• Title, Summary, Keyword: Radiation Shielding

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A Study on Radiation Shielding Materials for Protective Garments using Monte Carlo Simulation (몬테카를로 시뮬레이션을 이용한 보호복용 방사선 차폐 소재 연구)

  • Bae, Manjae;Lee, Hyungmin
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Quality Management
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.239-252
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: Lead has been widely used in radiation shielding for its low price and high workability. Recently in several europe countries, use of lead was banned for environmental issues. Also lead can cause health problems like alergies. Alternative materials for lead are highly required. The purpose of this study was to propose lead free radiation shielding material. Methods: Research of radiation shielding in Korea is not easy for certain limits such as radiation materials, experimental facilities and places. The collected data through the research were simulated using MCNPX. The simulation tools used for this study were utilized Monte Carlo method. Results: we suggest new design of lead free radiation shielding material using MCNPX code comparing shielding performance of new composite materials to lead. Conclusion: This newly introduced nano-scale composite of metal and polymer makes new chance for highly lightened radiation protective garments with endurable shielding performance.

Survey of Radiation Shielding Design Goals and Workload Based on Radiation Safety Report: Tomotherapy Vault

  • Cho, Kwang Hwan;Jung, Jae Hong;Min, Chul Kee;Bae, Sun Hyun;Moon, Seong Kwon;Kim, Eun Seog;Cho, Sam Ju;Lee, Rena
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.42-46
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to perform a survey of the radiation shielding design goals (P) and workload (W) based on the radiation safety reports concerned with structural shielding design for the IMRT treatment technique in Tomotherapy vaults. The values of the P and W factors as well as of a verified concrete thickness of the ceiling, bottom, sidewalls (sidewall-1 and sidewall-2), and door have been obtained from radiation safety reports for a total of 16 out of 20 vaults. The recommended and most widely used report for P values was the NCRP No. 151 report, which stated that the P factor in controlled and uncontrolled areas was 0.1 and 0.02 mSv/week, respectively. The range of the W factor was 600~14,720 Gy/week. The absorbed dose delivered per patient was 2~3 Gy. The maximum number of patients treated per day was 10~70. The quality assurance (QA) dose was 100~1,000 Gy/week. Fifteen values of the IMRT factor (F) were mostly used but a maximum of 20 values was also used. The concrete thickness for primary structures including the ceiling, bottom, sidewalls, and door was sufficient for radiation shielding. The P and W factors affect the calculation of the structural shielding design, and several parameters, such as the absorbed dose, patients, QA dose, days and F factor can be varied according to the type of shielding structure. To ensure the safety of the radiation shielding, it is necessary to use the NCRP No. 151 report for the standard recommendation values.

Effect of Heat Treatment on Radiation Shielding Properties of Concretes

  • Singh, Vishwanath P.;Tekin, Huseyin O.;Badiger, Nagappa M.;Manici, Tubga;Altunsoy, Elif E.
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.20-28
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    • 2018
  • Background: Heat energy produced in nuclear reactors and nuclear fuel cycle facilities interactions modifies the physical properties of the shielding materials containing water content. Therefore, in the present paper, effect of the heat on shielding effectiveness of the concretes is investigated for gamma and neutron. The mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers, fast neutron removal cross-section and exposure buildup factors. Materials and Methods: The mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers, fast neutron removal cross-section and exposure buildup factors of ordinary and heavy concretes were investigated using NIST data of XCOM program and Geometric Progression method. Results and Discussion: The improvement in shielding effectiveness for photon and reduction in fast neutron for ordinary concrete was observed. The change in the neutron shielding effectiveness was insignificant. Conclusion: The present investigation on interaction of gamma and neutron radiation would be very useful for assessment of shielding efficiency of the concrete used in high temperature applications such as reactors.

Performance Analysis of Low-level Radiation Shielding Sheet with Diamagnetic Nanoparticles

