• Title/Summary/Keyword: Radionuclides

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Proposal for the list of potential radionuclides of interest during NPP site characterization or final status surveys

  • Seo, Hyung-Woo;Oh, Jae Yong;Shin, Weon Gyu
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.234-243
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    • 2021
  • In the research or project planning for the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant, one of several preparations will be the establishment of a list of potential radionuclides to be considered at the time of characterization or final status surveys. Reliable data for selection of potential radionuclides during the transition period to prepare for decommissioning will depend heavily on historical data at the site or, where possible, sampling analysis. However, during the transition period, direct sampling can be challenging, depending on the circumstances of the site or national regulation. A methodology of selecting potential radionuclides for nuclear facility sites which largely consists of three major processes: production of initial list of radionuclides, selection of the insignificant radionuclide that will be eliminated, and consideration of site characterization or sampling. For developing a preliminary list of potential radionuclides for Kori Unit 1 decommissioning, the list of initial radionuclides was made referring to the technical documents applied at decommissioned NPPs in the U.S and additional reference materials applied until the operation of NPPs in Korea. For the screening of insignificant radionuclides, we applied criterion of less than 0.1% of the amount of radioactivity inventory and confirmed the dose fraction using the RESRAD code. The final suit of radionuclides was established, which should be supplemented by reflecting site characterization and sampling process in the future. Thus, the methodology and results for the selection of potential radionuclides suggested in this paper can give an insight as a future reference to deriving DCGLs in relation to site remediation of decommissioning nuclear plants.

Forty Years of Anthropogenic Radionuclides in Surface Seawater. Italian and Japanese Data

  • Cigna, Arrigo A.
    • Ocean Science Journal
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.261-290
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    • 2006
  • The concentrations of man made radionuclides in surface seawater since early '60s are here reported as measured in Italy and Japan. Most of the data refers to $^{90}Sr$ and $^{137}Cs$, but occasionally the concentrations of $^{89}Sr$ and $^{134}Cs$ in some Italian samples are also given. The main sources of man made radionuclides were the global fallout produced by the nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. The respective contributions to the contamination of surface seawater around both countries are discussed.

A SYSTEMS ASSESSMENT FOR THE KOREAN ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE CONCEPT FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF RADIOLOGICAL IMPACT

  • Yoon, Ji-Hae;Ahn, Joon-Hong
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.17-36
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    • 2010
  • In this study, we compare the mass release rates of radionuclides(1) from waste forms arising from the KIEP-21 pyroprocessing system with (2) those from the directly-disposed pressurized-water reactor spent fuel, to investigate the potential radiological and environmental impacts. In both cases, most actinides and their daughters have been observed to remain in the vicinity of waste packages as precipitates because of their low solubility. The effects of the waste-form alteration rate on the release of radionuclides from the engineered-barrier boundary have been found to be significant, especially for congruently released radionuclides. the total mass release rate of radionuclides from direct disposal concept is similar to those from the pyroprocessing disposal concept. While the mass release rates for most radionuclides would decrease to negligible levels due to radioactive decay while in the engineered barriers and the surrounding host rock in both cases even without assuming any dilution or dispersal mechanisms during their transport, significant mass release rates for three fission-product radionuclides, $^{129}I$, $^{79}Se$, and $^{36}Cl$, are observed at the 1,000-m location in the host rock. For these three radionuclides, we need to account for dilution/dispersal in the geosphere and the biosphere to confirm finally that the repository would achieve sufficient level of radiological safety. This can be done only after we have known where the repository site would by sited. the footprint of repository for the KIEP-21 system is about one tenth of those for the direct disposal.

Special monitoring results for determination of radionuclide composition of Russian NPP atmospheric releases

  • Vasyanovich, Maxim;Vasilyev, Aleksey;Ekidin, Aleksey;Kapustin, Ivan;Kryshev, Alexander
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.1176-1179
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    • 2019
  • Measurements of activity concentrations of radionuclides in atmospheric releases were performed in 2017-2018 at vent stacks of seven Russian nuclear power plants. The selected instruments and research methods, with detection limits significantly lower than the existing detection limit of Russian NPPs routine control, allowed to reliably determine up to 26 radionuclides. Analysis of experimental data allows to determine the list of radionuclides for calculation the effective dose rates to public and the permissible annual discharge levels for each Russian NPP. Radiocarbon is determined as major contributor for the dose from the atmospheric releases of LWGR reactors - up to 98% for EGP-6 and RBMK-1000 (Smolensk NPP) reactors. For PWR reactors (VVER) radionuclides contribution to the annual dose from atmospheric releases is more complicated, but, in general, dose is formed by tritium, $^{14}C$ and noble gases. The special monitoring results with ranking of measured radionuclides according to their contribution to the effective dose makes it possible to optimize the list of controlled radionuclides in airborne releases of Russian NPPs from 94 to 8-16 for different NPPs.

