ), TLD( VICTOREEN 5000. LiF) and film dosimetry V-Omat, Kodak). In case of fetus, the dosimeter was placed at a depth of loom in this phantom at 100cm source to axis distance and located centrally 15cm from the inferior edge of the $30cm{\times}30cm^2$ x-ray beam irradiating the Rando phantom chest wall. A acryl bridge of size $40cm{\times}40cm^2$ and a clear space of about 20 cm was fabricated and placed on top of the rectangular polystyrene phantom representing the abdomen of the patient. The leaf pot for testicle shielding was made as various shape, sizes, thickness and supporting stand. The scattered photon with and without shielding were measured at the representative position of the fetus and testicle. Measurement of radiation scattered dose outside fields and critical organs, like fetus position and testicle region, from chest or pelvic irradiation by large fie]d of high energy radiation beam was performed using an ionization chamber and film dosimetry. The scattered doses outside field were measured 5 - 10% of maximum doses in fields and exponentially decrease from field margins. The scattered photon dose received the fetus and testicle from thorax field irradiation was measured about 1 mGy/Gy of photon treatment dose. Shielding construction to reduce this scattered dose was investigated using lead sheet and blocks. Lead pot shield for testicle reduced the scatter dose under 10 mGy when photon beam of 60 Gy was irradiated in abdomen region. The scattered photon dose is reduced when the lead shield was used while the no significant reduction of scattered photon dose was observed and 2-3 mm lead sheets refuted the skin dose under 80% and almost electron contamination. The results indicate that it was possible to improve shielding to reduce scattered photon for fetus and testicle when a young patients were treated with a high energy photon beam.

Radiation Therapy Alone for Early Stage Non-small Cell Carcinoma of the Lung (초기 비소세포폐암의 방사선 단독치료)

  • Chun, Ha-Chung;Lee, Myung-Za
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.323-327
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : To evaluate the outcome of early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients who were treated with radiation therapy alone and define the optimal radiotherapeutic regimen for these patients. Materials and Methods : A retrospective review was peformed on patients with sage I or II non-small cell carcinoma of the lung that were treated at our institution between June, 1987 and May, 2000. A total of 21 patients treated definitively with radiation therapy alone were included in this study. The age of the patients ranged from 53 to 81 years with a median of 66 years. All the patients were male. The medical reasons for inoperability were lack of pulmonary reserve, cardiovascular disease, poor performance status, old age, and patient refusal in the decreasing order. Pathological evidence was not adequate to characterize the non-small cell subtype in two patients. Of the remaining 19 patients, 16 had squamous cell carcinoma and 3 had adenocarcinoma. Treatment was given with conventional fractionation, once a day, five times a week. The doses to the primary site ranged from 56 Gy to 59 Gy. No patients were lost to follow-up. Results : The overall survival rates for the entire group at 2, 3 and 5 years were 41, 30 and $21\%$, respectively. The cause specific survivals at 2, 3 and 5 years were 55, 36 and $25\%$, respectively. An intercurrent disease was the cause of death in two patients. The cumulative local failure rate at 5 years was $43\%$. Nine of the 21 patients had treatment failures after the curative radiotherapy was attempted. Local recurrences as the first site of failure were documented in 7 patients. Therefore, local failure alone represented $78\%$ of the total failures. Those patients whose tumor sizes were less than 4 cm had a significantly better 5 year disease free survival than those with tumors greater than 4 cm $(0\%\;vs\;36\%)$. Those patients with a Karnofsky performance status less than 70 did not differ significantly with respect to actuarial survival when compared to those with a status greater than 70 $(25\%\;vs\;26\%,\;p>0.05)$. Conclusion : Radiation therapy 리one is an effective and safe treatment for early stage non-small ceil lung cancer patients who are medically inoperable or refuse surgery. Also we believe that a higher radiation dose to the primary site could improve the local control rate, and ultimately the overall survival rate.

