• Title, Summary, Keyword: Radionuclide concentration method

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A Method to Calculate Off-site Radionuclide Concentration for Multi-unit Nuclear Power Plant Accident (다수기 원자력발전소 사고 시 소외 방사성물질 농도 계산 방법)

  • Lee, Hye Rin;Lee, Gee Man;Jung, Woo Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.144-156
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    • 2018
  • Level 3 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is performed for the risk assessment that calculates radioactive material dispersion to the environment. This risk assessment is performed with a tool of MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS2 or WinMACCS). For the off-site consequence analysis of multi-unit nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, the single location (Center Of Mass, COM) method has been usually adopted with the assumption that all the NPPs in the nuclear site are located at the same COM point. It was well known that this COM calculation can lead to underestimated or overestimated radionuclide concentration. In order to overcome this underestimation or overestimation of radionuclide concentrations in the COM method, Multiple Location (ML) method was developed in this study. The radionuclide concentrations for the individual NPPs are separately calculated, and they are summed at every location in the nuclear site by the post-processing of radionuclide concentrations that is based on two-dimensional Gaussian Plume equations. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of the ML method, radionuclide concentrations were calculated for the six-unit NPP site, radionuclide concentrations of the ML method were compared with those by COM method. This comparison was performed for conditions of constant weather, yearly weather in Korea, and four seasons, and the results were discussed. This new ML method (1) improves accuracy of radionuclide concentrations when multi-unit NPP accident occurs, (2) calculates realistic atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides under various weather conditions, and finally (3) supports off-site emergency plan optimization. It is recommended that this new method be applied to the risk assessment of multi-unit NPP accident. This new method drastically improves the accuracy of radionuclide concentrations at the locations adjacent to or very close to NPPs. This ML method has a great strength over the COM method when people live near nuclear site, since it provides accurate radionuclide concentrations or radiation doses.

Three-dimensional MXene (Ti3C2Tx) Film for Radionuclide Removal From Aqueous Solution

  • Jang, Jiseon;Lee, Dae Sung
    • Proceedings of the Korean Radioactive Waste Society Conference
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    • pp.379-379
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    • 2018
  • MXenes are a new family of 2D transition metal carbide nanosheets analogous to graphene (Lv et al., 2017; Sun et al., 2018). Due to the easy availability, hydrophilic behavior, and tunable chemistry of MXenes, their use in applications for environmental pollution remediation such as heavy metal adsorption has recently been explored (Li et al., 2017). In this study, three-dimensional (3D) MXene ($Ti_3C_2T_x$) films with high adsorption capacity, good mechanical strength, and high selectivity for specific radionuclide from aquose solution were successfully fabricated by a polymeric precursor method using vacuum-assisted filtration. The highest removal efficiency on the films was 99.54%, 95.61%, and 82.79% for $Sr^{2+}$, $Co^{2+}$, and $Cs^+$, respectively, using a film dosage of 0.06 g/ L in the initial radionuclide solution (each radionuclide concentration = 1 mg/L and pH = 7.0). Especially, the adsorption process reached an equilibrium within 30 min. The expanded interlayer spacing of $Ti_3C_2T_x$ sheets in MXene films showed excellent radionuclide selectivity ($Cs^+$ and/or $Sr^{2+}/Co^{2+}$) (Simon, 2017). Besides, the MXene films was not only able to be easily retrieved from an aqueous solution by filtration after decontamination processes, but also to selectively separate desired target radionuclides in the solutions. Therefore, the newly developed MXene ($Ti_3C_2T_x$) films has a great potential for radionuclide removal from aqueous solution.

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A Method of Estimating Radionuclide Accumulation in Coolant Purification System (원자력발전소 냉각수 정화계통의 핵종누적량 예측기법)

  • Whang, Joo-Ho;Lee, Jae-Min
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.183-193
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    • 1997
  • The amount and kinds of radionuclide contained in waste volume should be known to prepare for occupational exposure management, perform safety assessment and finally to license a repository. Although the volume of filters and resins are small, activities of them comprise most of the radioactivity that made during power generation. This study aims at developing a method of estimating the radionuclide accumulation at the filters and resins of coolant systems. In this study, accumulated amount of radionuclides is estimated by a computer program which makes use of instantaneous decontamination factor, DF, instead of average DF. A FORTRAN program was developed for the estimation. Data from in-plant source-term measurements at Rancho-Seco nuclear power plant in the United States are employed for verification of the estimating method. And experimental data are employed, too. The instantaneous-DF-method showed smaller error than the average-DF-method. Accumulated amount of radionuclides can be calculated with only the DF and the radionuclide concentration, which are measured periodically according to the operating guide. However, especially, when the operating condition of nuclear power plant changes rapidly, the measuring term of DF and radionuclide should be shortened to ensure the accurate estimation.

