• Title, Summary, Keyword: Radioactive wastes

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On the Research and Development for High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Korea (고준위 방사성폐기물 처분 기술개발 현황)

  • Lee, Young-Up
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.279-286
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    • 1995
  • The amount of the high level radioactive wastes in Korea will be increased up to 14,297 MTU about 2010 year. Most of countries adopt the concept of deep burial repository in high level radioactive waste disposal. Because the high level radioactive wastes are very toxic in biosphere and to human, the data verifing its never return to the biosphere are requisite for the disposal. Presently, the evaluating techniques for the high level radioactive waste disposal are not fully developed. Therefore, in order to dispose the high level radioactive wastes in proper time the R & D of it is urged in our country. The R & D and/or the international joint research programme for the disposal of high level wastes have already been proceeded. In our country no plan for its disposal has been prepared. It is the time that the direction of the R & D is to be discused seriously. The R & D for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes in Korea is believed to be focused on developing the pecular techniques such as in situ characteristics of groundwater flowage, and change of properties of in situ rock mass at thermal effects.

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A Study on the Pelletization of Powdered Radioactive Waste by Roll Compaction (롤 컴팩션을 이용한 분말 방사성폐기물의 펠렛화 연구)

  • Song, Jong-Soon;Lim, Sang-Hyun;Jung, Min-Young;Kim, Ki-Hong
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.203-212
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    • 2019
  • Disposal nonconformity of radioactive wastes refers to radioactive wastes that need to be treated, solidified and packaged during operation or decommissioning of NPPs, and are typically exemplified by particulate radioactive wastes with dispersion characteristics. These wastes include the dried powders of concentrated wastes generated in the process of operating NPPs, slurry and sludge, various powdered wastes generated in the decommissioning process (crushed concrete, decontamination sludge, etc.), and fine radioactive soil, which is not easy to decontaminate. As these particulate wastes must be packaged so that they become non-dispersive, they are solidified with solidification agents such as cement and polymer. If they are treated using existing solidification methods, however, the volume of the final wastes will increase. This drawback may increase the disposal cost and reduce the acceptability of disposal sites. Accordingly, to solve these problems, this study investigates the pelletization of particulate radioactive wastes in order to reduce final waste volume.

Radiological Safety Assessment of Transporting Radioactive Wastes to the Gyeongju Disposal Facility in Korea

  • Jeong, Jongtae;Baik, Min Hoon;Kang, Mun Ja;Ahn, Hong-Joo;Hwang, Doo-Seong;Hong, Dae Seok;Jeong, Yong-Hwan;Kim, Kyungsu
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.1368-1375
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    • 2016
  • A radiological safety assessment study was performed for the transportation of low level radioactive wastes which are temporarily stored in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon, Korea. We considered two kinds of wastes: (1) operation wastes generated from the routine operation of facilities; and (2) decommissioning wastes generated from the decommissioning of a research reactor in KAERI. The important part of the radiological safety assessment is related to the exposure dose assessment for the incidentfree (normal) transportation of wastes, i.e., the radiation exposure of transport personnel, radiation workers for loading and unloading of radioactive waste drums, and the general public. The effective doses were estimated based on the detailed information on the transportation plan and on the radiological characteristics of waste packages. We also estimated radiological risks and the effective doses for the general public resulting from accidents such as an impact and a fire caused by the impact during the transportation. According to the results, the effective doses for transport personnel, radiation workers, and the general public are far below the regulatory limits. Therefore, we can secure safety from the viewpoint of radiological safety for all situations during the transportation of radioactive wastes which have been stored temporarily in KAERI.

Review of the Acceptance Criteria of Very Low Level Radioactive Waste for the Disposal of Decommissioning Waste (극저준위 해체폐기물 처분을 위한 방사성폐기물 인수기준 분석)

  • Kim, Beomin;Kim, Chang-Lak
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.165-169
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    • 2014
  • In order to use the nuclear energy as the sustainable energy source, the safe and efficient management of radioactive wastes generated from the nuclear fuel cycle including NPP decommissioning is one of the most important factors. The establishment of acceptance criteria for very low level radioactive wastes generated from decommissioning of nuclear power plant in a large quantity is seemed to play a key role for developing a radioactive wastes disposal strategy as well as NPP decommissioning strategy. In this thesis, we want to review the acceptance criteria of low-and-intermediate-level radioactive wastes in this country through the analysis of other country's acceptance criteria.