The Clinical Significance of Follow Up SCC Levels in Patients with Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix (재발성 자궁경부 편평상피암 환자들에서 Squamous Cell Carcinoma 항원의 유용성)

  • Choi Young Min;Park Sung Kwang;Cho Heung Lae;Lee Kyoung Bok;Kim Ki Tae;Kim Juree;Sohn Seung Chang
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.353-358
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : To investigate the clinical usefulness of a follow-up examination using serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) for the early detection of recurrence in patients treated for conical squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods : 20 patients who were treated for recurrent cervical squamous cell carcinoma between 1997 and 1998, who had experienced a complete remission after radiotherapy and who underwent an SCC test around the time when recurrence was detected, were included in this study. The levels of SCC were measured from the serum of the patients by immunoassay and values less than 2 ng/mL were regarded as normal. The sensitivity of the SCC test for use in the detection of recurrence, the association between the SCC values and the recurrence patterns and the tumor size and stage, and the temporal relation between the SCC increment and recurrence detection were evaluated. Results : The SCC values were above normal in 17 out of 20 patients, so the sensitivity of the SCC test for the detection of recurrence was $85\%$, and the mean and median of the SCC values were 15.2 and 9.5 ng/mL, respectively. No differences were observed in the SCC values according to the recurrence sites. For 11 patients, the SCC values were measured over a period of 6 months before recurrence was detected, and the mean and median values were 13.6 and 3.6 ng/mL, respectively. The SCC values of 7 patients were higher than the normal range, and the SCC values of the other 4 patients were normal but 3 among them were above 1.5 ng/mL. At the time of diagnosis, the SCC valuess were measured for 16 of the 20 recurrent patients, and the SCC values of the patients with a bulky tumor $(\geq4\;cm)$ or who were in stage IIb or III were higher than those of the patients with a non-bulky tumor or who were in stage Ib or IIa. Conclusion : The SCC test is thought to be useful for the early detection of recurrence during the follow up period in patients treated for cervical squamous cell carcinoma. When an effective salvage treatment is developed in the future, the benefit of this follow-up SCC test will be increased.

Development of Adjustable Head holder Couch in H&N Cancer Radiation Therapy (두경부암 방사선 치료 시 Set-Up 조정 Head Holder 장치의 개발)

  • Shim, JaeGoo;Song, KiWon;Kim, JinMan;Park, MyoungHwan
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.43-50
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    • 2014
  • In case of all patients who receive radiation therapy, a treatment plan is established and all steps of treatment are planned in the same geometrical condition. In case of head and neck cancer patients who undergo simulated treatment through computed tomography (CT), patients are fixed onto a table for planning, but laid on the top of the treatment table in the radiation therapy room. This study excogitated and fabricated an adjustable holder for head and neck cancer patients to fix patient's position and geometrical discrepancies when performing radiation therapy on head and neck cancer patients, and compared the error before and after adjusting the position of patients due to difference in weight to evaluate the correlation between patients' weight and range of error. Computed tomography system(High Advantage, GE, USA) is used for phantom to maintain the supine position to acquire the images of the therapy site for IMRT. IMRT 4MV X-rays was used by applying the LINAC(21EX, Varian, U.S.A). Treatment planning system (Pinnacle, ver. 9.1h, Philips, Madison, USA) was used. The setup accuracy was compared with each measurement was repeated five times for each weight (0, 15, and 30Kg) and CBCT was performed 30 times to find the mean and standard deviation of errors before and after the adjustment of each weight. SPSS ver.19.0(SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL,USA) statistics program was used to perform the Wilcoxon Rank test for significance evaluation and the Spearman analysis was used as the tool to analyze the significance evaluation of the correlation of weight. As a result of measuring the error values from CBCT before and after adjusting the position due to the weight difference, X,Y,Z axis was $0.4{\pm}0.8mm$, $0.8{\pm}0.4mm$, 0 for 0Kg before the adjustment. In 15Kg CBCT before and after adjusting the position due to the weight difference, X,Y,Z axis was $0.2{\pm}0.8mm$, $1.2{\pm}0.4mm$, $2.0{\pm}0.4mm$. After adjusting position was X,Y,Z axis was $0.2{\pm}0.4mm$, $0.4{\pm}0.5mm$, $0.4{\pm}0.5mm$. In 30Kg CBCT before and after adjusting the position due to the weight difference, X,Y,Z axis was $0.8{\pm}0.4mm$, $2.4{\pm}0.5mm$, $4.4{\pm}0.8mm$. After adjusting position was X,Y,Z axis was $0.6{\pm}0.5mm$, $1.0{\pm}0mm$, $0.6{\pm}0.5mm$. When the holder for the head and neck cancer was used to adjust the ab.0ove error value, the error values from CBCT were $0.2{\pm}0.8mm$ for the X axis, $0.40{\pm}0.54mm$ for Y axis, and 0 for Z axis. As a result of statistically analyzing each value before and after the adjustment the value was significant with p<0.034 at the Z axis with 15Kg of weight and with p<0.038 and p<0.041 at the Y and Z axes respectively with 30Kg of weight. There was a significant difference with p<0.008 when the analysis was performed through Kruscal-Wallis in terms of the difference in the adjusted values of the three weight groups. As it could reduce the errors, patients' reproduction could be improved for more precise and accurate radiation therapy. Development of an adjustable device for head and neck cancer patients is significant because it improves the reproduction of existing equipment by reducing the errors in patients' position.