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AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF HYDRAULIC PARAMETERS ON RADIONUCLIDE MIGRATION IN AN UNSATURATED ZONE

  • Kim, Gye-Nam;Moon, Jei-Kwon;Lee, Kune-Woo
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.562-567
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    • 2010
  • A One-Dimensional Water Flow and Contaminant Transport in Unsaturated Zone (FTUNS) code has been developed in order to interpret radionuclide migration in an unsaturated zone. The pore-size distribution index (n) and the inverse of the air-entry value ($\alpha$) for an unsaturated zone were measured by KS M ISO 11275 method. The hydraulic parameters of the unsaturated soil are investigated by using soil from around a nuclear facility in Korea. The effect of hydraulic parameters on radionuclide migration in an unsaturated zone has been analyzed. The higher the value of the n-factor, the more the cobalt concentration was condensed. The larger the value of $\alpha$-factor, the faster the migration of cobalt was and the more aggregative the cobalt concentration was. Also, it was found that an effect on contaminant migration due to the pore-size distribution index (n) and the inverse of the air-entry value ($\alpha$) was minute. Meanwhile, migrations of cobalt and cesium are in inverse proportion to the Freundich isotherm coefficient. That is to say, the migration velocity of cobalt was about 8.35 times that of cesium. It was conclusively demonstrated that the Freundich isotherm coefficient was the most important factor for contaminant migration.

Statistical Approach for Derivation of Quantitative Acceptance Criteria for Radioactive Wastes to Near Surface Disposal Facility

  • Park Jin Beak;Park Joo Wan;Lee Eun Yong;Kim Chang Lak
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.387-398
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    • 2003
  • For reference human intrusion scenarios constructed in previous study, a probabilistic safety assessment to derive the radionuclide concentration limits for the low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste disposal facility is conducted. Statistical approach by the Latin Hypercube Sampling method is introduced and new assumptions about the disposal facility system are examined and discussed. In our previous study of deterministic approach, the post construction scenarios appeared as most limiting scenario to derive the radionuclide concentration limits. Whereas, in this statistical approach, the post drilling and the post construction scenarios are mutually competing for the scenario selection according to which radionuclides are more important in safety assessment context. Introduction of new assumption shows that the post drilling scenario can play an important role as the limiting scenario instead of the post-construction scenario. When we compare the concentration limits between the previous and this study, concentrations of radionuclides such as Nb-94, Cs-137 and alpha-emitting radionuclides show elevated values than the case of the previous study. Remaining radionuclides such as Sr-90, Tc-99 I-129, Ni-59 and Ni-63 show lower values than the case of the previous study.

Designation the Gray Region and Evaluating Concentration of Radionuclide in Kori-1 by Using Derived Concentration Guideline Level (고리 1호기의 잔류방사능 유도농도(DCGL)를 적용한 회색영역 설정과 핵종농도평가)

  • Jeon, Yeo Ryeong;Park, Sang June;Ahn, Seokyoung;Kim, Yongmin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.297-304
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    • 2018
  • U.S. nuclear power plant decommissioning guidelines(MARSSIM and MARLAP) are recommends to use DQOs when planning and conducting site surveys. The DQOs which is constructed in the site survey planning stage provide a way to make the best use of data. It helps we can get the important information and data to make decisions as well. From fifth to seventh steps of DQOs are the process of designing a site survey by using the collected data and information in the previous step to make reasonable and reliable decisions. The gray region that is set up during this process is defined as the range of concentrations where the consequences of type II decision errors are relatively small. The gray region can be set using DCGL and the average concentration of radionuclide in the sample collected at the survey unit. By setting up the gray region, site survey plan can be made most resource-efficient and the consequences on decision errors can be minimized. In this study, we set up the gray region by using the DCGL of Kori-1 which was derived from the previous research. In addition, we proposed a method to assess the concentration of radionuclide in samples for making decisions correctly.