  • Cho, Jae-Hwan;Kim, Myung-Sam
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.103-109
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    • 2015
  • In this study, the authors attempted to produce a medical radiation shielding fiber that can be produced at a nanosize scale and that is, unlike lead, harmless to the human body. The performance of the proposed medical radiation shielding fiber was then evaluated. First, diamagnetic bismuth oxide, an element which, among elements that have a high atomic number and density, is harmless to the human body, was selected as the shielding material. Next, 10-100 nm sized nanoparticles in powder form were prepared by ball milling the bismuth oxide ($Bi_2O_3$), the average particle size of which is $1-500{\mu}m$, for approximately 10 minutes. The manufactured bismuth oxide was formed into a colloidal solution, and the radiation shielding fabric was fabricated by curing after coating the solution on one side or both sides of the fabric. The thicknesses of the shielding sheets prepared with bismuth oxide were 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, and 1.0 mm. An experimental method was used to measure the absorbed dose and irradiation dose by using the lead equivalent test method of X-ray protection goods presented by Korean Industrial Standards; the resultant shielding rate was then calculated. From the results of this study, the X-ray shielding effect of the shielding sheet with 0.1 mm thickness was about 55.37% against 50 keV X-ray, and the X-ray shielding effect in the case of 1.0 mm thickness showed shielding characteristics of about 99.36% against 50 keV X-ray. In conclusion, it is considered that nanosized-bismuth radiation shielding fiber developed in this research will contribute to reducing the effects of primary X-ray and secondary X-ray such as when using a scattering beam at a low level exposure.

A Study on the Radiation Shielding Properties of Heavy Weight Concrete Using Magnetite Aggregate (자철광 골재를 이용한 중량콘크리트의 방사성차폐에 관한 연구)

  • 송창영;김명재;장철인;부척량
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.251-257
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    • 1998
  • Concrete is considered to be one of the excellent and versatile shielding material and is widely used for the radiation shielding materials. This paper aims to study mechanical properties of concrete by using normal cement, natural and heavyweight aggregate and their radiation shielding effects through radiation transmission tests.

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Measurement of Skin Dose Distribution for the Mobile X-ray Unit Collimator Shielding Device (이동형 X선 장치 차폐도구 제작을 통한 표면선량 분포 측정)

  • Hong, Sun-Suk;Kim, Deuk-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Digital Imaging in Medicine
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.5-8
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    • 2010
  • Opened a court in February 10, 2006, a rule of safety management of the diagnosis radiation system was promulgated for safety of the radiation worker, patients and patients' family members. The purpose of this rule is to minimize the risk of being exposed to radiation during the process of handling X-ray. For this reason, we manufactured shielding device of mobile X-ray unit collimator for diminution of skin dose. Shielding device is made to a thickness of Pb 0.375mm. For portable chest radiography, we measured skin dose 50cm from center ray to 200cm at intervals of 20cm by Unfors Xi detector. As a result, a rule of safety management of the diagnosis radiation system has been strengthened. But there are exceptions, such as ER, OR, ICU to this rule. So shielding device could contribute to protect unnecessary radiation exposure and improve nation's health.

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Evaluation of the Shielding Effect of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) on Low-dose Blending Radiation Energy (폴리 염화 비닐(PVC)의 저선량 융합 방사선에너지에 대한 차폐 효과 평가)

  • Kim, Seon-Chil;Cho, Sung-Hyoun
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.10 no.12
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    • pp.129-134
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    • 2019
  • PVC was chosen as a plastic product that can cope with lead, a radiation shielding material that is widely used in medical institutions. In addition to radiation shielding clothing, we want to evaluate whether it can be used as a medical device component and industrial shielding material in low dose areas. Commercial PVC has a density of 3.68 g/㎠ and can be positively expected sufficient shielding effect in certain radiation areas such as material flexibility and economy efficiency, and can be transformed into various forms and used as a lightweight shielding wall. The shielding performance was tested by adjusting the thickness of 5 sheets of 3mm PVC in the range of medical radiation used for clinical examination in medical institutions. Shielding performance against effective energy was evaluated based on tube radiation voltage of medical radiation. The thicker the PVC, the lower the tube voltage and the lower the effective energy, the greater the shielding effect. The shielding effect was 70% at 12mm thickness and 80kVp tube voltage. Therefore, the shielding effect of PVC material has a high dependence of thickness. In the future, continuous research is needed to make thin and light eco-friendly products while improving shielding performance.

Analysis of Scattering Rays and Shielding Efficiency through Lead Shielding for 0.511 MeV Gamma Rays Based on Skin Dose (피부선량을 기준으로 0.511 MeV 감마선에 대한 납 차폐체의 산란선 및 차폐 효율 분석)