Surgery Alone and Surgery Plus Postoperative Radiation Therapy for Patients with pT3N0 Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Invading the Chest Wall (흉벽을 침범한 pT3N0 비소세포폐암 환자에서 수술 단독과 수술 후 방사선치료)

  • 박영제;임도훈;김관민;김진국;심영목;안용찬
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.37 no.10
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    • pp.845-855
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    • 2004
  • Background: No general consensus has been available regarding the necessity of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) and its optimal techniques in the patients with chest wall invasion (pT3cw) and node negative (N0) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We did retrospective analyses on the pT3cwN0 NSCLC patients who received PORT because of presumed inadequate resection margin on surgical findings. And we compared them with the pT3cwN0 NSCLC patients who did not received PORT during the same period. Material and Method: From Aug. of 1994 till June of 2002, 22 pT3cwN0 NSCLC patients received PORT-PORT (+) group- and 16 pT3cwN0 NSCLC patients had no PORT-PORT (-) group. The radiation target volume for PORT (+) group was confined to the tumor bed plus the immediate adjacent tissue only, and no regional lymphatics were included. The prognostic factors for all patients were analyzed and survival rates, failure patterns were compared with two groups. Result: Age, tumor size, depth of chest wall invasion, postoperative mobidities were greater in PORT (-) group than PORT (+) group. In PORT (-) group, four patients who were consulted for PORT did not receive the PORT because of self refusal (3 patients) and delay in the wound repair (1 patient). For all patients, overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), loco-regional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and distant metastases-free survival (DMFS) rates at 5 years were 35.3%, 30.3%, 80.9%, 36.3%. In univariate and multivariate analysis, only PORT significantly affect the survival. The 5 year as rates were 43.3% in the PORT (+) group and 25.0% in PORT (-) group (p=0.03). DFS, LRFS, DMFS rates were 36.9%, 84.9%, 43.1 % in PORT (+) group and 18.8%, 79.4%, 21.9% in PORT(-) group respectively. Three patients in PORT (-) group died of intercurrent disease without the evidence of recurrence. Few suffered from acute and late radiation side effects, all of which were RTOG grade 2 or lower. Conclusion: The strategy of adding PORT to surgery to improve the probability not only of local control but also of survival could be justified, considering that local control was the most important component in the successful treatment of pT3cw NSCLC patients, especially when the resection margin was not adequate. Authors were successful in the marked reduction of the incidence as well as the severity of the acute and late side effects of PORT, without taking too high risk of the regional failures by eliminating the regional lymphatics from the radiation target volume.

Multimodality Treatement in Patients with Clinical Stage IIIA NSCLC (임상적 IIIA병기 비소세포폐암의 다각적 치료의 효과)