Review on the Management for Radioactive Effluent and Methodology for Setting of Derived Release Limits at Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors in Korea (중수로원전 방사성유출물 관리와 유도배출한계 설정방법에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim, Hee-Geun;Kong, Tae-Young;Jeong, Woo-Tae;Kim, Seok-Tae
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.172-177
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    • 2010
  • The radioactive effluents from pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) are relatively larger than those from pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Futhermore, radioactive effluents from PHWRs are released continuously. Thus, the discharge of radioactive effluents is strictly controlled. To do this, radiation detectors are installed at stacks of reactor buildings to monitor the concentration of radioactive effluents in real-time. Derived release limits (DRLs) of annual discharge are also set up for each radionuclide and effluents are rigidly controlled not to exceed those limits. In this paper, the discharge process of radioactive effluents, the standard for establishment of DRL and its methodology, and currents status for PHWRs were reviewed.

Radionuclides in Environmental Samples and Sample Concentration of Land in the Analysis in the Method of Direct (직접법에서 환경시료중 육상시료의 방사성 핵종 및 농도 분석)

  • Jang, Eun-Sung;Kim, Jin-Seop
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.275-280
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    • 2015
  • In order to measure the Radionuclides and Concentration, the directly grinded land samples (river soil, pine leaves and mugwort) among the environment samples around the nuclear power plant were filled in a 450 mL Marinelli beaker and weighed to obtain the dry mass ratio of the samples. Then the background and land samples were measured for 80,000 sec. The analysis of the collected land samples showed that most of them contained less radiation nuclide than the detection minimum limit in the 'Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Public Notice No. 2010-32.'In others, the natural radionuclides $^{40}K$ were detected. Of the products of nuclear reaction discharged by a nuclear reaction, $^{134}Cs$ and $^{137}Cs$ are more easily detected, and their discharge sources can be traced using the relative ratio. Although the radioactive concentration in the vicinity of Kori Nuclear Power Plant, which is more than 1,100km away from Fukushima, the Japanese nuclear accident site, continuous monitoring is needed as the radionuclides can still be accumulated in the soil or animals and plants.

Re-evaluation of Korean Effluent Concentration Limits and Comparative Analysis

  • Hwang, Won Tae;Lee, Joeun;Kwon, Dahye;Kim, Eun Han;Han, Moon Hee
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.124-129
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    • 2018
  • Background: Effluent Concentration Limits (ECLs) were re-evaluated via direct calculation using dose coefficients based on radiation protection quantity introduced in Korea and the intrinsic breathing rates of Korean residents. Materials and Methods: The re-evaluated ECLs were compared with the domestic standards given in the Notice of the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), as well as with ECLs specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Results and Discussion: The relative ratios of the re-evaluated ECLs to the currently applied domestic standards differed depending on the radionuclide type, but it was clearly shown that, for tritium ($^3H$) and radiocarbon ($^{14}C$), which significantly affect radiological dose to the public during the normal operation of nuclear power plants, the re-evaluated ECLs were higher than the domestic standards. This implies that Korean standards are relatively conservative. Conclusion: The re-evaluated results for each age group showed that $^{131}I$ (radioiodine), one of the significant radionuclides, had the lowest values, but nonetheless, the domestic standards for radioiodine were lower than the ECLs given in the CFR and the re-evaluated ECLs via a method given in the CFR.

Improvement on the Method of Estimating Radionuclide Concentrations in Agricultural Products for the Off-Site Internal Dose Calculation for Operating Nuclear Facilities (가동중 원자력 시설 주변 주민의 내부피폭선량 계산을 위한 농산물내 핵종 농도 평가법 개선)

  • Choi, Y.H.;Lim, K.M.;Hwang, W.T.;Choi, G.S.;Choi, H.J.;Lee, C.W.
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.73-90
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    • 2004
  • The Reg. Guide 1.109 model was reviewed against its applicability to calculating radionuclide concentrations in agricultural products for operating nuclear facilities and an improved method was proposed. The model was so modified that the radionuclides deposited since the start of operation could be considered in assessing the root uptake. Translocation factors were introduced in the equation for calculating the concentrations in edible parts due to direct plant deposition. Values specific to Korea were set up for the input parameters of the modified model. The concentrations of $^{54}Mn,\;^{60}Co,\;^{90}Sr\;and\;^{137}Cs$ in rice seeds, Chinese cabbage and radish root were calculated for various hypothetical deposition histories using the Reg. Guide 1.109 model and the modified model with parameter values in the guide and those specific to Korea put in alternately. Through comparisons among the results, it could be expected that the use of the modified model with the input of parameter values specific to Korea would result In a more resonable and realistic assessment.