Determination of major and minor elements in low and medium level radioactive wastes using closed-vessel microwave acid digestion (밀폐형 극초단파 산분해법을 이용한 중${\cdot}$저준위 방사성폐기물의 성분 원소 분석)

  • Lee Jeong-Jin;Pyo Hyung-Yeal;Jeon Jong-Seon;Lee Chang-Heon;Jee Kwang-Yong;Ji Pyung-Kook
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.231-238
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    • 2004
  • The conditions are obtained for the decomposition of solid radioactive wastes, including ion exchange resin, zeolite, charcoal, and sludge from nuclear power plant. In the process of decomposing the radioactive wastes was used the microwave acid digestion method with mixed acid. The solution after acid digestion by the following method was colorless and transparent. Each solution was analyzed with ICP-AES and AAS and the recovery yield for 5 different elements added into the simulated radioactive wastes were over $94{\%}$. The elemental analysis of destructive low and medium level radioactive wastes by the proposed microwave acid digestion conditions concerning the chemical characteristics of each radioactive waste are expected to be useful basic data for development of optimal glass formulation.

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The Comparison on Treatment Method of Liquid Radioactive Waste in Yonggwang #3&4 and #5&6 (영광 3&4와 5&6호기에서 액체 방사성폐기물 처리방법의 비교)

  • Yeom, Yu-Seon;Kim, Soong-Pyung;Lee, Seung-Jin
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.219-230
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    • 2004
  • Most of the low-level liquid radioactive wastes generated from PWR plants are classified into high or low total suspended solid(HTDS or LTDS), and into radiochemical and radioactive laundry waste. Although the evaporation process has a high decontami- nation ability, it has several problems such as corrosion, foam, and congestion. A new liquid waste disposal process using the ion-exchange demineralizer(IED), instead of the current evaporation process, has been introduced into the Yonggwang NPP #5 and 6. These two methods have been compared to understand the differences in this study. Aspects compared here were the released radioactivity amount of the liquid radioactive wastes, the dose of off-site residents, the decontamination factor, and the amount of the solid radioactive wastes. The IED system is designed to discharge higher radioactivity about 20% than the evaporating system, and the actual radioactivity released from the evaporating and IED system were 0.473mCi and 1.098mCi, respectively. The radioactivity released from the IED was 2.32 times higher than that of the evaporating system. The dose of off-site residents was $2.97{\times}10^{-6}$mSv for the evaporating system, and $6.47{\times}10^{-6}$mSv for IED. The decontamination factor(DF) of the evaporator is, in most cases, far lower than the lower limits of detection(LLD) with the Ge-Li detector. Due to the low concentration of the liquid wastes collected from the liquid waste system, the decontamination factor of IED is very low. Since there is not enough data on the amount of solid radioactive wastes generated by the evaporation system, the comparison on these two systems has been conducted on the basis of the design, and the comparison result was that the evaporating system generated more wastes about 40% than IED.

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Dissolution Conditions of Solid Radioactive Wastes Generated from NPP for the Analysis of Radionuclides Using a Closed-vessel Microwave Acid Digestion System (원전 발생 고체 방사성폐기물 내 핵종 분석을 위한 극초단파 산분해 장치를 이용한 용액화 조건)

  • 표형열;이정진;전종선;이창헌;지광용
    • Proceedings of the Korean Radioactive Waste Society Conference
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    • pp.158-166
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    • 2004
  • The optimal conditions are obtained for the decomposition of solid radioactive wastes, including ion exchange resin, zeolite, active charcoal, and sludge from nuclear power plant. In the process of decomposing the radioactive wastes were used the microwave acid digestion method with mixed acid. The solution after acid digestion by the following method was colorless and transparent. Each solution was analyzed with ICP-AES and AAS and the recovery yield for 5 different elements added the simulated radioactive wastes were over 94%. As an effective pre-treatment, the proposed microwave acid digestion conditions concerning the chemical trait of each radioactive waste are expected to be generally applied to above-mentioned radioactive wastes from nuclear power plant hereafter.