  • Lee, Yun Seun;Jang, Pil Soon;kang, Hyun Mo;Lee, Jeung Eyun;Kwon, Sun Jung;An, Jin Yong;Jung, Sung Soo;Kim, Ju Ock;Kim, Sun Young
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.57 no.6
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    • pp.557-566
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    • 2004
  • Background : To find out effectiveness of multimodality treatments based on induction chemotherapy(CTx) in patients with clinical stage IIIA NSCLC Methods : From 1997 to 2002, 74 patients with clinical stage IIIA NSCLC underwent induction CTx at the hospital of Chungnam National University. Induction CTx included above two cycles of cisplatin-based regimens(ectoposide, gemcitabine, vinorelbine, or taxol) followed by tumor evaluation. In 30 complete resection group, additional 4500-5000cGy radiotherapy(RTx) was delivered in 15 patients with pathologic nodal metastasis. 29 out of 44 patients who were unresectable disease, refusal of operation, and incomplete resection were followed by 60-70Gy RTx in local treatment. Additional 1-3 cycle CTx were done in case of induction CTx responders in both local treatment groups. Results : Induction CTx response rate were 44.6%(complete remission 1.4% & partial response 43.2%) and there was no difference of response rate by regimens(p=0.506). After induction chemotherapy, only 33 out of resectable 55 ones(including initial resectable 37 patients) were performed by surgical treatment because of 13 refusal of surgery by themselves and 9 poor predicted reserve lung function. There were 30(40.5%) patients with complete resection, 2(2.6%) persons with incomplete resection, and 1(1.3%) person with open & closure. Response rate in 27 ones with chest RTx out of non-operation group was 4.8% CR and 11.9% PR. In complete resection group, relapse free interval was 13.6 months and 2 year recur rate was 52%. In non-complete resection(incomplete resection or non-operation) group, disease progression free interval was 11.2 months and 2 year disease progression rate was 66.7%. Median survival time of induction CTx 74 patients with IIIA NSCLC was 25.1months. When compared complete resection group with non-complete resection group, the median survival time was 31.7 and 23.4months(p=0.024) and the 2-year overall survival rate was 80% and 41%. In the complete resection group, adjuvant postoperative RTx subgroup significantly improved the 2-year local control rate(0% vs. 40%, p= 0.007) but did not significantly improve overall survival(32.2months vs. 34.9months, p=0.48). Conculusion : Induction CTx is a possible method in the multimodality treatments, especially followed by complete resection, but overall survival by any local treatment(surgical resection or RTx) was low. Additional studies should be needed to analysis data for appropriate patient selection, new chemotherapy regimens and the time when should RTx be initiated.

Development of New 4D Phantom Model in Respiratory Gated Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Lung SBRT (폐암 SBRT에서 호흡동조 VMAT의 정확성 분석을 위한 새로운 4D 팬텀 모델 개발)

  • Yoon, KyoungJun;Kwak, JungWon;Cho, ByungChul;Song, SiYeol;Lee, SangWook;Ahn, SeungDo;Nam, SangHee
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.100-109
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    • 2014
  • In stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), the accurate location of treatment sites should be guaranteed from the respiratory motions of patients. Lots of studies on this topic have been conducted. In this letter, a new verification method simulating the real respiratory motion of heterogenous treatment regions was proposed to investigate the accuracy of lung SBRT for Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy. Based on the CT images of lung cancer patients, lung phantoms were fabricated to equip in $QUASAR^{TM}$ respiratory moving phantom using 3D printer. The phantom was bisected in order to measure 2D dose distributions by the insertion of EBT3 film. To ensure the dose calculation accuracy in heterogeneous condition, The homogeneous plastic phantom were also utilized. Two dose algorithms; Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA) and AcurosXB (AXB) were applied in plan dose calculation processes. In order to evaluate the accuracy of treatments under respiratory motion, we analyzed the gamma index between the plan dose and film dose measured under various moving conditions; static and moving target with or without gating. The CT number of GTV region was 78 HU for real patient and 92 HU for the homemade lung phantom. The gamma pass rates with 3%/3 mm criteria between the plan dose calculated by AAA algorithm and the film doses measured in heterogeneous lung phantom under gated and no gated beam delivery with respiratory motion were 88% and 78%. In static case, 95% of gamma pass rate was presented. In the all cases of homogeneous phantom, the gamma pass rates were more than 99%. Applied AcurosXB algorithm, for heterogeneous phantom, more than 98% and for homogeneous phantom, more than 99% of gamma pass rates were achieved. Since the respiratory amplitude was relatively small and the breath pattern had the longer exhale phase than inhale, the gamma pass rates in 3%/3 mm criteria didn't make any significant difference for various motion conditions. In this study, the new phantom model of 4D dose distribution verification using patient-specific lung phantoms moving in real breathing patterns was successfully implemented. It was also evaluated that the model provides the capability to verify dose distributions delivered in the more realistic condition and also the accuracy of dose calculation.