Conceptual Design of Sandglass-like Separator for Immobilized Anionic Radionuclides Using Particle Tracking Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics

  • Park, Tae-Jin;Choi, Young-Chul;Ham, Jiwoong
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.363-372
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    • 2020
  • Anionic radionuclides pose one of the highest risks to the long-term safety assessments of disposal repositories. Therefore, techniques to immobilize and separate such anionic radionuclides are of crucial importance from the viewpoints of safety and waste volume reduction. The main objective of this study is to design a separator with minimum pressure disturbance, based on the concept of a conventional cyclone separator. We hypothesize that the anionic radionuclides can be immobilized onto a nanomaterial-based substrate and that the particles generated in the process can flow via water. These particles are denser than water; hence, they can be trapped within the cyclone-type separator because of its design. We conducted particle tracking analysis using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for the conventional cyclone separator and studied the effects due to the morphology of the separator. The proposed sandglass-like design of the separator shows promising results (i.e., only one out of 10,000 particles escaped to the outlet from the separation zone). To validate the design, we manufactured a laboratory-scale prototype separator and tested it for iron particles; the efficiency was ca. 99%. Furthermore, using an additional magnetic effect with the separator, we could effectively separate particles with ~100% efficiency. The proposed sandglass-like separator can thus be used for effective separation and recovery of immobilized anionic radionuclides.

Current status of research on radionuclides used in nuclear mediccine (중성자선 실험 및 발암연구의 현황과 미래)

  • Kim, Hui-Seon
    • Radioisotope journal
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.46-60
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    • 2006
  • In recent years the progress of nuclear medicine advanced dramatically in imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy is able to open op exciting perspectives as standard diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, complementing conventional modalities. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) technology with FDG has been developed clinically in less than 10 years as a routine standard in oncological imaging, including a number of other fluorinated radiopharmaceuticals being evaluated for their ability to complement FDG. However, the limitation of FDG-PET such as non-specific uptake and its short half-life is not compatible with the time necessary for optimal tumour targeting. Therefore, a development of innovative positron-emitting radionuclides with half-lives longer than 10 h is needed. For therapeutic applications, the injection of higher activities is required to reach efficient adsorbed doses in radioresistant solid tumours, while limiting the irradiation of vital organs. In this application, the longer half-life of radiolsotopes are more fit well for radionuclide therapy. To achieve this, researches have to be carried in a largor spectrum of radionuclides for diagnosis and therapy. In the context of rapidly growing nuclear medicine and strong demanding innovative radionuclides, a high-energy (100 MeV), high-intensity (-mA) accelerator with proton (PEFF at KAFRI). will be operating in 2011. The priorities of PEFP will include supporting the nuclear medicine research community by providing those radionuclides with current limited availability by means of a high-energy, high-intensity accelerator.

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Selection of Key Radionuclides for P&T Based on Radiological Impact Assessment for the Deep Geological Disposal of Spent PWR/CANDU/DUPIC Fuels

  • Lee, Dong-Won;Chung, Chang-Hyun;Kim, Chang-Lak;Park, Joo-Wan
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.231-240
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    • 2001
  • When it is assumed that PWR, CANDU and DUPIC spent fuels are disposed of in deep geological repository, consequent annual individual doses are calculated, and it is shown that doses meet the regulatory limit. From these results, the hazardous radionuclides applicable to partitioning and transmutation are selected. These selected radionuclides such as Tc-99, Ⅰ-129, Cs-135 and Np-237 are then reviewed in terms of partitioning and transmutation. Separation of I-129, Np-237 and Tc-99 from spent fuels is considered desirable, and transmutation of these radionuclides results in remarkable hazard reduction. However, it is concluded that separation and transmutation of Cs-135 may be ineffective although it is classified into a hazardous radionuclide.