  • Jang, Dong-Gun;Park, Eun-Tae
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.259-264
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    • 2020
  • Radiation causes radiation hazards in the human body. In Korea, a case of radiation necrosis occurred in 2014. In this study, the scatter and shielding efficiency according to lead shielding were classified into epidermis and dermis for 0.511 MeV used in nuclear medicine. In this study, experiments were conducted using the slab phantom that represents calibration and the dose of human trunk. Experimental results showed that the shielding rate of 0.25 mmPb was 180% in the epidermis and 96% in the dermis. Shielding at 0.5mmPb showed shielding rates of 158%in the epidermis and 82% in the dermis. As a result of measuring the absorbed dose by subdividing the thickness of the dermis into 0.5 mm intervals, when the shielding was carried out at 0.25 mmPb, the dose appeared to be about 120% at 0.5 mm of the dermis surface, and the dose was decreased at the subsequent depth. Shielding at 0.5 mmPb, the dose appeared to be about 101% at the surface 0.5 mm, and the dose was measured to decrease at the subsequent depth. This result suggests that when lead aprons are actually used, the scattering rays would be sufficiently removed due to the spaces generated by the clothes and air, Therefore, the scattered ray generated from lead will not reach the human body. The ICRU defines the epidermis (0.07), in which the radiation-induced damage of the skin occurs, as the dose equivalent. If the radiation dose of the dermis is considered in addition, it will be helpful for the evaluation of the prognosis for radiation hazard of the skin.

A Dose Analysis on the Ovary According to the Type of Shielding Material and the Change of Additional Filter in Radiography Using Diagnostic X-ray (진단용 X선을 이용한 방사선검사에서 차폐체 모양과 부가필터 변화에 따른 난소의 선량 분석)

  • Choi, Joon-Ho
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.429-434
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    • 2019
  • The gonads are directly affected by radiation exposure during radiography of the pelvis, abdomen, and spine. Exposure of the gonads to radiation can cause genetic mutations and can result in the occurrence of malignant tumors. In this study, we created three types of shielding material shapes for shielding of the ovaries, which are the gonads of female during radiography of the pelvis, and comparative evaluations using shadow shielding methods. The source surface distance(SSD) was 100 cm and the field size was 42 cm × 43 cm. The three types of shielding material shapes(type 1, 2 and 3) were assessed and the entrance surface dose in the ovaries were measured. The thickness of the shielding material was expanded from 0.3 mm to 2.4 mm and after five repetitions, radiation values were measured and mean values were calculated. The mean dose were 3.09 mGy for type 1, 3.54 mGy for type 2, and 3.19 mGy for type 3, indicating that the measurements were the lowest for type 1. When an additional filter of 0.2 Cu + 1 Al was used, the dose were 3.72 mGy for type 1, 5.43 mGy for type 2, and 4.05 mGy for type 3, indicating that the measurements were the lowest for type 1. The results show that, even if the shielding material is not thick, in other words, even with a thickness of 2.94 mGy for the SN 3(0.9 mm) of type 1, shielding can be achieved, with a patient dose lower than the diagnostic reference level(3.42 mGy). Additionally, among the three types of shielding material, the type 1 appeared to be the most appropriate shielding material. It is thought that the use of shielding material could reduce the risk factors for stochastic effects or critical effects of ionizing radiation during pelvic or lumbar radiography.

Development of shielding device for bremsstrahlung radiation from Y-90 microspheres (Y-90 microsphere 로부터 생성되는 제동복사선의 차폐를 위한 차폐체 개발 연구)

  • Park, Jun Young
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.50-53
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    • 2019
  • Purpose Yttrium-90 (Y-90) is high-energy beta emitters ($E{\beta}$, max = 2.28 MeV) with the mean penetration depth of 2.5 mm in tissue. Radioactive microspheres containing Y-90 is widely used for the transarterial radioembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, bremsstrahlung radiation from Y-90 can cause the external radiation exposure to medical staff who handle the Y-90 microspheres. In this study, shielding device for Y-90 microspheres was developed to minimize the external radiation exposure. Materials and Methods Y-90 microsphere shielding device was made from 6 mm thicknesses of tungsten including the lead glass window. Radiation shielding ability of Y-90 microsphere shielding device was evaluated using 4 GBq of $SIR-Spheres^{(R)}$ Y-90 microspheres. The bremsstrahlung radiation was measured using radiation survey meter. Results The mean radiation dose of Y-90 microspheres in acrylic shield was $261.7{\pm}2.3{\mu}Sv/h$ (n=5) at 10 cm away from the shield. With the additional tungsten shielding device, it was $23.7{\pm}1.3{\mu}Sv/h$ (n=5). Thus, the bremsstrahlung radiation dose was decreased by 90.9%. At 50 cm away from the shield, bremsstrahlung radiation was reduced by 89.2% after using tungsten shielding device. Conclusion During the preparation and radioembolization of Y-90 microsphere, medical staff are exposed to external radiation. In this study, we demonstrated that the use of tungsten shielding device devices significantly reduced the amount of bremsstrahlung radiation. Y-90 microsphere tungsten shielding device can be highly effective in reducing the bremsstrahlung radiation.

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