Development of Artificial Pulmonary Nodule for Evaluation of Motion on Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy (움직임 기반 진단 및 치료 평가를 위한 인공폐결절 개발)

  • Woo, Sang-Keun;Park, Nohwon;Park, Seungwoo;Yu, Jung Woo;Han, Suchul;Lee, Seungjun;Kim, Kyeong Min;Kang, Joo Hyun;Ji, Young Hoon;Eom, Kidong
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.76-83
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    • 2013
  • Previous studies about effect of respiratory motion on diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy have been performed by monitoring external motions but these can not reflect internal organ motion well. The aim of this study was to develope the artificial pulmonary nodule able to perform non-invasive implantation to dogs in the thorax and to evaluate applicability of the model to respiratory motion studies on PET image acquisition and radiation delivery by phantom studies. Artificial pulmonary nodule was developed on the basis of 8 Fr disposable gastric feeding tube. Four anesthetized dogs underwent implantation of the models via trachea and implanted locations of the models were confirmed by fluoroscopic images. Artificial pulmonary nodule models for PET injected $^{18}F$-FDG and mounted on the respiratory motion phantom. PET images of those acquired under static, 10-rpm- and 15-rpm-longitudinal round motion status. Artificial pulmonary nodule models for radiation delivery inserted glass dosemeter and mounted on the respiratory motion phantom. Radiation delivery was performed at 1 Gy under static, 10-rpm- and 15-rpm-longitudinal round motion status. Fluoroscpic images showed that all models implanted in the proximal caudal bronchiole and location of models changed as respiratory cycle. Artificial pulmonary nodule model showed motion artifact as respiratory motion on PET images. SNR of respiratory gated images was 7.21. which was decreased when compared with that of reference images 10.15. However, counts of respiratory images on profiles showed similar pattern with those of reference images when compared with those of static images, and it is assured that reconstruction of images using by respiratory gating improved image quality. Delivery dose to glass dosemeter inserted in the models were same under static and 10-rpm-longitudinal motion status with 0.91 Gy, but dose delivered under 15-rpm-longitudinal motion status was decreased with 0.90 Gy. Mild decrease of delivered radiation dose confirmed by electrometer. The model implanted in the proximal caudal bronchiole with high feasibility and reflected pulmonary internal motion on fluoroscopic images. Motion artifact could show on PET images and respiratory motion resulted in mild blurring during radiation delivery. So, the artificial pulmonary nodule model will be useful tools for study about evaluation of motion on diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy using laboratory animals.

Comparison and evaluation between 3D-bolus and step-bolus, the assistive radiotherapy devices for the patients who had undergone modified radical mastectomy surgery (변형 근치적 유방절제술 시행 환자의 방사선 치료 시 3D-bolus와 step-bolus의 비교 평가)