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Beta-spectra for the Radionuclides in Medicine

  • Yi, Chul-Young;Kim, Kyung-Hwa;Park, Kyung-Bae;Han, Hyon-Soo;Jun, Jae-Shik;Chai, Ha-Seok
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.37-46
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    • 1998
  • Beta-particle energy distributions of the radionuclides in medicine are calculated for the medical physics applications. The radial component solutions of Dirac wave equations are evaluated for a point-nucleus un screened Coulomb potential. The WKB method is employed to correct the screening due to the orbital-electron cloud. Fierz interference terms are ignored. The radionuclides considered are $\^$32/P, $\^$90/Y, $\^$131/I, $\^$166/Ho, $\^$192/Ir, $\^$198/Au, $\^$153/Sm, $\^$169/Er and $\^$188/Re. A total of 9 beta-spectra for the radionuclides, currently in domestic use or potential use in the near future, are calculated with enough accuracy and presented in graphs and tables.

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International Trends for Radionuclides Management in Drinking water (선진 외국에서의 먹는물 중 방사성물질 관리동향)

  • Park, Sun-Ku;Son, Ji-Hwan
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.49-67
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    • 2006
  • The radionuclides in drinking water have been regulated in many countries. In USA, the regulation has been revised for over 30 years since radionuclides have been regulated under Safe Drinking Water Act(SDWA) from 1974. Today, USEPA is finalizing maximum contaminant level goal(MCLG) of zero for radionuclides, maximum contaminant level(MCL) and alternative maximum contaminant level(AMCL) of 300pCi/L and 4,000pCi/L for radon respectively, MCLs of $30{\mu}g/L$ for uranium, and MCLs of 5pCi/L for combined radium 226 and 228. In Canada, Maximum Acceptable Concentration(MAC) value for uranium is $20{\mu}g/L$. WHO revised the guideline value of uranium and radon to $15{\mu}g/L$ and 100Bq/L in september 2004, respectively. On this survey, it has been found that international regulations for radionuclides in drinking water have been established and improved steadily on the knowledge basis from the past decades' studies.

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Assessment of Environmental Radioactivity Surveillance Results around Korean Nuclear Power Utilization Facilities in 2017

  • Kim, Cheol-Su;Lee, Sang-Kuk;Lee, Dong-Myung;Choi, Seok-Won
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.118-126
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    • 2019
  • Background: Government conducts environmental radioactivity surveillance for verification purpose around nuclear facilities based on the Nuclear Safety Law and issues a surveillance report every year. This study aims to evaluate the short and the long-term fluctuation of radionuclides detected above MDC and their origins using concentration ratios between these radionuclides. Materials and Methods: Sample media for verification surveillance are air, rainwater, groundwater, soil, and milk for terrestrial samples, and seawater, marine sediment, fish, and seaweed for marine samples. Gamma-emitting radionuclides including $^{137}Cs$, $^{90}Sr$, Pu, $^3H$, and $^{14}C$ are evaluated in these samples. Results and Discussion: According to the result of the environmental radioactivity verification surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power facilities in 2017, the anthropogenic radionuclides were not detected in most of the environmental samples except for the detection of a trace level of $^{137}Cs$, $^{90}Sr$, Pu, and $^{131}I$ in some samples. Radioactivity concentration ratios between the anthropogenic radionuclides ($^{137}Cs/^{90}Sr$, $^{137}Cs/^{239+240}Pu$, $^{90}Sr/^{239+240}Pu$) were similar to those reported in the environmental samples, which were affected by the global fallout of the past nuclear weapon test, and Pu atomic ratios ($^{240}Pu/^{239}Pu$) in the terrestrial sample and marine sample showed significant differences due to the different input pathway and the Pu source. Radioactive iodine ($^{131}I$) was detected at the range of < $5.6-190mBq{\cdot}kg-fresh^{-1}$ in the gulfweed and sea trumpet collected from the area of Kori and Wolsong intake and discharge. A high level of $^3H$ was observed in the air (Sangbong: $0.688{\pm}0.841Bq{\cdot}m^{-3}$) and the precipitation (Meteorology Post: $199{\pm}126Bq{\cdot}L^{-1}$) samples of the Wolsong nuclear power plant (NPP). $^3H$ concentration in the precipitation and pine needle samples showed typical variation pattern with the distance and the wind direction from the stack due to the gaseous release of $^3H$ in Wolsong NPP. Conclusion: Except for the detection of a trace level of $^{137}Cs$, $^{90}Sr$, Pu, and $^{131}I$ in some samples, anthropogenic radionuclides were below MDC in most of the environmental samples. Overall, no unusual radionuclides and abnormal concentration were detected in the 2017's surveillance result for verification. This research will be available in the assessment of environment around nuclear facilities in the event of radioactive material release.