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Review and Application of the Radioactive Waste Certification Program (방사성폐기물 인증프로그램의 검토 및 적용)

  • Chung Hee-Jun;Whang Joo-Ho;Lee Jae-Min;Kim Heon;Jeong Yi-Yeong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Radioactive Waste Society Conference
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    • pp.126-133
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    • 2005
  • Securing of radioactive waste disposal site and the related operations for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste is being actively carried out in Korea. For disposal of radioactive wastes, physicochemical and radiological status and integrity of radioactive wastes must be secured first. Also, waste generators must provide this information to disposers. In addition, to secure the safety of waste disposal, waste acceptance criteria (WAC) and site specific waste acceptance criteria (SWAC) to consider characteristics of the disposal site are required. Radioactive wastes must be processed, generated, managed and transferred in accordance with these criteria. [1] For this, evaluation of properties on each of the radioactive wastes must be performed. However, in reality, atomic power plants are experiencing difficulties in relation to this due to the large quantity of radioactive waste generation. In order to solve this problem, IAEA and major overseas countries have developed, thus are using waste certification program (WCP) and quality assurance program (QAP) [2,3]. On the basis of these programs, radioactive waste certification program has been developed for safe disposal of radioactive wastes in Korea to satisfy the provisions specified in 'low and intermediate level radioactive waste transfer guidelines' of announcement No. 2005-18 from the Ministry of Science and Technology and specific site waste acceptance criteria (tentative plan). In addition, it is being planned to administer amendment on commercial atomic power plant related procedures and ensile staff training in order for early introduction and operation of radioactive waste certification system.

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Determination of Self-Disposal date by the Analysis of Radioactive Waste Contamination for 1131I Therapy Ward (131I 치료입원실 폐기물 방사능 오염도 분석 및 자체처분가능일자 산출)

  • Kim, Gi-sub;Jung, Haijo;Park, Min-seok;Jeon, Gjin-seong
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.3-6
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: The treatment of thyroid cancer patients was continuously increased. According to the increment of thyroid cancer patients, the establishment of iodine therapy site was also increased in each hospital. This treatment involves the administration of radioactive iodine, which will be given in the form of a capsule. Therefore, protections and managements for radioactive source pollution and radiation exposure should be necessary for radiation safety. Among the many problems, the problem of disposing the radioactive wastes was occurred. In this study, The date for self-disposal for radioactive wastes, which were contaminated in clothes, bedclothes and trash, were calculated. Materials and Methods: The number of iodine therapy ward was 15 in Korea Institute of Radiological Medical and Sciences. Recently, 8 therapy wards were operated for iodine therapy patients and others were on standby for emergency treatment ward of any radiation accidents. Radioactive wastes, which were occurred in therapy ward, were clothes, bedclothes, bath cover for patients washing water and food and drink which was leftover by patients. Each sample was hold into the marinelli beaker (clothes, bedclothes, bath covers) and 90 ml beaker (food, drink, and washing water). The activities of collected samples were measured by HpGe MCA device (Multi Channel Analysis, CANBERRA, USA) Results: The storage period for the each kind of radioactive wastes was calculated by equation of storage periods based on the measurement outcomes. The average storage period was 60 days for the case of clothes, and the maximum storage period was 93 days for patient bottoms. The average storage period and the maximum storage period for the trash were 69 days and 97 days, respectively. The leftover foods and drinks had short storage period (the average storage period was 25 days and maximum storage period was 39 days), compared with other wastes. Conclusion: The proper storage period for disposing the radioactive waste (clothes, bedclothes and bath cover) was 100 days by the regulation on self-disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, the storage period for disposing the liquid radioactive waste was 120 days. The current regulation for radioactive waste self-disposing was not suitable for the circumstances of each radioactive therapy facility. Therefore, it was necessary to reduce the leftover food and drinks by adequate table setting for patients, and improve the process and regulation for disposing the short-half life radioactive wastes.

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A Status of Tritium Processing Technologies (트리튬 처리기술 현황)

  • 안도희;김광락;백승우;이민수;임성팔;정흥석
    • Proceedings of the Korean Radioactive Waste Society Conference
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    • pp.172-179
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    • 2003
  • Various type of tritium wastes can be produced from nuclear fuel cycle process satisfying non-proliferation, CANDU reactors, and nuclear industry. Activities of tritium processing in the world were surveyed to develope the processing technologies of tritium wastes. The tritium wastes were classified into gas phase, liquid phase, and organic phase. And the treatment techniques for the tritium wastes are analyzed. Development of tritium processing technologies is essential to finding public acceptance of radioactive wastes and forming a solid foundation to foster the growth of nuclear industry in Korea.

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