  • Jang, Wonseok;Park, Kwangwoo;Shin, Dongbong;Kim, Jongdae;Kim, Seijoon;Ha, Jinsook;Jeon, Mijin;Cho, Yoonjin;Jung, Inho
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.7-16
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    • 2016
  • Purpose : This study aimed to compare and evaluate between the efficiency of two respective devices, 3D-bolus and step-bolus when the devices were used for the treatment of patients whose chest walls were required to undergo the electron beam therapy after the surgical procedure of modified radical mastectomy, MRM. Materials and Methods : The treatment plan of reverse hockey stick method, using the photon beam and electron beam, had been set for six breast cancer patients and these 6 breast cancer patients were selected to be the subjects for this study. The prescribed dose of electron beam for anterior chest wall was set to be 180 cGy per treatment and both the 3D-bolus, produced using 3D printer(CubeX, 3D systems, USA) and the self-made conventional step-bolus were used respectively. The surface dose under 3D-bolus and step-bolus was measured at 5 measurement spots of iso-center, lateral, medial, superior and inferior point, using GAFCHROMIC EBT3 film (International specialty products, USA) and the measured value of dose at 5 spots was compared and analyzed. Also the respective treatment plan was devised, considering the adoption of 3D-bolus and stepbolus and the separate treatment results were compared to each other. Results : The average surface dose was 179.17 cGy when the device of 3D-bolus was adopted and 172.02 cGy when step-bolus was adopted. The average error rate against the prescribed dose of 180 cGy was -(minus) 0.47% when the device of 3D-bolus was adopted and it was -(minus) 4.43% when step-bolus was adopted. It was turned out that the maximum error rate at the point of iso-center was 2.69%, in case of 3D-bolus adoption and it was 5,54% in case of step-bolus adoption. The maximum discrepancy in terms of treatment accuracy was revealed to be about 6% when step-bolus was adopted and to be about 3% when 3D-bolus was adopted. The difference in average target dose on chest wall between 3D-bolus treatment plan and step-bolus treatment plan was shown to be insignificant as the difference was only 0.3%. However, to mention the average prescribed dose for the part of lung and heart, that of 3D-bolus was decreased by 11% for lung and by 8% for heart, compared to that of step-bolus. Conclusion : It was confirmed through this research that the dose uniformity could be improved better through the device of 3D-bolus than through the device of step-bolus, as the device of 3D-bolus, produced in consideration of the contact condition of skin surface of chest wall, could be attached to patients' skin more nicely and the thickness of chest wall can be guaranteed more accurately by the device of 3D-bolus. It is considered that 3D-bolus device can be highly appreciated clinically because 3D-bolus reduces the dose on the adjacent organs and make the normal tissues protected, while that gives no reduction of dose on chest wall.

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The feasibility evaluation of Respiratory Gated radiation therapy simulation according to the Respiratory Training with lung cancer (폐암 환자의 호흡훈련에 의한 호흡동조 방사선치료계획의 유용성 평가)

  • Hong, mi ran;Kim, cheol jong;Park, soo yeon;Choi, jae won;Pyo, hong ryeol
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.149-159
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    • 2016
  • Purpose : To evaluate the usefulness of the breathing exercise,we analyzed the change in the RPM signal and the diaphragm imagebefore 4D respiratory gated radiation therapy planning of lung cancer patients. Materials and Methods : The breathing training was enforced on 11 patients getting the 4D respiratory gated radiation therapy from April, 2016 until August. At the same time, RPM signal and diaphragm image was obtained respiration training total three steps in step 1 signal acquisition of free-breathing state, 2 steps respiratory signal acquisition through the guide of the respiratory signal, 3 steps, won the regular respiration signal to the description and repeat training. And then, acquired the minimum value, maximum value, average value, and a standard deviation of the inspiration and expiration in RPM signal and diaphragm image in each steps. Were normalized by the value of the step 1, to convert the 2,3 steps to the other distribution ratio (%), by evaluating the change in the interior of the respiratory motion of the patient, it was evaluated breathing exercise usefulness of each patient. Results : The mean value and the standard deviation of each step were obtained with the procedure 1 of the RPM signal and the diaphragm amplitude as a 100% reference. In the RPM signal, the amplitudes and standard deviations of four patients (36.4%, eleven) decreased by 18.1%, 27.6% on average in 3 steps, and 2 patients (18.2%, 11 people) had standard deviation, It decreased by an average of 36.5%. Meanwhile, the other four patients (36.4%, eleven) decreased by an average of only amplitude 13.1%. In Step 3, the amplitude of the diaphragm image decreased by 30% on average of 9 patients (81.8%, 11 people), and the average of 2 patients (18.2%, 11 people) increased by 7.3%. However, the amplitudes of RPM signals and diaphragm image in 3steps were reduced by 52.6% and 42.1% on average from all patients, respectively, compared to the 2 steps. Relationship between RPM signal and diaphragm image amplitude difference was consistent with patterns of movement 1, 2 and 3steps, respectively, except for No. 2 No. 10 patients. Conclusion : It is possible to induce an optimized respiratory cycle when respiratory training is done. By conducting respiratory training before treatment, it was possible to expect the effect of predicting the movement of the lung which could control the patient's respiration. Ultimately, it can be said that breathing exercises are useful because it is possible to minimize the systematic error of radiotherapy, expect more accurate treatment. In this study, it is limited to research analyzed based on data on respiratory training before treatment, and it will be necessary to verify with the actual CT plan and the data acquired during treatment in the future.

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